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LIBRARY  OF  THE 

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MAR  9     1911 


SCIENCE  CENTER  LIBRARY 

HARVARD  COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 


ELECTED    PRESIDENT.    1902. 


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TRANSACTIONS 


OF  THK 


Instittttian  of  ^ugmeOT  nnt  ^^ijkilbns 


IN     SCOTLAND 

(INCOKPORATED). 


VOLUME    XLVII. 


FORTY  SEVENTH   SESSION,    1903-1904. 


EDITED    BY    THE    SECRETARY. 


GLASGOW: 

I>XJ15LT?^HED     Ji^^     THE     I  TCST  I  T  TJ  T  I  O  >r     AT 
207    BATH    STREET. 

1904. 


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OD 


l^jd.^,^9ff_^. 


JUN  20 1917 

TRANmRRiD  TO 
HARVARD  eOlUQI  lilRARY 


PRINTED   FOR   THE   INSTITUTION    BY 

WILLIAM   ASHER,  PRINTER  AND  PUBLISHER, 

164  HoAVARD  Street,  Gijifooav. 


OFFICE-BEARERS. 


FORTY-SEVENTH    SESSION,     1903-1904. 


WILLIAM  M.  ALSTON. 
P»or.  J.  H.  BILES,  LL.D 
E.  HALL-BROWN. 


President. 
ARCHIBALD  DENNY, 
Vice-Praaldenta. 

JAMES  GILCHRIST. 
A.  W.  SAMPSON. 
JAMES  WEIR. 


Pior.   ARCHIBALD   BARR,   D.Sc. 
A.  S.  BIGGART. 
WILLIAM  BROWN. 
W.  A.  CHAMEN. 
ALEXANDER  CLEGHORN. 
ALEXANDER  GRACIE. 
C.  P.  HOGG. 

A.  D. 


Councillors. 


GEORGE  McFARLANE. 
HENRY  MEGHAN. 
WILLIAM  MELVILLE. 
.    JAMES   MOLLISON. 
F.  J.  ROWAN. 
JOHN  STEVEN. 


JOHN  WARD. 
D. 


AsMeimtgt. 

LAURENCE  MACBRAYNE. 

J.  D.  YOUN©. 

Finance  Committee. 


THOMAS  KENNEDY.  Cgnvgntr. 
Psor.  J.  H.  BILES,  LLD. 
ALEXANDER  GRACIE. 
JAMES  MOLLISON. 
HENRY  MECHAN. 
F.  1.  ROWAN. 
JAMES  WEIR. 


JAMES  NAPIER,  M.A. 
Library  Co  oDroittee. 


WILLIAM  BROWN.  C#»rm«r. 
WILLIAM  M.  ALSTON. 
Psor.  A.  BARR,  D.Sc 
W.  A.  CHAMEN. 
E.  HALL-BROWN. 
WILLIAM  MELVILLE. 


JOHN  STEVEN. 
JOHN  WARD. 


Fr0m  ImtUmtUm. 
ARCHIBALD  DENNY. 
JAMES  GILCHRIST. 
C  P.  HOGG. 
GEORGE  McFARLANE. 
A.  W.  SAMPSON. 
EDWARD  H.  PARKER,  Stcrttmry 


House  Committee. 


From  Royal  PhiUtofhUml  SoeUif. 
VwiQW,  A  .  BARR,  D.Sc 
Psor.  PETER  BENNETT. 
GEORGE  NEILSON. 
JOHN  ROBERTSON. 
JOHN  MANN,  Troaturor, 


Committee  on  Papers. 
Paop.  J.  H.  BILES,  LL.D.,  Convonor, 
A.  S.  BIGGART. 
WILLIAM  M.  ALSTON. 
W.  A  CHAMEN. 
ARCHIBALD  DENNY. 
ALEXANDER  GRACIE. 
E.  HALL-BROWN. 
A.  D.  WEDGWOOD. 
Honorary  Councillora — Paat  Preaidenta. 
HAZELTON  R.  ROBSON.  |  JOHN  INGLIS.  LL.D. 

GEORGE  RUSSELL  I  ROBERT  CAIRD.  LL.D. 

Sn  WILLIAM  ARROL.  LLD.,  M.P. 

Repreaentativea  on  the  Board  of  Trade  Conaultative  Committee. 
JOHN    DUNCAN.        E.   HALL-BROWN.       JAMES  HAMILTON.        GEORGE   McFARLANE. 
Repreaentativea  on  Lloyd'a  Technical  Committee. 
SINCLAIR  COUPER.  .  JOHN  INGLIS,  LL.D. 

RICHARD   RAMAGE.  |  JAMES   ROWAN. 

Repreaentative  on  the  Board  of  Oovemora  of  the  Olaagow  School  of  Art. 
JAMES  MOLLISON. 
Representative  on  the   Board  of  Oovemora  of  the  Olaagow  and  Weat  ot  Scotland 
Technical  College.     JAMES  WEIR. 
Honorary  Treaaurer— THOMAS  KENNEDY,  Messn.  GlenfieU  &  Kennedy,  Ltd.,  Kilmarnock. 

Secretary  and  Editor  of  Tranaactiona- EDWARD  H.   PARKER. 

Institution  Rooms,  207  Bath  Street. 

Cnrator  and  Sub-Librarian— FRANCIS  MARTIN,  Institution  Rooms,  aoj  Bath  Street. 


IV. 


PRESIDENTS  OF   THE   INSTITUTION 
Since  Foundation  in  1857. 


1857-59 


1859-61 

1861-68 

1863-65 
1865-67 
1867-69 

1869-70 


1870-72 
1872-74 
1874-76 
1876.78 
1878-80 
1880-82 
1882-84 
1884-86 

1886-87 
1887-89 

1889-91 
1891-93 

1898-95 
1895-97 


1897-99 
1899-01 
1901-03 

£lected 
28th  April 


WILLIAM     JOHN     MAOQUORN      RANKINE,     C.E.,     LL.D., 

F.B.SS.L.  &  £.,   Professor  of  Ciyil  Engineering  and  Meohaiiies, 

Glasgow  Universifcj. 
WALTER     MONTGOMERIK    NEILSON,    Hyde   Park    Locomotive 

Works,  Glasgow. 
WILLIAM    JOHNSTONE,    C.E.,    Resident    Engineer,   Glasgow   & 

Sonth- Western  Railway,  Glasgow. 
JAMES  ROBERT  NAPIER,  Engineer  and  Shipbuilder,  Glasgow. 
JAMES  GRAY  LAWRIE,  Engineer  and  Shipbuilder,  Glasgow. 
JAMES     MORRIS    GALE.    C.E.,    Engineer,    Glasgow    Corporation 

Water  Works. 
WILLl\M     JOHN     MICQUORM      RA.NKISE,      C.E.,     LL.D., 

F.R.SS.L.  &  E.,    Professor  of  Civil  Engineering  and    Mechanics, 

Glasgow  Universitj. 
DAVID   ROWAN,  Marine  Engineer,   Glasgow. 
ROBERT   DUNCAN.  Shipbuilder,  PortGlasgow. 
HAZELTON   ROBSOM   ROBSON,   Marine  Engineer,  Glasgow. 
ROBERT   BRUCE    BELL,  Civil  Engineer,  Glasgow. 
ROBERT  MANSEL,  Shipbuilder,   Glasgow. 

JOHN  LENNOX  KINCAID  JAMIB SON,  Marine  Engineer,  Glasgow- 
JAMES  REID,  Hyde  Park  Locomotive  Works,  Glasgow. 
JAMES  THOMSON,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  Professor  of  Civil  Engiaceriog 

and  Mechanics,  Glasgow  UiiiTersity. 

WILLIAM   DENNY,  Shipbuilder,   Dambnrton. 

ALEXANDER  CARNEGIE  KIRK,   LL.D.,  Marine  Engineer,  Glas- 
gow. 

EBENEZER  KEMP,   Marine  Engineer,  Glasgow. 

ROBERT    DUNDAS,  C.E.,    Resident   Engineer,    Southern  Dimion, 

Caledonian  Railway,  Glasgow. 
JOHN  INGLIS,  LL.D.,  Engineer  and  Shipbuilder,  Glasgow. 
Sir  WILLIAM  ARROL,  LL.D.,  M.P.,  Engineer  aud  Bridge  Builder, 

Glasgow. 
GEORGE  RUSSELL,  Mechanical  Engineer,  Motherwell. 
ROBERT  CAIRD,  LL.D.,  F.U.S.E.,  Shipbnil.ler,  Greenock, 
WILLIAM  FOULIS,  Engineer,  (iksgow  Corporation  Gas  Works. 


190-2  ARCHIBALD  DENNY,  Shipbuilder,  Dumbarton. 


CONTENTS. 

I'AUK 

Offioe-Bearers,            iii 

Prmdents  of  the  iDstitution,           iy 

Memorandom  and  ArticlM  of  AssociatioD,         ix 

Address  by  Cbairmao,           1 


PAPERS  READ. 

Superheated  Steam— by  Mr  F.  J.  Rowan,          4 

ImproTements  in  Valve- Geam — by  Mr  John  Riekie, 84 

Marine  PropeUers  with  Non  Reversible  En^^ines  and  Internal  Com- 

bnstion  £Dgines—by  Mr  Rankin  Kennedy,        ...  96 

An  Inquiry  Regard! ug  the  Marine  Propeller— by  Mr  J.  Millen  Adam,  134 

Lectnre  on  Radium  (Synopsis),  by  Dr  John  Macintyre,  F.R.S.E  ,   ...  163 

Experiments  with  Rapid  Cutting  Steel  Took— by  Mr  Charles  Day,  170 
The  Hewitt  Mercury  Vapour   Lamp— by  Prof.   Magnus  Maclean, 

MA.,  D.Sc ^ -.        ...  192 

The  Uses  of  the  Integraph  in  Ship  Calculations— by  Mr  John  O. 

Johnstone,  B.Sc.,        196 

Some  Modern  Appliances  connected  with  Railway   Crossings  and 

Points— by  Mr  Owen  R.  Williams,  B.Sc.,          234 

Motor  Cars— by  Mr  Alexander  Govan,     240 


"  James  Watt "  Anniversary  Dinner,        286 

Minutes  of  Proceedings,        293 

Report  of  the  Council, 

Treasurer's  Statement,         

Report  of  the  Library  Committee, 

New  Books  Added  to  Library,       

OUtnary, 

Liflit  of  Members,        

Index, 


312 
318 
323 
324 
333 
346 
397 


VI.  CONTENTS 

PLATES. 

'Superheated  Steam, I.,  II.,  III.,  IV. 

^Improvements  in  Valve-Gears,       ;V.,  VI. 

"Marine  Propellers  with  Non- Reversible  Engines  and  Internal 

Combustion  Engines* ...        ...         VII.,  VIIT.,  XI. 

"An  Inquiry  Regarding  the  Marine  Propeller,      IX.,  X. 

ISxperiments  with  Rapid  Cutting  Steel  Tools, XII. 

TThe  Hewitt  Mercur^'^  Vapour  Lamp,         XIII. 

^The  Uses  of  the  Integraph  in  Ship  CalcuUtions,  ...     XIV,,  XV.,  XVI. 

"Some  Modem  Appliances  Connected  with  Railway  Crossings 

and  Points,        XVIL,  XVIII.,  XIX. 

'Motorcars,      XX.,  XXL,  XXIL.  XXIIT. 


vn 


PREMIUMS    AWARDED 

FOR 

PAPERS  READ   DURING   SESSION   1902-1903. 


PREMIUM  OF  BOOKS. 

1. — ^To  Mr  KoNRAD  Andersson  for  his  paper  on  "  Steam  Tur- 
bines :  With  special  reference  to  the  De  Laval  Type 
of  Turbine  "  ;  and 

2- — To  Dr  J.  Bruhn  for  his  paper  on  "  Some  Points  in  Connec- 
tion with  the  Riveted  Attachments  in  Ships." 


ADVERTISEMENT. 

The  responsibility  of  the  statements  and  opinions  given  in  the 
following  Papers  and  Discussions  rests  with  the  individual  authors ; 
the  Institution,  as  a  body,  merely  places  them  on  record. 


MEMORANDUM  OF  ASSOCIATION 

OF    THK 

INSTITUTION   OP  ENGINEERS  AND  SHIPBUILDERS 
IN   SCOTLAND. 


1.  The  Name  of  the  Association  is  "  Thk  Institittion  of  Engineers 
AND  Shipbuilders  in  Scotland." 

2.  The  Registered  Office  of  the  Association  will  be  situate  in  Scot- 
land. 

3.  The  Objects  for  which  the  Association  is  established  are  : — 

(1.)  The  Incorporation  of  the  present  Institution  of  Engineers  and 
Shipbuilders  in  Scotland,  under  the  30th  and  81st  Victoria, 
cap.  cxxxi.,  and 

(2.)  To  facilitate  the  exchange  of  information  and  ideas  amongst 
its  Members,  to  place  on  record  the  results  of  experience 
elicited  in  discussion,  and  to  promote  the  advancement  of 
science  and  practice  in  Engineering  and  Shipbuilding. 

(3.)  The  doing  all  such  other  lawful  things  as  are  incidental  or 
conducive  to  the  attainments  of  the  above  objects. 

4.  The  Income  and  Property  of  the  Association,  whencesoever 
derived,  shall  be  applied  solely  towards  the  promotion  of  the  objects 
of  the  Association  as  set  forth  in  this  Memorandum  of  Association, 
and  no  portion  thereof  shall  be  paid  or  transferred  directly  or  in- 
directly by  way  of  dividend,  bonus,  or  otherwise  howsoever,  by  way  of 
profit^  to  the  persons  who  at  any  time  are  or  have  been  Members  of  the 
Association,  or  to  any  of  them,  or  to  any  person  claiming  through  any 
of  them. 

Provided  that  nothing  herein  shall  prevent  the  payment  in  good 
failh  of  remuneration  to  any  Officers  or  Servants  of  the  Association,  or 
xo  any  Member  of  the  Association,  or  othei'  person,  in  return  for  any 
services  rendered  to  the  Association. 


X.  MEMORANDUM    OF   ASSOCIATION 

5.  The  fourth  paragraph  of  this  Memorandum  is  a  condition  on 
which  a  Licence  is  granted  by  the  Board  of  Trade  to  the  Association, 
in  pursuance  of  Section  23  of  the  "  Companies  Act,  1867."  For  the 
purpose  of  preventing  any  evasion  of  the  terms  of  the  said  fourth 
paragraph,  the  Board  of  Trade  may  from  time  to  time,  on  the  applica- 
tion of  any  Member  of  the  Association,  impose  further  conditions, 
which  may  be  duly  observed  by  the  Association. 

6.  If  the  Association  acts  in  contravention  of  the  fourth  paragraph 
of  this  Memorandum,  or  of  any  such  further  Conditions,  the  liability  of 
every  Member  of  the  Council  of  the  Association,  and  also  of  every 
Member  who  has  received  any  such  dividend,  bonus,  or  other  profit  as 
aforesaid,  shall  be  unlimited. 

7.  Every  Member  of  the  Association  undertakes  to  contribute  to  the 
Assets  of  the  Association —in  the  event  of  the  same  being  wound  up 
during  the  time  that  he  is  a  Member,  or  within  one  year  afterwards, 
for  payment  of  the  Debts  and  Liabilities  of  the  Association,  contracted 
before  the  time  at  which  he  ceases  to  be  a  Member,  and  of  the  Costs, 
Charges,  and  Expenses  of  winding  up  the  same,  and  for  the  adjust- 
ment of  the  rights  of  the  Contributaries  among  themselves — such 
amount  as  may  be  required,  not  exceeding  Ten  Pounds,  or,  in  case  of 
his  liability  becoming  unlimited,  such  other  amount  as  may  be  requu-ed 
in  pursuance  of  the  last  preceding  paragraph  of  this  Memorandum. 

We,  the  several  persons  whose  names  and  addresses  are  subscribed, 
are  desirous  of  being  formed  into  an  Association  in  pursuance  of  this 
Memorandum  of  Association  : — 

Names,  Addresses,  and  Description  of  Subscribers — 

David  Rowan,  217  Elliot  Street,  Glasgow,  Engineer. 

W.  J.  Macquorn  Rankixe,  C.E.,  LL.D.,  &c.,  69  St.  Vincent  St.,  Glasgow. 

M.  R.  COSTELLOK,  26  Granville  Street,  Glasgow,  Meaearing  Surveyor. 

Benjamin  Connor,  17  Scott  Street,  Garnethill,  Enc^ineer. 

James  Dbas,  16  Robertson  Street,  Glasgow,  Civil  Engineer. 

James  M.  Gale,  23  Miller  Street,  Glasgow,  Civil  Engineer. 

W.  Montuomerie  Neilson,  C.E.,  Hyde  Park  Locomotive  Works,  Glasgow. 

Dated  the  Twelfth  day  of  July,  Eighteen  Hundred 
and  Seventy-One. 

Robert  Ross,  of  Glasgow,  Solicitor,  Witness  to  the  above  signatarea. 


NOTS.—^  Spedal  Beaolution  iWMed  on  9nd  October,  1908,  and  conflnned  on  90th 
October,  1903,  the  Articles  of  Anodation  dated  ISth  July,  1871,  as  modified  and  altered  in  1878 
and  1880,  were  annulled,  and  the  foHowing  Artiolea  of  Anodation  were  substituted. 

The  following  Artides  were  registered  with  the  Registrar  of  Joint  Stock  Companies  on 
2801  October,  190S. 


ARTICLES  OF  ASSOCIATION 

OF     THK 

INSTITUTION  OF  ENGINEERS  AN^D  SHIPBUILDERS 
IN   SCOTLAND. 


Section  L— PRELIMINARY 

L  For  the  purpose  of  registration,  the  number  of 
Members  of  the  Institution  is  declared  unlimited. 

2.  These  Articles  shall  be  construed  with  reference  to 
the  provisions  of  the  Companies  Acts,  1862  to  1900; 
and  terms  used  in  these  Articles  shall  be  taken  as 
having  the  same  respective  meanings  as  they  have  when 
used  in  those  Acts. 

3.  The  Objects  of  the  Institution  are  those  set  forth  objects  of  tke 
in  the  Memorandum  of  Association. 


Section  IL— CONSTITUTION. 

4.  The   Institution  sh&ll  consist  of  Members,  Asso-  Constittttioii. 
eiate    Members,    Associates,    Students,   and    Honorary 
Members. 

5.  Candidates   for  admission  as    Members   shall  be  who  may  be 
persons   not  under   25  years  of  age,  who   have   been      ®°^ 
educate     as    Engineers    or    Shipbuilders     and     have 
occupied  a  responsible  position  in  connection  with  the 
Practice  or  Science  of  Engineering  or  Shipbuilding. 

6.  Candidates  for  admission  as  Associate  Members    who  may  be 
shall  be  persons  not  under  22  years  of  age,  who  have  ^w 


xn. 


ARTICLES    OF   ASSOCIATION 


Who  may  be 
Anoeiaten. 


Who  may  be 
Stndente. 


Who  may  be 
Hon.  Membeni. 


Memben,  etc., 
under  foimer 
Articlee  of 
Amodation. 


Gnuloates  under 
fonner  Articles 
of  Araodation. 


been  educated  as  Engineers  or  Shipbuilders  and  are 
engaged  in  the  Practice  or  Science  of  Engineering 
or  Shipbuilding. 

7.  Candidates  for  admission  as  Asaociates  shall  be 
such  persons,  not  included  in  the  classes  enumerated 
in  the  two  preceding  Articles,  who,  not  being  under  25 
years  of  age,  are  considered  by  the  Council  eligible  on 
account  of  their  scientific  attainments,  or  are  considered 
by  the  Council  qualified  by  knowledge  bearing  on 
Engineering  Science  or  Practice. 

8.  Candidates  for  admission  as  Students  shall  be 
persons  not  under  18  years  of  age  who  are  engaged  in 
study  or  employment  with  a  view  to  qualifying  them- 
selves as  Engineers  or  Shipbuilders.  Before  attaining 
the  age  of  25  years  they  must  apply  for  election  as 
Members  or  Associate  Members  if  they  desire  to 
remain  connected  with  the  Institution.  The}'  may  not 
continue  to  be  Students  after  attaining  the  age  of  25 
years. 

9.  Honorary  Members  shall  bo  such  distinguished 
persons  as  the  Council  shall  recommend  and  the  Institu- 
tion shall  appoint.  The  number  of  Honorary  Members 
shall  not  exceed  Twelve. 

10.  All  persons  whose  names  shall  on  30th  April, 
1902,  be  on  the  Roll  of  the  Institution  under  the  former 
Articles  of  Association  as  Members,  Associates,  or 
Honorary  Members,  and  whose  Subscriptions  are  not 
more  than  two  years  in  arrear  at  that  date,  shall  become 
Members,  Associates  and  Honorary  Members  respectively 
within  the  meaning  of  these  Articles,  and  that  without 
procedure  of  any  kind  on  the  part  of  such  persons. 

1 1 .  All  persons  whose  names  shall  on  30th  April,  1902, 
be  on  the  Roll  of  the  Institution  under  the  former  Articles 
of  Association  as  Graduates,  and  whose  Subscriptions 
are  not  more  than  two  years  in  arrear  at  that  date, 
shall  be  considered  and  treated  as  Students  within 
the  meaning  of  these  Articles,  and  shall  have  the  piivi- 
leges,  and  be  subject  to  the  regulations  affecting  Students ; 


ARTICLES    OF    ASSOCUTION  xiil. 

and,  notwithstanding  the  terms  of  Article  8  hereof,  such 
Graduates  as  are  over  25  years  of  age  shall  be  allowed 
to  remain  as  Students  for  one  year  from  and  after  30th 
April,  1902,  but  no  longer. 

12.  The  abbreviated  distinctive  titles  for  indicating  Abbreviated 
the  connection  with  the  Institution  shall  be  the  follow-  M^lbers,  etc. 
ing,  viz. — For  Members,  M.I.E.S. ;  for  Associate  Mem- 
bers, A.M.I.E.S. ;  for  Associates,  A.I.E.S. ;  for  Students, 

S.I.E.S. ;  and   for  Honorary   Members,  Hon.  M.I.E.S. 

13.  Every  Candidate  for  admission  as  a  Member,  c^uididates  how 
Associate  Member,  Associate  or  Student  of  the  Institu-  J^f^Sd^ 
tion,  shall  obtain  the  recommendation  of  at  least  three 
Members,  such  recommendation  and  the  relative  under- 
taking by  the  candidate  being  according  to  Form  A 
contained  in  the  Appendix.  Such  recommendation  and 
undertaking  shall  be  lodged  with  the  Secretary,  and  the 

Council  shall  consider  the  same  at  their  first  Meeting 
thereafter,  and  if  they  approve  the  recommendation 
shall  be  mentioned  in  the  notice  calling  the  next  general 
meeting  of  the  Institution ;  and  then,  unless  a  ballot 
be  demanded  by  at  least  five  persons  entitled  to  vote, 
the  Candidate  shall  be  declared  elected.  If  a  ballot  be 
taken  he  shall  be  admitted  if  three-fifths  of  the  votes 
are  favourable  :  Members  only  being  entitled  to  vote. 
The  proposal  for  transferring  any  person  from  the 
Glass  of  Students  to  the  Classes  of  Associate  Members 
or  Members,  or  from  the  Class  of  Associate  Members 
to' the  Class  of  Members,  shall  be  according  to  Form 
B  contained  in  the  Appendix,  and  this  form  shall  be 
subscribed  by  at  least  three  Members  and  delivered  to 
the  Secretary  for  the  consideration  of  the  Council  who 
?hall,  if  they  think  fit,  make  the  proposed  transfer. 

14.  The    granting    of    Honorary     Membership    to 

any  person  may  be  proposed  at  any  Council  meeting.   ^^*  how 
and,  if  the  Council,  after  consideration  at  their  next 
meeting,  approve  of   the   proposal,    intimation   thereof 
shall  be  given  by  the  Secretary  in  the  circular  calling 
the  next  general  meeting  of  the  Institution.     At  that 


XIV. 


ARTICLES   OF   ASSOCIATION 


Membcn,  &c. 
formally  ad- 
mitted. 


Diploma. 


Reieoted  candi- 
date not  to  be 
notioed  in  min- 
utes—wish of 
Honoraiy  Mem- 
ben  to  be  ob- 
tained before  be- 
ing balloted  for. 


meeting  unless  a  ballot  be  demanded  by  at  least  five 
persons  entitled  to  vote,  the  person  proposed  shall  be 
declared  elected.  If  a  ballot  be  taken  then  the 
person  proposed  shall  be  admitted  if  four-fifths  of 
the  votes  are  favourable  ;  Members  only  being  entitled 
to  vote. 

15.  Every  person  duly  elected  or  admitted  as  a  Mem- 
ber, Associate  Member,  Associate,  Student,  or  Honorary 
Member,  shall  be  notified  in  writing  of  his  election  or 
admission  by  the  Secretary.  At  the  first  meeting  of  the 
Institution  held  thereafter  at  which  he  is  present,  he 
shall  be  introduced  according  to  the  ensuing  form,  viz. 
— The  President  or  the  Chairman  of  the  .Meeting, 
addressing  him  by  name,  shall  say  :  '*  As  President  (or 
Chairman  of  this  meeting)  (»f  the  Institution  of  En- 
gineers and  Shipbuilders  in  Scotland,  I  introduce  you 
as  a  Member  (or  Associate  Member  or  Associate  or 
Student  or  Honorary  .Member  as  the  case  may  be). 
Thereafter  the  new  Member,  Associate  Member,  Associate, 
Student  or  Honorary  Member  shall  sign  the  Roll  of 
Members,  etc.,  to  be  kept  by  the  Secretary,  and  on 
making  payment  of  any  fees  or  subscriptions  due  he 
shall  be  entitled  to  receive  a  diploma.  The  diploma 
shall  be  signed  by  the  President  and  the  Secretary. 

16.  If  any  person  proposed  for  admission  into  the 
Institution  be  not  approved  by  the  Council,  or  be 
rejected  on  being  balloted  for,  no  notice  shall  be  taken 
of  the  proposal  in  the  Minutes  of  the  General  Meetings, 
and  such  person  shall  not  be  proposed  again  for  ad- 
mission until  after  the  expiry  of  one  year  from  the  date 
of  such  disapproval  or  rejection.  Before  the  meeting  of 
Council  for  considering  any  proposal  to  grant  Honorary 
Membership  it  shall  be  ascertained  from  any  person 
proposed  to  be  made  an  Honorary  Member, 
whether  he  will  accept  the  honour,  no  notice  being 
taken  of  the  proposal  in  the  Minutes  unless  he  is  elected. 


ARTICLES   OF   ASSOCIATION  XV. 

Section  III.—MANAGEMENT   AND   OFFICE- 
BEARERS. 

17.  The  Direction  and  Management  of  the  affairs  of  ^jo^cfl  j^^^, 
the  Institution  shall  be  confided  to  a  Council,  which  »8«nientby. 
shall     consist    of    a    President,     six    Vice-Presidents,  ^   ^^  ^ 

'    GoDstitutioii  of 

and  eighteen  Councillors.      Of  the  eighteen  Councillors,   g)imca-Fivea 
not  more  than  three  may  be  Associates,  the  remainder 
being  Members.     Five  Members  of  Council  shall  con- 
stitute a  Quorum. 

18.  Members    only    shall    be    eligible   for    election 

as  President.  The  President  shall  preside  over  all  Premd™*? 
meetings  of  the  Institution  and  Council  at  which  he 
is  present,  and  shall  regulate  and  keep  order  in  the 
proceedings.  The  President  shall  hold  office  for  one 
year  only,  but  shall  be  eligible  for  re-election  at  the 
•expiry  of  the  year. 

19.  Members   only   shall  be  eligible  for  election  as 
Vice-Presidents.      In  the  absence  of  the  President,  the  vice-Prewdents. 
Vice-Presidents  in  rotation  shall  preside  at  meetings  of 

the  Council  and  Institution.     The  Vice-Presidents  shall 
hold  office  for  three  yea.rs. 

20.  In  case  of  the  absence  of  the  President  and  all 

the  Vice-Presidents,  the  meeting  may  elect  any  one  of  Sjj'SSng^ 
the  Council,  or  any  Member,  to  preside.     In  all  cases  ^*'**' 
the  Chairman  of  any  meeting  shall  have  a  Deliberative 
Vote  and  a  Casting  Vote. 

21.  Members  and  Associates  only  shall  be  eligible  for 
election  as  Ordinary   Members  of  Council,  and   shall  c^SSfore^ 
hold  office  for  three  years,  and  not   more  than  three 
Associates  shall  hold  office  in  the  Council  at  any  one 

time. 

22.  Past  Presidents   of   the   Institution    shall  be  ex 
ojfido  Honorary  Members  of  Council. 

23.  The  Office-Bearers  in  office  at  30th  April,  1902, 

shall  continue  in  office  till  the  First  General  Meeting  of  ^^*^^°^'^- 
the  Institution  in  October,  1902,  when  a  new  Council 
fihall  be  elected  in  terms  of  these  Articles.     Such  Office- 


XVI.  ARTICLES    OF   ASSOCIATION 

Bearers  shall  be  eligible  for  election  for  the  new  Council. 
Of  the  new  Council,  two  Vice-Presidents  shall  retire  in 
Octol)er  of  each  of  the  years,  1903,  1904,  and  1905, 
Membemof  their  placcs  being  filled  by  election,  and  the  persons 
elected  shall  hold  office  until  the  expiry  of  the  terms 
of  office.  Similarly  of  the  new  Council,  six  Councillors 
(being  five  Members  and  one  Associate)  shall  retire  in 
October,  1903,  and  a  like  number  in  October,  1904,  and 
the  remainder  in  October,  1 905,  their  places  being  filled 
by  election  at  these  dates  respectively,  and  their 
successors  retiring  at  the  expiry  of  the  terms  of  office, 
and  so  on  thereafter  from  year  to  year.  The  Vice- 
Presidents  to  retire  in  October,  1903,  and  1904,  shall 
be  determined  by  lot  among  the  six  Vice-Presidents 
first  elected,  and  the  Members  of  Council  to  retire 
in  October,  1903  and  1904  shall  be  determined  by  lot 
among  the  Members  of  the  Council  first  elected.  The 
Vice-Presidents  and  the  Ordinary  Members  of  Council 
who  fall  to  retire  at  the  dates  mentioned,  or  who  fall  to 
retire  at  any  time  on  the  expiry  of  their  term  of  office,, 
shall  not  be  eligible  for  re-election  in  the  same  capacity 
until  one  year  has  elapsed  from  the  date  of  retiral. 

24.  The  Members  of  Council  shall  be  elected  by 
tobf^S"r  ballot  at  the  Annual  General  Meeting,  such  meeting 
^^''**    .     .      being  the  last  Ordinary  Meeting  held  in  each  month  of 

April,  but  the  new  Office-Bearers  elected  at  this  meeting 
shall  not  enter  office  until  Ist  October  following.  In 
the  election  of  President,  Vice-Presidents,  and  Ordinary 
Members  of  Council  from  the  Class  of  Associates,  all 
Members,  Associate  Members,  and  Associates  shall  be 
entitled  to  vote.  In  the  election  of  the  other  Members 
of  Council  only  Members  and  Associate  Members  shall 
be  entitled  to  vote. 

25.  In  March  of  each  year  the  Council  shall  meet  and 
EilSkm             prepare  a  list  of  names  for  the  election  of  Council  for  the 

ensuing  year.  This  list  shall  contain  the  name 
of  the  proposed  President,  and  not  less  than  two 
names   of  persons   proposed   by  the   Council   for  each 


ARTICLES   OF  ASSOCIATION  XVii, 

racancy  in  the  class  of  Vioe-Presidents,  Ordinary  Mem- 
bers, and  Associate  Members  of  Council.  This  list  shall 
be  submitted  to  the  Members  at  the  Monthly  Meeting 
preceding  the  Annual  Meeting,  and  the  Members  present 
may  by  motion,  duly  seconded,  propose  any  additional 
names  for  any  of  the  offices. 

26.  Fourteen  days  before  the  Greneral  Meeting  in  BioiotLtoti 
April    of    each    year    the    list    as    proposed    by    the  itob»*** 
Council  for  the  election  of  Members  and  others  to  fill  the 
vacancies  in  the  Council  for  the  ensuing  year,  with  such 
additions  as  may  have  been  made  thereto  under  Article 

25,'  shall  be  printed  and  sent  to  all  Members,  and 
Associate  Members,  and  the  list  shall  serve  as  a  ballot 
paper.  A  similar  list  shall  be  printed  and  sent  to 
all  Associates  containing  the  names  of  those  for  whom 
they  are  entitled  to  vote.  Those  persons  entitled  to 
vote  may  vote  for  as  many  names  on  the  list  as  there  are 
vacancies  to  be  filled.  In  the  event  of  any  ballot  paper 
not  containing  names  equal  to  the  number  of  vacancies 
to  be  filled  such  ballot  paper  shall  be  treated  as  a  spoiled 
paper. 

The  ballot  papers  may  be  sent  by  post,  or  otherwise 
to  the  Secretary  so  as  to  reach  him  before  the  day  and 
hour  named  for  the  Annual  General  Meeting,  or  they 
may  be  presented  personally  by  those  entitled  to  vote, 
at  the  opening  of  the  Meeting. 

27.  A  vacancy  occurring  during  any  Session  in  con-  y^^^^^g^^^^         ^ 
sequence    of  the  resignation  or  death  of  any  Office-  ^Si*"t??e^* 
Bearer  (except  the  President)  shall  be  filled  up  by  the  filled  uo  by  the 
Council,  until  the  next  Annual  General  Meeting  for 

electing  Office-Bearers.  Any  vacancy  in  the  office  of 
President  shall  be  filled  up  at  the  next  General  Meeting 
of  the  Institution.  A  person  elected  to  fill  a  vacancy 
shall  hold  office  for  the  period  unexpired  of  the  term  of 
office  of  the  Office-Bearer  resigning  or  dying  or  being 
removed  from  office,  and  he  shall  be  eligible  for  re-election. 


mil. 


ARTICLES   OF   ASSOCIATION 


Meetiittiiof 
OonndL 


Oommitteen. 


Honorary 
T^Mrarer. 


Bye-Lawa,  etc. 


InTestmentB. 


Section  IV.— POWERS  AND  DUTIES  OF 
COUNCIL. 

28.  The  Council  shall  meet  as  often  as  the  business 
of  the  Institution  requires,  and  during  each  Session — 
that  is  from  October  till  April — the  Council  shall  meet 
at  least  once  a  month. 

29.  The  Council  may  delegate  any  of  their  powers  to 
Committees  consisting  of  such  Meml>ers  of  the  Council 
as  they  think  fit,  and  they  may  appoint  Committees  to 
report  to'  them  upon  special  subjects.  In  particular, 
they  shall  appoint  a  Finance  Committee  to  superintend 
the  finances  of  the  Institution,  a  Library  Committee  to 
superintend  Library  arrangements,  and  a  Papers  Com- 
mittee to  arrange  for  papers  being  submitted  at  meetings 
of  the  Institution.  The  Minutes  of  all  Committees  shall 
not  take  effect  until  approved  by  the  Council.  The 
President  shall  be  ex  officio  a  member  of  all  Committees. 
The  Convener  of  the  Finance  Committee  shall  be  styled 
Honorary  Treasurer.  He  shall  be  elected  by  the  Council 
from  their  number,  and  notwithstanding  the  provision 
for  retiral  in  Article  23,  he  shall  be  entitled  to 
retain  the  office  of  Honorary  Treasurer  for  three  j'ears 
from  the  date  of  his  appointment. 

30.  The  Council  may  make  Bye-Laws  and  Regulations 
for  carrying  on  the  business  of  the  Institution,  and  from 
time  to  time,  alter,  amend,  repeal,  vary,  or  add  to  the 
same ;  but  any  Bye-Law  or  Regulation,  or  any  alteration 
or  amendment  thereon,  or  addition  thereto,  shall  only 
come  into  force  after  the  same  has  been  confirmed  at  a 
General  Meeting  of  the  Institution,  and  no  Bye-Law  or 
Regulation  shall  be  made  under  the  foregoing  which  would 
amount  to  such  an  addition  to  or  alteration  of  these  Articles 
as  would  only  be  legally  made  by  a  Special  Resolution 
passed  and  confirmed  in  accordance  with  Sections  50  and 
51  of  the  Companies  Act,  1862.  The  Council  shall 
be  entitled  to  invest  the  Funds  of  the  Institution  as  they 
think  fit,  on  such  security,  heritable  or  moveable,  as  to 


ARTICLES   OF   ASSOCIATION  XEL 

them  shall  seem  jproper,  and  may  alter  or  vary  the 
investments  from  time  to  time.  The  Council  may  pur- 
chase or  sell  property,  heritable  or  moveable,  for  the  OojMniMy^^ 
use  of  the  Institution,  and  may  borrow  money  on  the 
security  of  the  property  of  the  Institution,  subject  to  Bono^niiig. 
confirmation  by  the  Institution  at  an  Extraordinary 
Meeting  called  for  the  purpose. 

31.  The  Council   shall   appoint   a   Secretary  and  a  offldabtobe 
Treasurer,  and  any  other  official  or  servant  required  to  *^^ 
carry  on  the  work  of  the  Institution,  and  the  appoint- 
ments made  by  the  Council  shall  be  on  such  terms  and 
conditions  as  the  Council  may  think  fit. 

32.  All  questions  in  or  before  the  Council,  shall  be  J^^^^'^^* 
decided  by  vote,  and  such  vote  shall  be  taken  by  a  show 

of  hands  or  by  ballot;  but  at  the  desire  of  any  four 
Members  present  the  determination  of  any  subject 
shall  be  postponed  till  the  next  meeting  of  Council. 


Section  V.—SEC  EETARY  AND  TREASURER. 


BntiMaf 
Beaetuy. 


33.  Subject  to  regulation  by  the  Council,  the  Secre- 
tary (who  may  also  act  as  Treasurer)  shall  conduct  the 
correspondence  of  the  Institution ;  attend  all  Meetings 
of  the  Institution,  of  the  Council,  and  of  Committees; 
take  Minutes  of  the  proceedings  of  such  Meetings,  and 
enter  them  in  the  proper  books  provided  for  the  pur- 
pose; read  at  all  Meetings  of  the  Institution  and 
Council  respectively  the  Minute  of  the  preceding  Meet- 
ing, and  all  communications  received  by  him  or  ordered 
to  be  read ;  superintend  the  publication  of  such  papers 
as  the  Council  may  direct ;  take  charge  of  the  Library ; 
issue  notices  of  Meetings ;  issue  Diplomas ;  keep  the 
Roll  and  Registers ;  and  perform  whatever  other  duties 
are  indicated  in  the  Regulations  of  the  Institution  as 
appertaining  to  his  department  or  set  forth  in  the  terms 
of  his  iappointment. 

34.  Subject  to  regulation  by  the  Council,  the  duties  Duties  of 
of  the  Treasurer  shall  be  to  take  charge  of  the  property  ^"^'^•■™^" 


*»•  ARTICLES   OF   ASSOCIATION 

of  the  Institution  (excepting  books,  papers,  drawings^ 
models,  and  specimens  of  materials,  which  shall  be  in 
the  charge  of  the  Secretary) ;  to  receive  all  payments 
and  subscriptions  due  to  the  Institution ;  to  direct  the 
collection  of  subscriptions ;  to  pay  into  one  of  the  Olasgow 
Banks,  in  the  joint  names  of  the  President,  Honorary 
Treasurer,  and  himself,  the  cash  in  his  hands  whenever 
it  shall  amount  to  Ten  Pounds ;  to  pay  all  sums  due  by 
the  Institution,  but  not  without  an  order  signed  by  two 
Members  of  the  Finance  Committee,  and  to  keep  an 
account  of  all  his  intromissions  in  the  General  Cash 
Book  of  the  Institution,  which  shall  upon  all  occasions 
be  open  to  inspection  of  the  Finance  Committee,  and 
which  shall  be  balanced  annually,  as  at  30th  September. 
The  Treasurer  shall  prepare  an  Annual  Statement  of 
the  Funds  of  the  Institution,  and  of  the  receipts 
and  payments  of  each  financial  year,  which  shall 
be  audited  by  the  Auditor  aftermentioned,  and  this 
Statement  of  the  Funds  and  an  Inventory  of  all  the 
property  possessed  by  the  Institution,  and  a  List  of  the 
Members,  Associate  Members,  Associates,  and  Students, 
whose  subscriptions  are  in  arrear,  shall  be  submitted  to 
the  First  Meeting  of  the  Council,  in  October. 
Anntud  Report.  35.  An  Annual  report  upon  the  affairs  of  the 
Institution  shall  be  drawn  up  under  the  direction  of 
the  Council  at  a  meeting  to  be  held  not  less  than  ten 
days  before  the  General  Meeting  of  the  Institution  in 
October.  This  report  shall  embody  reports  from  the 
representatives  elected  by  the  Council  to  various  official 
bodies. 

Section  VI.— AUDIT  OF  ACCOUNTS. 

Auditor  and  ^^'   ^^  Auditor,  who  must  be  a  Chartered  Accountant 

dutiw.  q£  ^^  igjyj^  fiy^  years  standing,  shall  be  appointed  by  the 

Council  at  their  meeting  preceding  the  last  General 
Meeting  of  each  Session,  to  examine  the  accounts  and 
books  of  the  Treasurer,  and  the  Annual  Financial 
Statement  or  Statements  of  the  Funds,  and  that  State- 


ARTICLES   OF  ASSOCIATION  XXI, 

ment  along  with  the  Audit  and  Annual  Report,  shall  be 
printed  in  the  notice  calling  the  First  General  Meeting  of 
the  Institution  in  October,  and  shall  be  read  at  that 
meeting. 

SRCnoN   VIL— MEETINGS    AND   PROCEEDINGS 
OF  THE  INSTITUTION. 

37.  The  Institution  shall  hold  ordinary  meetings  for  ^^MoeSngi 
reading  papers,  and  for  discussing  matters  connected  ll^g^te^ 
with  the  objects  of  the  Institution ;  and  such  meetings  °^' 
shall  take  place  regularly,  at  least  once  in  every  four 
weeks  during  each  Session ;  and  may  be  adjourned  from 
time    to    time.       The    Sessions    shall    commence    in 
October,    and  continue  until  the  month  of  April  next 
following,   inclusive.     No  business  shall  be  transacted 
at  any  Meeting,  unless  25  Members  shall  be  present. 

At  the  General  Meeting  in  April  of  each  year  for  the 
election  of  Office-Bearers,  the  order  of  businessshall  be : — 

(1)  Minutes  of  last  meeting. 

(2)  To  read  and  consider  the  reports  of  the  Council 
and  Treasurer. 

3)  The  meeting  shall  nominate  two  Scrutineers 
who  shall  be  membei*Sp  and  shall  hand  to  them 
the  ballot-box  containing  the  voting  papers  for 
the  new  Ofiice-Bearers. 
(4)  The  Scrutineers  shall  receive  all  ballot  papers 
which  may  have  reached  the  Secretary,  and  all 
others  which  may  be  presented  at  the  Meeting. 
The  Scrutineers  shall  then  retire  and  verify  the 
lists  and  count  the  votes,  and  shall,  before  the 
close  of  the  meeting,  report  to  the  Chairman 
the  names  which  have  obtained  the  greatest 
number  of  votes  subject  to  the  conditions  of 
the  ballot.  The  Chairman  shall  then  read  the 
list  presented  by  the  Scrutineers,  and  shall 
declare  the  gentlemen  named  in  the  list  to  be 
duly  elected,  provided  always  that  the  list  does 


ZZll.  ARTICLES   OF  ASSOCIATipN 

not  contain  more  names  tban  there  are  vacancies 
to  be  filled. 
G^dinuyiieet-        38.  At  Bvcry  ordinary  meeting  of  the  Institution,  the 
basinMs.  Secretary  shall  first  read  the  minutes  of  the  preceding, 

meeting,  which,  on  approval,  shall  then  be  signed  by  the 
Chairman  of  the  meeting  at  which  the  minutes  are  read 
and  approved.  The  Secretary  shall  next  read  any 
notices  which  may  have  to  be  brought  before  the 
meeting;  after  which  any  Candidates  for  admission  may, 
if  necessary,  be  balloted  for,  and  any  new  Members  shall 
be  {^dmitted.  Any  business  of  the  Institution  shall  then 
be  disposed  of,  after  which  notices  of  motion  may  be 
given.  The  paper  or  papers  for  the  evening  shall  then 
be  read  and  discussed.  Each  Member  shall  have  the 
privilege  of  introducing  one  friend  to  the  General  Meet- 
ings, whose  name  must  be  written  in  the  Visitors'  Book 
together  with  that  of  the  Member  introducing  him; 
but  if  the  introducing  Member  be  unable  to  attend 
the  Meeting  he  may  send  with  the  visitor  a  card 
signed  by  him  addressed  to  the  Secretary.  During 
such  portions  of  any  of  these  Meetings  as  may  be 
devoted  to  any  business  connected  with  the  manage- 
ment of  the  Institution,  visitors  may  be  requested  by 
the  Chairman  to  withdraw. 
Nature  of  p&pen  ^^'  ^^^  papers  read  at  the  meetings  of  the  Institution 
to  be  wad.  must  be  connected  with  the   Science   or  Practice  of 

Engineering  or  Shipbuilding,  and  must  be  accepted  by 
the  Papers'  Committee  before  being  read. 
^roeeedinat  to  he       ^^'   "^^^  papcrs  Tcad,  and  the  discussions  held  during 
published.  ^g^)^  Scssion,  or  such  portion  of  them  as  the  Council 

shall  select,  shall  be  printed  and  published  forthwith. 

4 1 .  Explanatory  notes  communicated  after  the  reading 
or  discussing  of  papers  may  be  printed  in  the  Transactions, 

^xyi  '  if  the  Council  see  fit. 

pubUshed. 

42.  The  copyright  of  any  paper  read  at  a  meetmg  of 
M^^l^be  ^^®  Institution,  with  its  illustrations,  shall  be  the  exclusive 
Ae  Fn^u^<m.     property  of  the  Institution,  unless  the  publication  thereof 

by  the  Institution  is  delayed  beyond  the  commencement 


Bxplanatory 
noiM  after  read- 
ing of  papen 


ARTICLES    OF   ASSOCIATION  xriti.  ' 

of  the  Session  immediately  following  that  during  which 
it  is  read ;  in  which  ease  the  copyright  shall  revert  to 
the  author  of  the  paper.      The  Council  shall  hav^  power, 
however,  to  make  any  arrangement  they  thitik  pfopetn 
with  an  author  on  first  accepting  his  paper. 

43.  The  printed  Transactions  of  each  Session  of  the  Memb«w^e.,to 

^  reoeiTO  oopLes  of 

Institution  shall  be  distributed  gratuitously,  as  soon  as  JJ^JJ^'^JJ*- 
ready,  to  those  who  shall  have  been  Members,  Associate  ooptea  of  their 
Members,  Associates,  or  Honorary  Members  of  the 
Institution  during  such  Session,  and  they  shall  be  sold 
to  the  public  at  such  prices  as  the  Council  shall  fix. 
Authors  of  papers  shall  be  entitled  to  thirty  separate 
copies  of  their  papers,  with  the  discussions,  as  printed 
in  the  Tranaadions. 

44.  Extraordinary  or  Special  Meetings  may  be  called  Spedai  Meetii« 
by  the  Council  when  they  consider  it  proper  or  necessary,  the  Gonndi,  or 

.  1  11    111  »  0  ••^*         on  requisition  by 

and  must  be  called  by  them  on  receipt  of  a  requisition  as  Memben. 
from  any  25   Members,  specifying  the  business  to  be 
brought  before  such  meeting. 

45.  Any  question  which,  in  the  opinion  of  the  Presi-  voting. 
dent  or  the  Chairman  of  the  meeting  of  Council  and 
Institution,  is  of  a  personal  nature,  shall  be  decided  by 
ballot ;  all  other  questions  shall  be  decided  by  a  show 

of  hands,  or  by  any  convenient  system  of  open  voting. 

In  all  cases,  not  hereinbefore  provided  for,  only  Mem-  who  may 

bers,    Associate    Members,    and    Associates,    shall    be 

entitled  to  vote.      Every  Member,  Associate  Member, 

and  Associate,  shall  have  one  vote  only,  which  must  be 

given  personally. 


Section  VIII.— SUBSCRIPTIONS  OF  MEMBERS 
AND  OTHERS. 

46.   Each  Member  shall,  on  election,  pay  an  entrance  ^jooial 
fee  of  £1,  and  for  the  current  and  for  each  Session  ™^p*^**" 
thereafter  an  annual  Subscription  of  £'2, 

Each  Associate  Member  shall,  on   election,  pay  an 
entrance  fee  of  £1 ,  and  for  the  current  Session  and  each 


XXIV. 


ARTICLES  OF  ASSOCIATION 


WhenAimnal 
SnbMsriptioiiB 
dne. 


Memben,  eto,, 
not  entitled  to 
▼oteif  in  i 


of  the  two  following  Sessions  an  Annual  Subscription 
of  £1,  and  thereafter  an  Annual  Subscription  of  £1  10s. 

Each  Associate  shall,  on  election,  pay  an  entrance  fee 
of  £1,  and  for  the  current  Session  and  each  Session 
thereafter  an  Annual  Subscription  of  £1  10s. 

Each  Student  shall  pay  an  Annual  Subscription  of 
Ten  Shillings,  but  no  entrance  fee. 

In  the  case  of  Members,  Associate  Members,  Associates, 
and  Students,  elected  during  March  and  April 
no  subscription  shall  be  payable  for  the  current 
Session. 

47.  Honorary  Members  shall  be  liable  for  no  con- 
tribution or  subscription  or  entrance  fee. 

48.  The  Liability  of  any  Member  or  Associate  for 
future  Annual  Subscriptions  may  be  commuted  by  the 
following  payments,  viz.,  in  the  case  of  a  Member,  by 
the  payment  of  £25 ;  and  in  the  case  of  an  Associate, 
by  the  payment  of  £20  and,  in  the  event  of  such  pay- 
ment being  made  by  a  Member  or  Associate  on  his 
admission  to  the  Institution,  the  same  shall  be  in  full  of 
Entry  Money  as  well  as  future  Annual  Subscriptions. 

49.  All  persons  transferred,  in  terms  of  Articles  10 
and  11,  to  the  Roll  of  .Members,  Associates,  or  Students, 
to  be  kept  under  these  Articles,  shall  not  be  liable  to  pay 
any  entrance  fee,  but  for  the  Session,  1902-3,  and  there- 
after they  shall  be  liable  for  the  Annual  Subscription 
applicable  to  the  Class  to  which  they  are  transferred.  All 
persons  who,  as  Members  or  Associates  under  the  former 
Articles  of  Association,  had  commuted  their  Annual 
Subscriptions  by  a  capital  payment  to  the  Institution 
shall  not  be  liable  for  any  subscription,  notwithstanding 
the  terms  of  this  Article. 

50.  Annual  Subscriptions  shall  become  due  on  the 
first  day  of  October  in  each  year,  and  must  be  paid 
before  1st  January  following. 

51.  No  Member  or  Associate  Member  or  Associate, 
whose  subscription  is  in  arrear,  shall  be  entitled  to  vote  at 
any  meeting  of  the  Institution  nor  to  receive  copies 


ARTICLES   OF   ASSOCIATION  XXV. 

of  papers  or  proceedings  while  the  subscription  remains 
unpaid. 

52.  Any  Member,  Associate  Member,  Associate  or 
Student,  whose  subscription  is  more  than  three  months 
in  arrear  shall  be  notified  by  the  Secretary.  Should 
his  subscription  become  six  months  in  arrear  he  shall  be 
again  notified  by  the  Secretary  and  all  his  rights  in 
connection  with  the  Institution  shall  be  suspended. 
Should  his  subscription  become  one  year  in  arrear  he 
shall  oe  removed  from  the  roll  of  the  Institution  unless 
the  Council  may  deem  it  expedient  to  extend  the  time 
for  payment. 

.53.  Any  Member,  Associate  Member,  Associate,  or  Stu-  reti^g&tmtLe 
den  t  retiring  from  the  Institution,  shall  continue  to  be  liable  ^'*^*"*'°**- 
for  annual  subscriptions  until  he  shall  have  given  formal 
notice  of  his  retirement  to  the  Secretary.  Contributions 
payable  by  Members,  Associate  Members,  Associates  or 
Students,  shall  be  debts  due  to  the  Institution,  and  may 
be  recovered  by  the  Treasurer. 

54.  In  the  case  of  /my  Member  or  Associate  who  has  ^£jjS5miiii 
been  long  distinguished  in  his  professional  career,  but  cwtBin  caees. 
who,  from  ill  health,  advanced  age,  or  other  sufficient 

cause,  does  not  continue  to  carry  on  a  lucrative 
practice,  the  Council,  if  they  think  fit,  may  remit  the 
annual  subscription  of  such  Member  or  Associate,  and 
they  may  remit  any  arrears  due  by  him.  Any  such 
case  must  be  considered  and  reported  upon  to  the 
Council  by  a  Committee  appointed  by  the  Council  for 
the  purpose. 

55.  The  Council  may  refuse  to  continue  to  receive  Coundimay 
the  subscription  of  any  person  who  shall  have  wilfully  ^hSaiptiS^S 
acted  in  contravention  of  the  regulations  of  the  Institu-  **  ""  ^**^"' 
tion.  or  who  shall,  in  the  opinion  of  the  Council,  have 

been  guilty  of  such  conduct  as  shall  have  rendered  him 
unfit  to  continue  to  belong  to  the  Institution,  and  may 
remove  his  name  from  the  Register,  and  he  shall  there* 
upon  cease  to  be  a  Member,  Associate  Member,  Associate 
or  Student  (as  the  case  may  be)  of  the  Institution. 


XXVl, 


ARTICLES   OF   ASSOCIATION 


Powers  of 
Institution  in 
Oenenl 
Meeting. 


To  delmte 
powers  to 
Oonncil. 


Common  Seal. 


Notices. 


Indaoifleof 
Notices. 


Skctjpn  IX.-OENERAL  POWERS  AND 
PROVISIONS. 

66.  Any  Extraordinary  or  Special  Meeting  of  the 
Institution,  duly  called,  shall  have  power,  by  a  majority 
in  number  of  the  persons  present  thereat  entitled  to 
vote,  from  time  to  time;  to  review  the  decisions  or 
determinations  of  the  Council ;  to  remove  Members  of 
Council ;  to  expel  Members,  Associate  Members,  Asso- 
ciates, Students,  or  Honorary  Members,  from  the 
Institution,  and  to  expunge  their  names  from  the  EoU ; 
and  to  delegate  to  the  Council  all  such  further  powers 
as  may  be  considered  necessary  fqr  efficiently  performing 
the  business  of  the  Institution.  At  any  Extraordinary 
or  Special  Meeting  50  Members  shall  be  a  quorum. 

57.  The  Institution  shall  have  a  common  seal,  which 
will  be  under  the  charge  of  such  of  the  Office-Bearers  as 
the  Council  may  appoint,  and  all  instruments  bearing 
the  seal  shall  be  countersigned  as  the  Council  shall 
direct. 

Section  X.— NOTICES. 

58.  Notices  requiring  to  be  served  by  the  Institution 
upon  its  Members,  Associate  Members,  Associates, 
Students,  or  Honorary  Life  Members,  may  be  served 
either  personally,  or  by  leaving  the  same,  or  by  sending 
them  through  the  post ;  and  notices  so  posted  shall  be 
deemed  to  have  been  duly  served.  No  Members, 
Associate  Members,  Associates,  Students,  or  Honorary 
Life  Members,  who  have  not  a  registered  address  within 
the  United  Kingdom,  shall  be.  entitled  to  any  notice ; 
and  all  proceedings  may  be  had  and  taken  without  notice 
to  any  such. 

59.  Notices  for  any  General  or  Extraordinary  or 
Special  Meeting  of  the  Institution  must  be  given  by 
the  Secretary  to  all  Members,  Associate  Members, 
Associates,  or  Honorary  Life  Members,  at  least  four 
days  before  such  meeting.  Notices  of  any  adjourned* 
meeting  shall  be   given   at  least  two  days  before  the 


.     ARTICLES   OF   ASSOCIATION  ;Xf7¥' 

adjourned  meeting  is  held.  Such  notices  shall  specify 
the  nature  of  the  business  to  be  transacted  and  no  other 
business  shall  be  transacted  at  that  Meeting. 

60.  Notices  for  any  meeting  of  Council  must  be  given  NoUoes. 
by  the  Secretary  at  least  four  days  before  such  meeting. 
Notices  for  the  meetings  of  Committees  shall  be  given  as 

the  Council  shall  direct. 

61.  In  computing  the  inducuB  of  any  notice  the  day  gSJjJ^**^"' 
on  which  the  same  is  delivered  shall  be  reckoned  as 

an  entire  day 


APPENDIX. 

Form  A. 

Form  of  Recommendation  and  Undertaking. 

A.  B of being  upwards  of 

years  of  age  and  being  desirious  of  belonging  to  the 
Institution  of  Engineers  and  Shipbuilders  in  Scotland, 
I  recommend  him  from  personal  knowledge  as  in  every 
respect  worthy  of  that  distinction  because  (here  specify 
distinctly  the  qualifications  of  the  Candidate  according 
to  the  spirit  of  Articles  5,  6,  7,  and  8). 

On  the  above  grounds  I  beg  leave  to  propose  him  to 
the  Coimcil  as  a  proper  person  to  belong  to  the 
Institution. 

Member, ^ 

Dated  this day  of. 19 

We-  the  undersigned,  from  personal  knowledge,  concur 
in  the  above  recommendation. 

Member. 

Member, 

I,  the  said  A  B.,  do  hereby  promise  that  in  the  event 
of  my  election  I  will  abide  by  the  Rules  and  Regula- 
tions of  the  Institution,  and  that  I  will  promote  the 
objects  of  the  Institution  as  far  as  may  be  in  my  power. 


UYIU.  ARTICLES   OF  ASSOCIATION 

Form  B. 

Form  for  Transfer  from  one  Class  to  another. 

A.  B. of having  been  a 

of  the  Institution   of   Engineers  and    Shipbuilders  in 

Scotland   for years,    and    being    desirous 

of  becoming  a of  the  Institution, 

we,  from  personal  knowledge,   recommend  him  as  in 

every  respect   worthy   of   being  elected  a 

of  the  Institution. 


Member, 
. .  Member 
.Member. 


I,  the  said  A.  B.,  do  hereby  promise  that  in  the 
event  of  my  election  I  will  abide  by  the  Rules  and 
Eegulations  of  the  Institution,  and  that  I  will  promote 
the  objects  of  the  Institution  as  far  as  may  be  in  my 
power. 


The  Council  having  considered  the  above  recommendation 
and  undertaking  approve  of  the  same. 

President  (or  Chairman), 

Dated  this day  of 19 


BYELAWS. 


MEDALS  AND   PREMIUMS. 

1.  Each  of  the  two  Medals  founded  by  subscriptioD,  icumeaadBaa* 
for  the  best  paper  in  the  Marine  and  Railway  Engineer-  S^. 
iog  Departments  respectively,  shall  be  awarded  by  the 
rote  of  a  General  Meeting,  not  oftener  than  once  in 
each  Session. 

3.  The  Council  shall  have  power  to  offer  annually  a  institatioii 
Medal  for  the  best  paper  on  any  subject  not  comprehended 
by  the  Marine  and  Railway  Engineering  Medals.  Such 
additional  medal  to  be  called  the  Institution  Medal,  and 
to  be  paid  for  out  of  the  Funds  of  the  Institution,  until 
a  Special  'Fund  be  obtained.  This  medal  also  shall  be 
awarded  by  the  vote  of  a  General  Meeting. 

3.  If  it  shall  be  the  opinion  of  the  Council  that  a  ^^^wn  Medai* 
paper  of  sufficient  merit  has  not  been  read  in  a  particular  ^JJ^J?!'** 
department  during  any  Session,  the  Medal  shall  not  be 

given  in  that  department ;  and,  in  the  case  of  the  Marine 
and  Railway  Engineering  Medals,  the  interest  arising 
from  the  particular  Fund  shall  be  added  to  the  principal. 

4.  If  the  Person  to  whom  a  Medal  may  be  awarded 

shall  express  a  wish  to  receive  a  Bronze  Medal,  accom-  Books  may  be 

panied  with  the  extra  value  in  Books,  in  lieu  of  the 

ordinary  Gold  Medal,  the  award  shall  be  made  in  that 

fono.    The  Council  may  recommend  premiums  of  Books 

in  lieu  of,  or  in  addition  to,  the  Gold  Medals.     The 

▼alue  of  such  premiums  of  Books  to  be  determined  by 

the  Council. 

MANAGEMENT  OF  THE   LIBRARY. 

5.  The  Council,  at  their  first  Meeting  each  Session, 

shall  appoint  eight  of  their  number  to  form  a  Library  i^ffi*'^"^'' 


XXX.  BYE-LAWS 

Committee,  one  of  the  eight  to  be  Hooorary  Librarian 

and  Convener  of  the  Committee.    Three  Members  of 

the  Committee  shall  form  a  quorum. 
gjjjJSJiS         ^-   '^^^  Secretary  of  the  Institution  shall  have  charge 
library.  of  the  Library,  and  shall  also  act  as  Secretary  of  the 

Library  Committee. 


■<rf  7.    The  Library  Committee,  subject  to  the  sanction  of 

mittee.  the  Council,  shall  expend  in  Books  and  Library  expenses 

the  sums  placed  at  their  disposal,  and,  subject  to  the 

approval  of  the  Council,  may  make  Bye-Laws  for  the 

management  of  the  Library,   and   appoint  Assistants. 

The  sum  of  £30  or  thereby  shall  be  expended  annually 

out  of  the   funds  of  the  Institution,  in  the   purchase 

of  Books  for  the  Library,  in  addition  to  the  ordinary 

expenditure  in  binding,  &c. 

SbivyCominit.       ^'   "^^^  Library  Committee  shall  annually  make  an 

Een^'^^'^   examination  of  the   property   in   connection  with  the 

Library,  and  report  to  the  Council,  detailing  the  state 

of  the  Library  affairs. 

LIBRARY   BYE-LAWS  AS   TO  USE  OP  BOOKS. 

When  library  is  9.  Except  duHng  Holidays  and  Saturdays,  the  Lib- 
rary shall  be  open  each  lawful  day  from  1st  May  till  30th 
September  inclusive,  from  9.30  a.m.  till  5  p.m.  On 
Saturdays  the  Library  shall  be  open  from  9.30  a  m.  till 
1  p.m.  On  the  1st  October  and  thereafter  throughout 
the  Winter  Session  the  Library  shall  be  open  each  law. 
ful  day  from  9.30  a.m.  till  8  p.m.,  except  on  Meeting 
nights  of  the  Institution  and  Royal  Philosophical  Society, 
when  it  shall  be  closed  at  10  p.m.  The  Library  shall  be 
closed  for  the  Summer  Holidays  from  the  1 1th  July  till 
31st  July  inclusive. 

Who  may  10.   Books  shall  not  be  lent  to  any  persons  except 

Members,  Associate  Members,  Associates,  Students 
or  Honorary  Members  of  the  Institution  ;  but  a  person 
entitled  to  borrow  books  may  send  a  messenger  with 
a  signed  order. 


borrow  booki. 


BYE-LAMS  XXXI. 

11.  The  books  marked  with  an  asterisk  in  the  Cata-  gjjSliStioii 
logue  shall  be  kept  for  consultation  in  the  Library  only,  °»^y- 

and  shall  not  be  lent. 

12.  The  Librarian  and  Assistant  Librarian  shall  take  librarian  to 
their  instructions  from  the  Secretary  of  the  Institution.  rSc. 
They  shall  keep  an  Accession  Book,  in  which  shall  be 
entered  the  particulars  of  all  books  purchased  for  or 
donated  to  the  Library. 

13.  The  Librarian,  or  Assistant  Librarian,  shall  keep  Register  of 
a  Register,  in  which  he  shall  enter  the  titles  of  the  book  ^^  ^^* 
or  books   lent^  the  date  of  lending,  the  name  of  the 
borrower,  and  the  date  of  the  return  of  the  book  or 

books  to  the  Library. 

14.  The  borrower  of  the  book  or  books,  or,  in  his  .,        ^.    . 

'        '  Borrower  to  sign 

absence,  the  bearer  of  his  order,  shall  sign  his  name  to  for  books. 
the  entry  of  such  borrowing  in  the  Librarian's  Register. 

15.  The  Librarian,  or  Assistant  Librarian,  shall  sign  librarian  to 
his  initials  to  the  date  of  the  return  of  the  book  or  g^^'**™'*' 
books. 

16.  The  borrower  shall  be  responsible  for  the  safe  g^oka  c 
retnm  of  the   book,   and    if  it  be    damaged   or  lost  ^^g^r^ 
he   shall    make  good   such  damage  or   loss.      Should 
books  be  returned  in  a  damaged  condition,    the   Lib- 
rarian,    or     Assistant    Librarian,    shall     immediately  borrower. 
make  an  entry  of  the  fact  in  the  Register,  and  report  the 

same  to  the  Library  Committee  without  deWy ;  and  he 
shall  give  notice  in  writing  of  such  entry,  and  report  to 
the  person  from  whom  he  last  received  the  book,  within 
three  clear  days  of  the  receipt  of  the  book,  exclusive  of 
the  day  of  receiving  the  book  and  the  day  of  giving  such 
notice. 

17.  No  person  shall  be  entitled  to  borrow,  or  have  in   Number  of 
his  possession  at   one  time,  more  than  two  complete  beborrowedaf^ 
works  belonging  to  the  Library,  or  two  volumes  of  any  ®'*®*^™®- 
periodical. 

18.  No   person   being  six  months  in    arrears   with  Persons  in 

bis  subscription  to  the  Institution  shall  be  at  liberty  to  scription  not  to 
use  the  Library  or  Reading  Room.  Libnu^^ 


XXXll.  BYE-LAWS 

Time  booin  may       19.  No  boiTOwer  shall  have  the  riffht  to  retain  a  book 

be  obtained.  , 

longer  than  thirteen  clear  days,  exclusive  of  the  days  of 
borrowing  and  returning;  and  written  notice  shall  be  sent 
to  the  borrower  one  day  after  the  time  has  expired.  In 
no  case  shall  any  book  be  kept  longer  than  twenty  clear 
days, 
tam^^entwo  ^^'  ^"  ^^®  event  of  two  or  more  persons  applying  for 
Sbe'same^k      ^^^  Same  book  at  the  same  time,  the  applicants  shall 

draw  lots  for  priority, 
^trodaotion  of        21.  Each  Member  shall  be  entitled  to  introduce  a  friend 

JVhdIDOM  to 

Seeding  Boom,  to  the  Reading  Room,  whose  name  shall  be  written  in 
the  Visitors'  Book,  together  with  that  of  the  Member 
introducing  him. 

Ai^iii^scrutiny  22.  All  books  belonging  to  the  Library  shall  be  called 
in  for  inspection,  and  the  lending  out  of  books  shall  be 
suspended  in  each  year  for  one  week,  being  the  last 
seven  clear  days  of  March ;  and  all  Members  shall  be 
required,  by  an  intimation  to  be  inserted  in  the  notice 
calling  the  preceding  meeting  of  the  Institution,  to 
return  all  books  in  their  hands  to  the  Library  on  or 
before  the  day  next  preceding  the  period  before  men- 
tioned. 

Note. — The  Library  and  Heading  Room  are  open  to  Members,. 
Associate  Members,  Associates,  and  Students ;  and  the  Library  of 
the  Philosophical  Society  is  open  for  consultation. 

WILLIAM  BROWN,  Convene^-.  E.  HALL-BROWN. 

WM.  M.  ALSTON.  WILLIAM  MELVILLE. 

Prof.  A  BARR,  D.Sc.  JOHN  STEVEN. 

W.  A.  CHAMEN.  JOHN  WARD. 

EDWARD  H.  PARKER^ 
Secretary, 

21.s«  A'pril,  1003. 


INSTITUTION 


OF 


ENGINEERS  AND  SHIPBUILDERS 

IN  SCOTLAND 

(nfOOBFOBATID). 

POBTT-SBVENTH    SESSION— 1908-1904. 


lir  Jahsb  GiIjOHBIBt,  Yioe-President,  in  the  Chair. 


inih  October,  190S. 


Thx  OwATmyAW  wd  that  the  Institution  was  now  entering 
upon  its  Forty^seventh  Session.  For  thirty-five  Sessions  he  had 
himself  been  oennected  with  the  Institution,  and  during  all 
those  yean  it  had  always  been  the  custom  on  the  opening 
oig^t  to  hear  the  President's  address.  On  that  occasion 
he  would  be  lacking  in  duty  as  their  Vice-President  if 
he  did  not  state  the  reason  why  their  President  was 
absent.  Many  of  them  were  doubtless  aware  that  Mr 
Azohibald  Denny,  through  nothing  else  but  indomitable  hard* 
mfAf  had  allowed  himself  to  get ''  run  down/'  and  had  become  so 
ieeble  that  his  medical  adviser  had  ordered  complete  rest  for  a 
conwderable  time.  From  the  very  active  life  which  Mr  Denny  had 
led  for  some  years  back,  and  the  very  lively  interest  which  he  took 
in  all  things  pertaining  to  his  business,  it  could  well  be  imagined 
how  impatient  he  felt  when  he  found  that  all  his  best  schemes 
must,  in  the  meantime,  be  laid  aside,  and  he  (the  Chairman)  could 
n&Iy  say  that  one  of  his  best  schemes  was  the  work  which  he 


2  chairman's  remarks 

expected  to  be  done  by  the  Institation  of  Engineers  and  Ship- 
builders in  Scotland.  His  own  words,  contained  in  a  letter 
addressed  to  the  Council,  were,  "  I  am  sore  distressed  at  the 
additional  trouble  this  will  give  the  Oouncilj  and  have  done  my 
best  to  avoid  it,  but  failed.  I  am  looking  forward  with  great 
interest  to  my  work  for  the  Institution  and  hope  to  be  of  some 
service,  but  I  know  that  my  Vice-Presidents  and  Council'  wHl  -so 
Arrange  matters  that  the  Institutioh  will  in  no  way  suffer  from  my 
absence,  and  I  hope  to  be  back  again  all  the  more  fitted  to  do  my 
best  for  the  Institution."  He  might  also  say  that  Mr  Denny 
had  his  Presidential  Address  most  carefully  prepared  to  deliver 
that  evening,  but  the  fates  had  gone  against  him.  They  must, 
therefore,  look  forward  to  his  coming  back  as~  soon  as  possible, 
when  they  would  have  the  pleasure  of  listening  to  him.  He  felt 
sure  that  everyone  present  sympathised  with  tbeir  worthy 
President,  and  earnestly  hoped  that  in  a  few  weeks  he  might  be 
again  among  them  greatly  restored  in  heiilth  and  fit  for  the  many 
duties  devolving  upon  him. 

During  the  last  Session  death  had  removed  from  their  midsir  no 
less  than  31  persons,  but  perhaps  the  one  they  felt  the  los&of 
most  was  their  late  President,  Mr  Foulis.  During  the  time  in 
which  he  held  office  no  effort  on  his  part  was  spared  to  make  the 
Institution  a  success.  He  was  most  regular  in  his  attendance  at 
Council,  Committee,  and  General  Meetings  until  the  last. few 
months  of  his  reign,  when  illness  fell  upon  him  and  he  had  9i08t 
reluctantly  to  give  up.  Only  those  who  knew  him  intimately 
could  thoroughly  appreciate  the  goodness  of  his  nature  and  his 
more  than  ordinary  desire  to  do  everjrthing  well.  In  short,  he 
was  a  man  whom  everybody  esteemed,  a  man  who  *'  did  justly, 
loved  mercy,  and  walked  humbly  before  God."  He  earnestly 
hoped  that  they  might,  in  the  Institution,  have  many  Presidents 
after  his  stamp. 

They  were  now  entering  upon .  a  fresh  era  of  their  existence 
A  new  constitution  had  been  adopted,  which  the  Council  hoped, 
would  add  dignity  to  the  Institution  and  give  it  a  naine  equal  to^ 


chairman's  remarks  3 

tthat  of  any  of  the  leading  soientifio  bodies  in  the  kingdom,  but  in 
•order  to  aohieve  sneoess  they  must  look  more  to  their  young  men 
.to  eome  forward  and  assist.  It  was  not  enough  for  young  men 
sto  sit  quietly  by  listening  to  what  their  elders  said ;  they  must  be 
"up  and  ready,"  zealous  for  good  works,  and  showing  that  what 
was  good  enough  for  their  fathers  was  not  good  enough  for 
them.  He  would  not  say  more,  because  he  had  no  intention  of 
jpving  an  address,  but  he  hoped  that  "onward"  would  be  the 
fwakohword  of  the  Institution. 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM. 
By  Mr  F.  J.  Bowan  (Member  of  Coonoil). 


(SEE  PLATES  I.,  n.,   HI.,  AND  lY.) 


Bead  27th  October,  1903. 


SuPBBHBATED  STEAM  offers  a  most  interesting  subject  for  study^ ' 
whether  it  is  oonsidered  from  the  abstract  and  theoretic  side  or 
from  the  concrete  and  practical  side. 

With  the  former  are  connected  the  thermo-dynamic  propositions 
and  oalcolations  which  assume  a  perfectly  gaseous  condition  for 
superheated  steam,  and  deduce  its  efficiency  accordingly.  This- 
view  of  the  subject  is  fully  dealt  with  in  Bankine's  "  Steam  Engine 
and  Other  Prime  Movers,"  in  Prof.  B.  H.  Thurston's  "  Super- 
heated  Steam"  (Am.  Soc.  Mech.  Eng.,  vol.  xvii.),  and  in 
Peabody's  '*  Thermo-dynamics  of  the  Steam  Engine."  The  litera- 
ture devoted  to  the  practical  side  of  the  subject  is  voluminous, 
and  contains  the  history  of  the  various  attempts  to  introduce  the 
use  of  superheated  steam,  with  the  failures  of  the  early  and  the 
successes  of  the  later  forms  of  apparatus. 

HiSTOBICAIi. 

Although  the  *'  flash  "  boilers,  which  date  from  that  of  John 
Payne,  in  1736,  undoubtedly  produced  steam  which  was  more  or 
less  superheated,  necessarily  on  account  of  the  method  of  steam 
production  adopted  in  those  boilers,  yet  the  design  of  Sir  William 
Gongreve,  in  1821,  was  perhaps  the  earliest  attempt  to  treat 
steam  after  its  formation  in  a  boiler,  his  object  having  been  ''  ta 
increase  its  volume.*'  It  is  not  likely  that  the  importance  of 
increasing  its  temperature  would  be  recognized  at  so  early  a  date. 

The  system  invented  by  Jacob  Perkins,  in  1822,  was  also,  in  one 
aspect  of  it,  a  method  of  producing  superheated  steam,  although 
the  degree  of  superheat  was  probably  small.     In  this  case  the 


SUPERHEATED  STEAM  5 

water  in  the  boiler  was  heated  to  400*"  or  6W  R  without  allowing 
steam  to  form,  the  boiler  being  quite  full  of  water.  When  a  small 
additional  quantity  of  water  was  then  forced  into  the  boiler  by  a 
pump,  a  corresponding  quantity  of  the  superheated  water  escaped 
by  a  Talve  into  a  steam  pipe,  where  it  instantly  flashed  into 


Erenoh  writers  (such  as  M.  Maurice  Miet,  in  '*  Le  G^nie  Civil ") 
inention  that  superheating  apparatus  was  designed  by  Becker,  in 
1827 ;  Trevithiof  in  1828  or  1832 ;  Raflfard,t  in  1848 ;  de  Quillac, 
in  1849 ;  Moncheul,  in  1850  ;  and  by  Him,  in  1855 ;  but,  except 
in  the  case  of  the  last  of  these,  no  permanent  benefits  seem  to 
have  been  secured.  Trevithick  reported,  in  1828,  on  the  engines 
of  the  Brinner  Downs  Mine  in  Cornwall,  where  the  steam  pipes 
and  cylinders  had  been  enclosed  in  brick-built  flues,  with  a  fire- 
grate oonveniently  attached  in  order,  by  heating  them  up,  to  pre- 
vent condensation.  The  idea  was  merely  to  make  a  better  non- 
conducting covering  than  that  of  the  sawdust  used  at  a  neigh- 
bouring mine,  but  unexpected  economy  was  realized,  the  duty  of 
the  engine  having  been  increased  from  41  to  63  million  foot  lbs. 
per  bushel  (84  lbs.)  of  coal.  When  the  superheating  flues 
4ionsTuned  5  bushels  of  coal  per  24  hours,  the  steam  boiler  required 
67  bushels,  which  quantity  became  108  bushels  when  the  super- 
heating was  not  employed,  thus  showing  a  saving  of  83*4  per  cent. 

Oonsequently,  in  1832,  Trevithick  patented  the  arrragement  of 
boiler,  superheater,  and  engine  shown  in  Fig.  1.  The  boiler 
was  composed  of  vertical  water-tubes  set  in  a  circle,  and  joined 
to  an  annular  chamber  at  top  and  bottom ;  the  superheater  pipes 
were  U-shaped,  dependent  over  the  fire,  with  all  joints  in  the 
upper  part  of  the  boiler  and  clear  of  the  fire  gases,  which  were 
led  off  into  the  cylinder  jacket  on  their  way  to  the  funnel  or 
«hinmey* 

The  investigations  of  Him,  most  of  which  were  published  in 

*  Spinenx,  in  1S40.    See  <' Engineering,"  14th  Feb.,  1890,  p.  174. 
t  See  alBO  Prof.  B.  H.  Thurston  on  Superheated  Steam,  Trans.  Am.  Soo. 
Mech.  Eng.,  toI.  zriL,  p.  490. 


6.  SUPERHEATED  STEAK 

the  IJulletin  of  the  Industrial  Society  of  Molhouse,  or  in  that  ol  the^ 
Alsatian  Society  of  Steam  Users,  have  been  the  means  of  encourag- 
ing the  engineers  of  Alsace  and  the  adjoining  country,  so  that  at 
the  present  day  Germany  holds  the  lead  in  the  successful  applioa-^ 
tion  of  numerous  forms  of  superheaters,  and  in  the  use  of 
superheated  steam.  Hirn  patented,  in  1855,  a  form  of  superheater 
which  he  called  a  "  hyper-thermo-generator,"  formed  principally 
of  cast  iron. 

The  late  Mr  John  Fenn  (Proceedings  Inst.  Mech.  Eng.,  1859| 
ascribed  his  knowledge  of  the  subject  to  Mr.  Thomas  Howard,  of 
Botherhithe,  who  had  tried  superheated  steam  about  1831  or  18321, 
and  to  Dr  Haycraft,  of  Greenwich,  who  had  taken  up  the  subject 
after  Mr  Howard.  It  is,  however,  stated  elsewhere  that  as  early 
as  1831  Dr  Henry  Haycraft  himself  obtained  a  patent  for  super- 
heated steam,  and  believed  that  he  had  discovered  a  power  tcni 
times  greater  than  ordinary  steam. 

In  1849,  Mr  James  Frost,  of  Brooklyn,  communicated  a  paper 
to  the  Bumford  Committee  of  Cambridge  University,  in  which 
he  claimed  that  he  had  increased  the  power  of  steam  from  four 
to  six  times,  and  that  at  650""  F.  a  change  took  place,  a  new 
vapour,  which  he  called  *'  stame,"  being  formed.  This  was 
subsequently  proved  to  be  merely  perfectly  dry  steam  or  "  steami 
gas,"  but  the  term  **  stame  "  was  used  for  some  years  in  contro- 
versies which  arose  in  technical  journals.  The  Committee  of  the 
University  reported  unfavourably  on  Mr  Frost's  claims,  bub- 
several  experimenters  corroborated  his  statements  by  results, 
obtained  at  a  subsequent  date. 

,  The  subject  was  investigated  by  Mr  B.  F.  Isherwood  in  1854, 
1S60,  and  in  1862-64,  and  his  results  were  published  in  the 
Journal  of  the  Franklin  Institute  (vol.  xxvii,  3rd  Series)  in  his- 
**  Experimental  Besearches"  (vols.  L  and  ii.),  and  in  the  official 
reports  of  the  U.  S.  Government.  The  first  experiments  were- 
made  with  the  Wethered  system  of  using  a  mixture  of  saturated' 
and  "  surcharged  "  steam ;  the  second  with  Waterman's  apparatus^ 
which  consisted  of  a  steam  jacket  around  a  steam  supply  valve- 


SX7PKRHEATED  STEAM  T 

with  a  superheating  arrangement  when  desired,  and 
alto  a  peonliar  throttle  valve.  This  plan  was  arranged  for  **  the 
aleam  to  heat  itself  by  means  of  the  differences  of  temperature 
jdne  to  differenoes  at  pressure  produced  by  the  use  of  a  simple 
throttle  valve."  This  was  evidently  a  plan  to  produce  the 
small .  amount  of  superheating  derived  from  wire-drawing 
the  steam,  and  it  proved  abortive  in  these  experiments, 
even  with  the  steam  jacket,  because  ''  so  great  were  Htxe 
refrigerating  influences  in  the  cylinder  that  an  adheating  of 
31*7^  possessed  by  the  steam  on  entering  the  valve  chest,  obtained 
by  the  Waterman  system  of  throttling,  was  inadequate  to  the 
.production  of  any  net  gain  in  the  cost  of  power."  The  experi- 
ments undertaken  for  the  U.  S.  Oovernment  were  more  varied, 
and  were  carried  out  principally  in  steamers  or  marine  engines, 
and  to  much  higher  temperatures  than  had  formerly  been  used. 

Mesflxs  C,  J.,  &  S.  Wethered,  who  were  large  woollen  manufac- 
turers in  Baltimore,  U.S. A.,  had  been  experimenting  for  some  time 
before  they  applied  for  a  patent,  in  May,  1853,  for  the  employment 
of  a  miicture  of  superheated  with  saturated  steam  in  the  cylinders 
of  steam  engines.  Their  superheater  consisted  of  a  pipe  led  frooii 
the  steam  space  of  the  boiler  at  the  upper  part  and  near  the  rear 
end,  and  continued  in  a  coil  in  the  combustion  space  directly  over 
the  fire  and  in  the  heating  flues.  This  superheater  had  about 
3  square  feet  of  surface  per  nominal  h.p.  Mr  Wethered  laid  great 
stress  upon  his  employing  two  steam  pipes,  and  reckoned  that  the 
admixture  of  saturated  with  superheated  steam  preserved  the 
cylinder  and  valve  surfaces,  whilst  giving  the  benefit  of  superheat. 
(See  Min.  Proc.,  Inst.  C.E.,  1860,  vol.  xix.,  p.  462^ ;  and  Trans. 
Instb  Mech.  Eng.,  Jan.,  1860,  p.  S5).  This  apparatus  was  in  different 
forms  tried  in  the  P.  and  O.  Company's  steamers,  in  H.M.S.  "Dee," 
and  in  the  Admiralty  yacht  *'  Black  Eagle,"  with  good  results.  An 
apparatus  on  similar  lines  was  said  to  have  been  supplied  by 
Messrs  Boulton  &  Watt  to  the  steamer  "  Great  Eastern  "  about  the 
ysar  1862  (*<  Bourne  on  the  Steam  Engine,"  p.  242),  but  this  does 
*  See  also  vol..  xy ill. »  p.  277. 


8  SUPERHEATED   STEAM 

not  dearly  appear  from  the  illustrations  given  by  Bourne* 
Although  excellent  results  were  obtained  in  several  instances  of 
the  use  of  Messrs  Wethered's  plan,  yet  it  was  proved  that  an 
admixture  of  ordinary  with  superheated  steam  was  unnecessary, 
because  the  mean  temperature  arrived  at  was  precisely  that  of 
moderately  superheated  steam  'alone.  The  effects  of  the 
Wethered  mixture  could  be  obtained  when  a  temperature  of  not 
over  360''  F.  was  employed  in  the  superheated  steam.  Experi- 
ments made  by  Mr  Isherwood  with  the  Wethered  plan  in  New 
York,  in  1853,  were,  however,  the  means  of  spreading  the  belief 
that  the  presence  of  the  saturated  steam  provided  a  lubricating 
quality,  which  was  absent  from  unmixed  superheated  steam. 
(Journal  of  the  Franklin  Inst.,  voL  xxvii,  3rd  Series,  pp.  257» 
261).  Consequently  several  patents  were  taken  out  in  America  for 
modifications  of  the  Wethered  plan  by  Cornell,  1867  ;  Stone,  1859- 
1860;  Brown  &  Gregg,  1865;  and  Carvalho,  1860.  Carvalho's 
patent  aimed  at  preventing  the  action  on  certain  qualities  of  iron 
which  had  been  noticed  in  steam  engines,  and  had  been  ascribed 
to  the  decomposition  of  the  superheated  steam  at  high  tempera* 
ture.  Such  action  was,  however,  more  likely  to  occur  in  the  pipes 
or  tubes  employed  as  superheaters,  and  subjected  to  the  high 
temperatures  of  the  flame  or  hot  gases  in  the  combustion  chamber 
or  flues  in  which  the  superheaters  were  placed,  and  the  deteriora^ 
tion  of  the  metal  surfaces  of  cylinders  and  slide-valves  and  faces 
must  be  ascribed  to  other  causes. 

Bourne,  in  his  **  Treatise  on  the  Steam  Engine,"  describes 
the  superheaters  constructed  by  E.  Napier  &  Sons,  'Lamb  & 
Summers,  W.  Beardmore,  and  Thomas  Eichardson  &  Sons,  the  last 
having  been  designed  by  G.  W.  Jaffrey ;  and  in  a  paper  by  Mr  John 
N.  Eyder  to  the  Institution  of  Mechanical  Engineers  (Proceedings, 
January,  1860)  there  are  descriptions  of  the  superheaters  of  Parson 
&  Pilgrim  and  of  D.  Patridge,  with  some  account  of  their  action* 

The  papers  by  Mr  William  Patchell  (in  Proc.,  Inst.  Meob. 
Engineers,  April,  1896)  and  by  Prof.  William  Sipper  (in 
Min.    Proc,    Inst.    C.E.,    vol.    cxxviii.,    May,    1897,    p.    60) 


SUPERHEATED   STEAll  9 

«Te  amongst  the  earliest  of  those  which  deal  with  the 
more  recent  practice  in  the  use  of  superheated  steam, 
and  may  be  said  to  mark  the  period  of  the  revival  of 
-any  great  degree  of  interest  in  it  as  far  as  this  coantry  is 
concerned.  Professor  B.  H.  Thurston's  able  treatise  on  the 
same  subject,  **  Superheated  Steam  :  Facts,  Data,  and  Principles 
relating  to  the  Problem  "  (in  Transactions  of  the  American  Society 
•of  Mechanical  Engineers,  voL  xvii.,  p.  488),  which  was  read  in 
May,  1896,  is  another  prominent  landmark  in  connection  with  it. 
From  that  time  onwards  the  Minutes  of  Proceedings  of  the  Inat. 
-C.E.  are  seldom  without  records  of  investigations  made  on  the 
Continent  of  Europe  with  different  forms  of  steam  superheaters, 
and  many  papers  have  appeared  elsewhere. 

Designs  of  Superhbatebs. 

The  early  forms  of  superheaters  used  in  this  country  were 
placed  above  the  boiler  at  the  base  of  the  funnel  in  the  case  of 
marine  boilers,  with  which  they  were  almost  exclusively  used. 
One  of  the  earliest  was  that  introduced  by  John  Pam  A  Son^  in 
the  P.  and  O.  Company's  steamer  "  Valetta  "  (see  Trans.,  Inst. 
Aiech.  Eng.,  1859,  p.  195)  Eig.  2.  The  engines  were  of  260  nominal 
H.P.,  and  the  boilers  were  of  Lamb  &  Summers's  design,  the  super- 
heaters being  placed  in  the  uptake  outside  the  ends  of  the  vertical 
flues,  which  in  Lamb's  arrangement  took  the  place  of  horizontal 
flue  tubes.  Two  horizontal  faggots  of  wrought  iron  tubes,  2  inches 
in  diameter  inside  and  6  feet  3  inches  long,  formed  the  super- 
heater, each  bundle  consisting  of  44  tubes.  They  were  placed  in 
vertical  rows,  with  clear  spaces  between  the  rows  horizontally  for 
allowing  access  in  cleaning  the  boiler  flues.  The  tubes  were  fixed 
into  three  flat  chambers  made  of  wrought  iron,  welded  up  at  the 
comers,  and  closed  each  with  a  single  flange  joint.  The  steam 
from  the  boiler  entered  the  centre  chamber  through  a  stop-valve, 
and  was  taken  off  from  the  end  chambers  by  other  stop-valves 
oommTmicating  with  the  steam  pipes  to  the  engine.  The  total 
.area  of  superheating  surface,  including  the  wrought  iron  chambers. 


10  SUPERHEATED  STEAH 

was  374  square  feet  in  each  of  the  two  boilers.  The  pressure  of 
steam  then  used  was  20  lbs.  per  square  inoh*  and  the  steam  was 
superheated  100^  or  from  260**  up  to  360'  or  370*  F. 

Pairidge*8  superheater,  Fig.  3»  consisted  of  a  cylinder  filled  with 
vertical  tubes,  placed  vertically  over  the  uptake,  and  resting  on  the 
steam  chest  at  the  base  of  the  chimney  (see  Trans.,  Inst.  Mech.  Eng., 
1860,  p.  25).  The  furnace  gases  passed  up  through  the  tubes  and 
,  through  an  annular  space  surrounding  the  cylinder  between  it  and 
the  chimney,  and  the  steam  was  passed  across  the  cylinder  and 
over  a  vertical  baffle  plate  in  the  centre,  by  means  of  steam  pipes 
arranged  on  each  side  at  its  base.  This  apparatus  was  fitted  in 
H.M.S  <<  Dee/'  and  afterwards  in  the  BM.S.  "  Tyne,"  m  the 
Cunard  Company's  steamer  "  Persia,"  and  in  an  oblong  form  in 
the  ''  Great  Eastern." 

In  the  case  of  the  **  Great  Eastern,"  the  superheating  apparatus 
was  constructed  by  Bcfulkm  &  WaU,  and  the  oblong  chambers 
containing  the  vertical  tubes  were  placed  in  a  casing  of 
similar  form  which  constituted  the  base  of  the  chimney.  See  Fig.  4. 
A  more  simple  construction  was  introduced  by  the  same  firm  in  the 
Holyhead  steam  packets.  In  these  examples  the  lower  part  of  the 
chimney  was  surrounded  by  a  steam  casing,  which  was  divided 
radially  by  six  partitions,  the  steam  alternately  ascending  and 
descending  in  these  until  it  passed  over  all  the  surface  exposed  to 
the  heat  from  the  chimney. 

Messrs  B.  Napier  Jk  lions  introduced  into  the  steamer  <<  Oleg  '^ 
superheaters,  Fig.  5,  consisting  of  horizontal  steam  tubes  placed  in 
an  oblong  casing  forming  the  root  of  the  funnel.  The  tubes  were 
2  inches  outside  diameter,  5  feet  6  inches  long,  and  were  fastened 
in  flat  stayed  boxes  or  headers. 

Messrs  Lamb  A  Bwmmtm  employed  flat-sided  flues  similar  to 
those  used  in  their  marine  boiler,  in  place  of  tubes,  the  steam 
being  passed  inside  the  flue  passages  in  the  superheater  instead  of 
the  reverse  arrangement,  which  was  adopted  in  their  boiler.  The 
alternate  spaces  were  used  for  passages  for  the  chimney  gases. 
These  were  2^  inches  wide,  the  free  spaces  in  the  steam  passagea 
being  \  inch  wide.    An  improved  form  was  made  in  1865. 


SaPWBKATVD  STSAM  II 

•  In  Beardm^n'i  superheater,  Sig.  6.  horiaoQtal  Btewn  tabes  witb 
flat  headers  were  used,  but  this  atxangement  differed  from  the 
otbezs  in  that  it  formed  an  mtagral  portion  of  the  boiler,  and  n» 
stop-yalyas  were  employed.  It  was  placed,  like  the  others,  in  the 
ixptake  just  below  the  diimney. 

Still  another  azxaDgement  similarly  placed,  but  differing  widely 
in  design  from  those  mentioned,  was  that  by  Jejfr^.  This  was- 
made  of  east  iron  in  two  different  deugns,  one  being  a  radial  and 
the  other  a  parallel  arrangement  of  tubes  and  chambers,  whiob 
can  best  be  nnderstood  from  the  illustrations.     Figs.  7  and  8. 

Parson  dk  FUgrim's  superheater,  although  contemporaneous  with 
these  other  forms,  differed  from  them  all  in  having  been  placed  in  the 
furnaces  of  the  marine  boilers.  Fig.  9.  A  steam  pipe  common  to  two- 
furnaces  descended  from  the  steam  space  of  the  boiler  between  the 
furnace  doors,  and  branched  into  horizontal  pipes,  one  of  which 
entered  each  furnace  below  the  fire  bars,  and  passed  along  to  near 
the  back  of  the  grate.  Two  saddle-shaped  pipes  then  rose  from  the 
horizontal  pipe  into  the  combustion  space,  and  the  steam  passed 
through  them  and  returned  to  an  outgoing  horizontal  pipe  laid  ai 
the  opposite  side  of  the  ashpit  from  the  ingoing  pipe. 

The  arched  pipes  were  frequently  made  red  hot,  and  it  is  said 
(Trans.,  Inst.  Mech.  Eng.,  1860,  p.  23)  that  steam  of  20  lbs. 
pressure,  or  264''  F.  temperature,  was  found  to  have  attained  a 
temperature  of  from  484"*  to  SiO"*  F.,  the  pressure  remaining 
unchanged.  This  apparatus  was  first  applied  to  a  stationary 
boiler  at  Woolwich  Arsenal,  and  afterwards  to  marine  boilers- 
in  Tcssels  of  the  Waterman's  Steam  Packet  Company,  on  the 
Thames,  and  in  H.M.  steam  tug  <*  Bustler." 

Of  more  recent  superheaters  that  of  SchwcBrer,  which  was  derived 
directly  from  that  of  Him,  has  had  a  wide  application  on  the 
Continent.  It  consists  of  cast  iron  pipes,  joined  by  semi-circular 
bends,  so  that  the  pipes  are  zig-zagged,  and  form  flattened  spirals. 
The  pipes  have  longitudinal  projections  from  the  surface  inside,, 
aimilar  to  those  of  the  Serve  tube,  but  not  so  large,  and  have  trans- 
verse ribs  outside  like  those  of  radiator  tubes.    These  pipes  are. 


13  SUPERHEATED  STBAll 

plaoed  vertically  in  independently-fired  arrangements,  and  hori- 
zontally in  combination  with  boilers  of  various  design.  lig.  10. 
This  superheater  has  been  i^>plied  to  a  water-tabe  boiler  at  the 
Orand  Jmiction  Water  Works,  Kew  Bridge  (see  **  Engineering," 
20th  March,  1895,  p.  403),  and  it  is  also  in  use  at  the  works  of 
Messrs  Eraser  &  Chalmers,  at  Erith. 

A  former  design  of  the  UUer  superheater,  recently  revived  in 
Oermany,  has  given  rise  to  various  modifications  of  multi-tubular 
superheaters,  of  which  one  has  been  described  by  Messrs  Orouvelle 
&  Arquembourg  in  the  Oeni^  Civil,  vol.  xxiv.,  No.  12,  p.  181. 

In  the  Uhier,  as  now  made,  steel  is  used  for  the  header,  which 
has  two  divisions,  from  which  tubes  of  the  "Perkins  "  or  ^*  Field  " 
pattern  extend.  It  is  claimed  that  this  method  of  construction 
prevents  the  tubes  being  overheated  as  the  saturated  steam  meets 
iihe  tubes  at  their  hottest  parts,  and  that  higher  temperatures  and 
pressures  can  be  used  with  this  superheater,  whilst  the  tubes 
remain  more  free  from  solid  deposit. 

The  Hering  superheater.  Fig.  11,  is  made  of  tubes  of  small 
•diameter  of  Swedish  steel  without  welds,  zig-zagged  in  parallel 
folds,  the  several  coils  passing  the  steam  **  in  paralleL"  It 
has  been  applied  to  elephant  boilers  and  to  water-tube 
boilers.  As  so  arranged,  the  hot  gases  can  be  shut  off  by 
•dampers  entirely  from  the  superheater,  and  made  to  pass  over  the 
boiler  surfaces  in  the  ordinary  way.  Ordinarily  steam  temperatures 
of  from  460^  to  550^  are  attained,  but  temperatures  as  high  as 
BOO''  F.  can  be  used. 

The  Oehr$  superheater,  which  is  shown  in  Fig.  12,  when 
fitted  in  a  boiler  flue,  or  as  separately  fired,  consists  of 
horizontal  cylindrical  chambers  of  small  diameter,  through 
which  small  tubes  for  the  conduct  of  the  hot  gases  pass,  the  steam 
being  in  the  space  surrounding  these  tubes.  In  the  case  of  the 
Gehre  arrangement  adapted  to  a  water-tube  boiler,  one  or  two 
TOWS  of  water-tubes  are  omitted,  and,  by  means  of  sleeves  carried 
through  the  headers,  these  tubes  are  transformed  into  superheating 
^bes,  the  saturated  steam  entering  at  the  front  and  the  super- 


SUPERHEATED  STEAM  13^ 

heated  steam  escaping  at  the  back.     Two  tiers  of  these  tubes  are 
employed  when  a  high  degree  of  superheat  is  wanted. 

Miugra»e4t  Dimon'i  superheater  is  shown  in  Fig.  13»  and 
consists  of  a  row  or  nest  of  U -tubes  suspended  from  a  tube 
plate  fanning  the  bottom  of  a  box,  and  placed  in  the  flue  of  % 
Lancashire  or  other  boiler  at  the  back  of  the  furnace  tubes.  The 
box  or  header  is  divided  by  a  vertical  diaphragm  so  as  to 
direct  the  course  of  the  steam.  By-pass  and  other  valves 
are  arranged,  as  it  is  not  intended  to  pass  all  the  steam 
from  the  boiler  through  the  superheater.  The  superheater  has 
120  square  feet  of  heating  surface,  with  a  boiler  having  1,195 
square  feet. 

M*Pkail  A  Simpson' $  superheater  was  generally  combined  with  an 
internal  radiator  or  generator  of  radiating  tubes  placed  in  the 
interior  of  a  boiler,  the  idea  being  to  control  the  amount  of  super- 
heat in  the  steam  passing  to  the  engines.  This  arrangement 
is  shown  in  Fig.  13,  and  consists  of  two  nests  of  vertical 
steel  tubes  expanded  into  cast  steel  headers.  One  of  the  top 
headers  is  connected  to  the  anti-priming  pipe  in  the  boiler,  and 
the  corresponding  bottom  box  is  in  connection  with  a  copper  pipe 
laid  inside  the  boiler  below  the  furnace  flue.  The  other  end 
of  the  radiator  pipe  connects  to  the  second  bottom  box  or  header, 
and  the  top  header  of  this  nest  to  another  horizontal  pipe  laid  in 
the  top  of  the  boiler  over  the  internal  flue  just  under  the  water- 
line,  and  ending  at  the  main  steam  stop-valve. 

Another  form  of  this  superheater,  as  applied  to  water-tube 
boilers,  is  shown  in  Fig.  15,  and  applications  of  this  form  of  super- 
heating  tubes  seem  also  to  have  been  made  without  the  radiating 
tubes  in  the  water  space  of  the  drum. 

SweUnr'i  superheater  is  illustrated  in  Fig.  16.  As  here 
shown,  it  was  installed  by  Professor  Kennedy  at  the  Edinburgh 
Electric  Lighting  Station,  and  various  results  of  its  working  have 
been  published.  The  superheater  tubes  are  flanged,  and  bolted 
to  cross  inlet  and  outlet  tubes,  the  joints  being  kept  away  from 
the  action  of  the  hot  gases. 


14  STTPEtlHEAtED  STkAll 

HM$  superheater,  shown  in  ^g.  17,  is  of  ttie  U-tnW 
design,  and  is  said  to  have  been  fitted  to  boilers  at  Saltaire 
in  1866. 

The  Dctcey-Paxman  superheater,  as  shown  at  the  Glasgow  Exhibi- 
tion, was  composed  of  seven  elements,  each  oonsiitiiig  o£  one 
divided  header,  the  compartments  of  which  were  eontieeted  by  a 
series  of  single  loop  or  U-shaped  tubes  extending  horizontally 
into  the  combustion  chamber.  The  headers  were  connected 
together  by  elbows  in  the  rear,  and  the  steam  flowed  seven  times 
through  the  superheating  chamber,  commencing  in  the  lowest 
^rows  of  tubes,  which  are  exposed  to  the  greatest  heat,  and  then 
jTOse  to  the  topmost  element  and  working  downwards  to  the  second 
lowest  and  hottest  element,  from  which  it  passed  to  the  engine. 
It  was  independently  fired,  the  hot  gas  from  its  furnace  being 
imder  control  so  that  it  could  be  delivered  under  an  adjacent 
.boiler  before  passing  to  the  economiser,  or  sent  direct  to  the 
economiser  and  chimney,  or  passed  into  a  main  flue  without 
rising  through  the  superheater. 

The  Sugden  superheater  is  another  modification  of  the  U-tube 
form.  It  is  illustrated  in  "  The  Engineer"  of  23rd  January,  1908, 
p.  100.  Other  British  superheaters  include  that  of  Professor 
Watkinson,  about  which  we  may  hope  to  learn  some  particulars 
from  him;  that  of  Chatwood,  illustrated  in  "Min.  Proc.  Inst. 
•C.B.,"  vol.  cxxviii.,  pp.  110-111;  those  of  Cruse*,  the  Stirling  Co., 
.the  Babcock  &  Wilcox  Co.,  and  some  others.  Amongst  those  in  use 
on  the  Continent  are  the  Walther,  the  Steinmuller,  the  Beisaii, 
the  Meyer,  the  Buttner,  the  Durr,  the  Simonis  &  Lanz,  the 
Gehrig,  the  Gohring,  the  Bohmer,  and  the  Hildebrandt  forms. 
Some  of  these  are  composed  of  straight  tubes,  some  of  zig-zagged 
tubes,  but  a  large  number  of  some  form  of  U  -tube.  The  last  three 
named  have  various  forms  of  coiled  tube.  All  are  illustrated  in 
^'  The  Mechanical  Engineer  "  of  June  8th  and  22d,  and  July  13th, 
20th,  and  27th,  1901. 

One  form  of  superheater  proposed  by  B,  Wolf  for  locomotive 
•  ••Engineering,"  14th  Aug.,  1903,  p.  216. 


SUPERHEATEt)  STEAM  15 

type  of  boSers  is  shown  in  Fig.  18,  as  applied  to  a  semi-portable 
enginb  and  boiler.  Another  arrangement  more  suitable  for 
looomotives  proper  has  been  proposed  by  Mr  J.  Biekie.  Space  is 
not  available  for  a  description  in  detail  of  all  these  forms,  but  a 
few  words  must  be  devoted  to  the  Sehmidi  arrangement  before 
concluding  this  section. 

This  is  shown  in  Figs.  19  and  20.  In  one  form  it  consists  of 
spirally  coiled  tubes,  and  in  the  independetly  fired  variety  the  tubes 
are  horizontally  coOed.  They  are  arranged  so  that  the  saturated 
flteam  from  the  boiler  meets  the  hottest  gases.  In  Hie  spirally 
coQed  form,  the  lowest  coils,  composed  of  eight  tiers  containing 
five  ooils  each  of  spirally  wound  2-inch  pipe,  constitutes  the 
eoonomiser ;  the  eight  tiers  of  2|-inch  pipe  directly  above,  forms 
the  superheater.  The  wet  steam  enters  below  and  passes  through 
the  first  four  tiers,  then  to  the  eighth,  and  flows  downwards  to  the 
fifth,  from  which  it  is  withdrawn.  A  somewhat  similar  arrange- 
ment is  observed  in  the  other  form. 

The  Use  of  Bupbbhbatbd  Steam. 
In  &e  early  days  of  the  use  of  superheated  steam  it  was 
recognized  that  a  saving  in  the  quantity  of  steam  used  by  engines, 
and  therefore  in  the  fuel  required  to  produce  that  steam,  resulted 
when,  steam  was  superheated.  Consequently  the  results  were 
usually  stated  in  terms  of  the  saving  in  fuel  realized.  Such  terms 
were,  however,  not  very  exact,  because  the  general  practice,  which 
was  one  element  in  the  comparison,  had  not  reached  a  very  high 
level  o)  excellence,  and  there  was  not  any  keen  analysis  applied  to 
the  thermal  conditions  of  the  problem.  But  although  the  theory 
of  the  heat  engine  was  not  understood,  except,  perhaps,  by  a  very 
few,  yet  it  was  soon  recognized  that  the  great  advantage  of  super- 
heated steam  lay  in  its  preventing  condensation  and  re-evapora- 
tion in  the  cylinders  of  steam  engines.  This  idea  Professor  W.  C. 
Unwin  maintained  (Trans.,  Inst.  Mech.  Bug.,  1896)  was  due  to  Hii^^, 
aud  was  not  known  until  1855.  Mr  John  Penn  wrote  in  1859  that 
««if  as  much  heat  be  added  to  the  steam  by  superheating  it  before 


16  SUPERHEATED  STEAll 

entering  the  oylind^r  as  will  supply  the  amount  of  which  it  i». 
robbed  by  the  cylinder,  it  will  remain  perfect  dry  steam  through- 
out the  stroke  and  not  a  drop  of  water  will  be  deposited."  This, 
he  believed,  was  the  mode  in  which  the  superheating  of  steam  acted 
in  producing  a  saving  of  steam  and  consequent  economy  of  fueU 
by  preventing  the  extensive  waste  of  steam  that  ordinarily  took 
place,  and  this,  to  him,  indicated  the  extent  to  which  the  super- 
heating could  be  carried  with  any  great  advantage.  As  an  example- 
he  took  steam  of  201bs.  pressure  above  the  atmosphere,  tempera- 
ture 260''  F.,  and  believed  that  an  addition  of  100''  F.  to  the  steam 
temperature  would  have  the  desired  effect,  which  could  be  attained 
more  perfectly  by  superheating  the  steam  before  its  entrance  to 
the  cylinder  than  by  a  steam  jacket.  In  his  view  the  result  aimed. 
at  could  best  be  attained  by  utilizing  the  waste  heat  of  the  furnace 
gases,  as  this  involved  no  expenditure  of  additional  fuel  and 
preserved  the  superheater  from  excessive  temperatures. 

Almost  all  the  statements  as  to  the  economy  of  superheating^ 
when  given  in  terms  of  economy  of  fuel,  are,  however,  unintel- 
ligible in  the  absence  of  information  concerning  the  evaporative 
efficiency  of  the  boiler,  or  comparative  tests  with  and  withouir 
superheating.  The  late  Mr  E.  A.  Gowper  endeavoured  to  give  a 
rational  basis  to  such  a  measure  of  economy  in  the  following 
remarks: — '* Steam  is  expanded  by  increase  of  temperature  at 
pretty  nearly  the  same  rate  as  air  and  other  gases ;  and  since  air 
at  32^^  F,  is  doubled  in  volume  by  an  increase  of  temperature  of 
480*  F.,  steam  at  201bs.  per  square  inch,  or  260"*  F.,  wjll  be 
doubled  in  volume  by  TOS''  F.  increase  of  temperature 
(480*  +  260^*  -  32**  =  708*) ;  and  a  rise  of  100^  from  260* 
to  360''  F.,  will  consequently  increase  its  volume  ^th,  causing  an 
equal  saving  in  consumption  of  fuel  when  the  superheating  is 
effected  by  using  the  waste  heat  of  the  smoke  box.  As  the  specific 
heat  of  steam  is  only  about  fths  that  of  air,  steam  will  require 
only  fths  the  quantity  of  heat  to  be  supplied  to  it  to  produce  the 
same  rise  of  temperature,  and,  partly  for  this  reason,  steam  is 
now  used  instead  of  air  in  caloric  engines,  since  the  same  effect  of 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  17* 

expansion  is  thereby  obtained  with  so  muoh  less  supply  of  heat."' 
This  is  so  far  satisfactory ;  but  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  method 
of  thermal  analysis  which  is  now  in  use  gives  the  opportunity  of 
making  a  much  more  comprehensive  estimate  of  the  value  of 
superheating. 

Theoretical  Advantages   of  Supbbheatino. 

The  principal  objects  of  heating  steam  to  a  temperature  above 
the  boiling  point  corresponding  to  its  pressure  were  stated  by 
Kankine  to  be  threefold,  all  tending  to  increase  the  efficiency  of  the 
fluid  and  economize  fuel : — 

1.  To  raise  the  temperature  at  which  the  fluid  receives  heat, 

and  so  to  increase  ,'the   efficiency  of  the  fluid  without 
producing  a  dangerous  pressure. 

2.  To  diminish  the  density  of  the  steam  employed  to  over- 

come  a  given  resistance,   and  so  to  lessen   the   back 
pressure. 

3.  To   prevent    the    condensation  of    the   steam   during  its 

expansion  without  the  aid  of  a  jacket. 

In  computing  the  expenditure  of  heat,  the  power,  and  the  efficiency 
of  a  superheated  steam  engine,  he  assumed  superheated  steam  to 
be  in  the  condition  of  a  perfect  gas  and  deduced  its  density  from 
its  chemical  composition. 
Taking  Regnault's  values  for  the  weights  of  the  gases, 

One  cubic  foot  of  hydrogen  =         0005592 

Half  a  cubic  foot  of  oxygen  =         0044628 


One  cubic  foot  of  ideal  steam,  D        =         0050220 
The  volume  of  1  lb.  of  steam  at  32°  F.  and  1  atmosphere  pressure  is- 
V     =  -«r-      =19-913  cubic  feet,  and 

Pq  ^^    =    19-913    X  2116-4  «=  42141  foot  lbs. 

2 


18  SUPERHEATED   STEAM 

For  1  atmosphere  pressure  and  212**  P. 

r,    =   1-366  v^   =  2718  cubic  feet  ; 
Di     =0-3679  lbs. 
p^  v^   =  1-365  Pq  %   =  57522  foot  lbs. 

Rankine  gives  (in  **  The  Steam  Engine  and  other  Prime  Movers," 
p.  441)  a  table  of  elasticity  and  total  heat  of  1  lb.  of  steam  gas  at 
different  temperatures,  commencing  with  32°  P.  and  increasing  by 
18*'  at  each  step  up  to  572°.  In  calculating  h,  the  foot  lbs.  of 
energy  required  to  raise  the  temperature  of  1  lb.  of  water  from  32° 
P.  to  T,  Rankine  used  the  formula  h  =  772  (T  -  32).  (Later 
research,  however,  has  tended  towards  increasing  the  value  of 
J  to  778.)  Taking  an  ideal  case  to  calculate  what  would  be 
the  probable  increase  of  efficiency  if  the  steam,  admitted  at  a  mean 
pressure  (j^i)  of  34  lbs.  per  square  inch,  or  4896  lbs.  per  square  foot, 
and  cut  off  at  0-2  of  its  final  volume,  were  superheated  so  as  to 
have  temperature,  T,  =  428°  P.,  instead  of  258°,  the  temperature 
of  saturated  steam,  the  data  were  as  follows  : — p^  =  4896;  v^  = 
15-52;  Ti  =  428  +  461-2  =  889-2;  r  =  5;p^=  493;  v^  =  77*6; 
^i  Vi  =  75-976;  p^-i-p^=  0-456;  rp„^  p^  =  2-28.  Professor 
Thurston  thus  expresses  the  work  done  in  this  case  and  the 
thermodynamic  efficiency : 

Work  performed  =  \J  =  p^  v^^  ^"^  -  Ps  v^  =  134986  foot  lbs.; 

Px 
the  mean  effective  pressure  : 

P«^  -  Ps  ■-    —  =  1740  foot  lbs. 

"The  heat  expended  per  lb.  of  steam  supplied,  being  the  difference 
between  the  total  heat  supplied,  H  j ,  and  the  total  heat  of  the  feed- 
water,  h^ ,  taken  into  the  system  per  lb, 

H,  -  /t^  =  989788  ~  55612  =  934176  foot  lbs. 
The  thermodynamic  efficiency : 

U         ^134986^ 
Hi  -  h^      934176 
With  saturated  steam  the  same  mode  of  computation  would  have 


SUP£RH£AT£D   STEAM  19 

yielded  an  efficiency  of  0*128,  showing  a  gain  in  favour  of  super- 
heating, due  to  the  increased  temperature,  of  nearly  20  per  cent. 

Professor  Thurston  has  also  shown  that  if  the  steam  at  the 
pressures  and  temperatures  just  quoted  were  worked  in  a  Carnot 
cycle  the  thermodynamic-  efficiency  would  be 


„       889  -^  609       ^.,^ 
^=        889        =^^^^- 

and  with  saturated  steam  * 


E  =  119^^  «>9  =  0-153. 

which  shows  the  efficiency  doubled  by  superheating. 

Another  method  of  computing  the  efficiency  of  a  steam  engine, 
which  is  termed  the  *'  thermal  efficiency,*'  as  thus  estimated,  is 
that  of  the  Committee  of  the  Institution  of  Civil  Engineers, 
appointed  to  report  on  the  definition  of  standards  of  thermal 
efficiency  for  steam  engines.  This  Committee  adopted  as  the 
standard,  the  ratio  of  the  heat  utilized  as  work  upon  the  piston 
to  the  net  heat  supplied  to  the  engine,  and  their  ideal  steam 
engine  had  a  thermal  efficiency  of  0-285,  whilst  that  of  a  good 
example  of  an  actual  engine  gave  0-15 — in  this  case  with  saturated 
^tearn. 

Graphic  methods  of  representing  the  action  and  effects  of  super- 
heating have  been  used.  Mr  G.  A.  Hutchinson  (Trans.,  Amer. 
Soc.  Mech.  Eng.,  May,  1901)  used  the  p  v  diagram  as  shown  in 
Fig  21.  He  said,  with  reference  to  it,  **  Suppose  that  a  given 
weight  of  saturated  steam  has  the  volume  ag^  and  that  an  equal 
weight  of  superheated  steam  has  the  volume  a  h.  If  the  saturated 
steam  expands  adiabatically  in  a  non-conducting  cylinder — that  is, 
the  intrinsic  energy  of  the  steam  is  turned  into  work  without  loss 

•  The  temperature  of  the  back-pressure  steam  being  600  de>(.  F.  absolute, 
and  that  of  saturation  at  boiler  pressure  258  deg.  F. 


20  SUPERHEATED    STEAM 

or  gain  of  heat* — the  exponential  curve  g  h^  p  v  *  *•  =  c,  will 
represent  approximately  the  process,  and  the  area  aghif  the 
work  done.  The  steam  loses  heat,  and  a  portion  condenses  during 
the  process,  as  may  be  seen  by  comparing  the  lines  g  c  and  g  h, 
g  c  being  the  saturated  steam,  which  follows  approximately  the 
•  relation  I? «;  io«*<  =  c.  If  the  superheated  steam  expanded 
adiabatically  the  curve  b  c  would  be  plotted  from  the  relation 
j5^  1333  _  ^  At  c  the  point  of  saturation  would  be 
reached,  and  from  then  on  condensation  would  ensue,  and  the 
curve  crf,^t;  ^'^^^  =  c,  would  represent  the  process  thereafter. 
The  work  performed  would  be  represented  by  the  area  nbdef, 
and  the  gain  due  to  superheating  by  the  portion  which  is  cross- 
hatched."  His  expression  of  the  equation  for  superheated  steam 
is  jp  t;  =  93*5  T  —  971  p*  where  p  =  the  absolute  pressure  in  lbs. 
per  square  foot,  v  =  the  volume  in  cubic  feet,  and  T  =  the 
absolute  temperature  in  degrees  F.  Taking  saturated  steam  at 
150  lbs.  boiler  pressure,  the  temperature  of  which  is  365-7°  F.,  he 
remarks  that  if  a  pound  of  it  be  superheated  to  600°  F. ,  the  volume 
remaining  constant,  or  about  2*756  cubic  feet,  **  the  pressure 
according  to  the  above  equation  will  become  about  202  lbs.,  whilst 
one  pound  of  saturated  steam  at  the  same  temperature  would 
probably  develop  a  pressure  exceeding  1500  lbs.  per  square  inch. 
If,  however,  as  is  the  case  through  expansion,  the  pressure  of  the 
superheated  steam  remains  practically  constant  and  the  volume 
increases,  3-674  cubic  feet  will  be  the  space  occupied  by  one  pound. 
With  a  feed-water  temperature  of  100°  F.,  11255  B.Th.U.  must  be 
added  to  a  pound  to  evaporate  it  at  150  lbs.  pressure.  A  further 
addition  of  1126  B.Th.U.  will  superheat  it  to  600°  F.  and  increase 
the  volume  from  2756  cubic  feet  to  3*764  cubic  feet.  In  other 
words,  10  per  cent,  additional  heat  increases  the  volume  of  the 
steam  33^  per  cent." 

The  ^  <^  or  temperature  entropy  diagram  for  1  lb.  of  supei  heated 
steam,  has  been  given  by  Professor  W.  Kipper  (Min.  Proc.  Inst. 
C.E.,  vol.  cxxviii.,  p.  69)  and  is  shown  in  Fig.  22. 
*  This  evidently  meana  without  external  or  extrinsic  loss  or  gain  of  heat. 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  21 

"  Starting  with  the  line  a  A,  To  is  the  absolute  temperature  of 
the  oold  feed  to  a  convenient  scale  of  temperature;  T,  is  the 
temperature  of  the  hot  feed  after  passing  through  the  feed  heater. 
The  area  a  A  B  6  represents  the  heat  units  taken  up  by  the  feed- 
water  in  passing  through  the  heater.  Therefore,  the  length  a  h 
represents  (total  heat  supplied  during  change  from  To  to  T,)  h-  ' 
(mean  temperature  during  change) \  or  ah  might  be  obtained  from 
Tables  of  *  Entropy.*  The  area  6  B  C  c  represents  heat  units  given 
to  the  feed- water  after  entering  the  boiler  to  raise  it  from  tempera- 
ture Tf  to  temperature  of  evaporation  T^^.  The  area  c  C  D  rf  is  the 
heat  added  during  evaporation  of  1  lb.  of  water  at  constant  tempera- 
ture T„  to  convert  it  into  steam,  and  represents  the  latent  heat 
L,  for  1  lb.  of  steam  at  absolute  temperature  T^  and  pressure  ;p^. 
The  length  of  the  entropy  line  c  6?  is  L^  -^  T^^,  The  steam  is  now 
to.  be  superheated  and  its  temperature  is  raised  from  T^^  to  some 
temperature  T.  along  a  constant  pressure  line  D  E.  The  height  of 
T.  depends  on  the  temperature  of  the  steam,  and  is  drawn  to  the 
same  scale  of  temperature  as  before.  The  quantity  of  heat  Q 
involved  in  this  change  is  048  (T,  -  T.),  where  0*48  is  assumed 
to  represent  the  specific  heat  of  steam  at  constant  pressure. 
Therefore,  the  length  d  e  is  0-48  (T,  -  TJ  -^  (mean  temperature 
between  T^^  and  T,).  Assuming  adiabatic  expansion  from  T,  along 
the  vertical  line  Ec,  where  the  vertical  line  cuts  the  dry- 
steam  line  D  N,  as  at  //,  the  steam  ceases  to  be  superheated, 
and  if  expanded  further  becomes  wet  steam.  In  the  case 
shown  in  the  diagram  the  steam  is  superheated  when 
exhaust  opening  takes  place,  viz.,  at  m.  The  steam 
follows  the  constant  volume  line  through  mn  to  the  back- 
pressure line  np.  The  **  dry-steam  "  line  D  N  is  drawn  by  taking 
values  from  the  tables  for  Lg  -^  T,  ;  Lg  -^  T3,  &c.,  at  various 
pressures  p^,  p^,  &c.,  and  drawing  a  free  curve  through  the  points 
thns  obtained. 

••The  'absolute  thermal  efficiency'  of  an  engine  working 
under  the  conditions  herein  described,  and  subject  to  no  losses 
whatever,   is  represented  by  the  hatched  area  pCT>^fnnp  -r 


22  SUPERHEATED   STEAM 

i  B  C  D  E  «  6  '*  the  absolute  thermal  efficiency  being  the  ratio  of  the 
heat  converted  into  useful  work  to  the  total  heat  supplied.  The 
application  of  the  temperature  entropy  diagram  to  a  number  of 
steam  engine  trials  with  superheated  steam  is  further  described 
in  Professor  Kipper's  paper.  His  conclusion  was  that 
no  important  gain  can  be  theoretically  expected  from  super- 
heating, the  actual  gain  in  practice  being  due  to  more  or  less 
complete  removal  of  loss  by  cylinder  condensation.  With 
saturated  steam  no  transfer  of  heat,  however  small,  can  take  place 
from  the  steam  to  the  metal  without  an  accompanying  deposit  of 
water,  which,  during  the  exhaust,  is  evaporated  at  the  expense  of 
the  heat  in  the  cylinder  walls,  and  thus  the  mean  temperature  of 
the  cylinder  walls  is  below  that  of  the  entering  steam.  Steam  that 
is  sufficiently  superheated  can  part  with  the  whole  of  its  superheat 
without  undergoing  any  liquefaction,  and,  being  comparatively 
non-conducting,  if  dry  at  release  will  receive  very  little  heat  from 
the  cylinder  walls.  Consequently  it  maintains  a  higher  mean 
temperature  in  the  cylinder  walls.  Professor  Thurston  has  pointed 
out  that  the  numerical  expression  of  the  amount  of  heat  required 
in  superheating  is  048  B.Th.U.  per  lb.  per  degree  of  steam  super- 
heated, and  that  where  cylinder  or  initial  condensation  is  to  be 
extinguished,  the  amount  of  superheating  required,  as  a  maximum, 
will  be  per  unit  weight 

where  a  is  the  fraction  of  the  entering  charge  condensed  by  the 
cylinder  walls,  and  /  is  the  latent  heat  of  the  steam  supplied.  The 
amount  actually  required  is  always  less  than  this  on  account  of 
the  steam  approaching,  by  superheating,  the  condition  of  a  gas, 
which,  like  other  gases,  transfers  heat  reluctantly.* 

"  Assuming,  for  example,  that  each  pound  of  wet  steam  entering 
the  engine,  bringing  with  it  1200  thermal  units  from  the  fuel,  is 

♦  C.  Bach,  in  "Zeitschrift  des  Vereines  Deutscher  Inginieur."  1902, 
p.  729,  seems,  however,  to  think  that  the  heat  value  of  superheated  steam 
has  not  been  accurately  determined  as  yet. 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  23^ 

subject  to  a  loss  of  20  per  cent,  of  its  latent  heat  by  cylinder  con- 
densation, storing  about  250  B.Th.D.  in  the  metal  of  the  engine  ; 
since  the  specific  heat  of  gaseous  steam  is,  according  to  Eegnault,. 
0'4805,  it  is  seen  that  the  amount  of  superheating  required  in  order 
that  it  may  surrender  this  quantity  of  heat  without  condensation 
on  admission  must  be  approximately : — 

which  is  beyond  the  practically  advisable  limit j  as  fixed  by  experi- 
ence to  date." 

Although  only  a  few  years  have  elapsed  since  that  opinion  was- 
published  we  have  records  of  several  installations  in  which  a  much 
higher  temperature  of  superheat  has  been  successfully  introduced, 
and  in  particular  the  Schmidt  apparatus  seems  to  have  carried  the 
system  to  a  higher  point  than  many  others.  We  have  records  of 
tests  by  Walther-Meunier  &  Ludwig,*  by  the  Alsatian  Association 
of  Steam  Users,!  by  Professor  Schroter  in  Bavaria, J  by  M 
Hirsch,  and  by  Professors  Gutermuth§  and  Bwing.  Those  of 
Professor  Ewing  are  the  most  recent,  and  accounts  of  them  have 
been  published  in  "  The  Engineer  "  (9th  January,  1903)  and  "  The 
Mechanical  Engineer  (17th  January,  1903),  an  earlier  report  by 
Professor  Ewing  having  been  printed  in  **  The  Electrical  Engineer  " 
of  June  13,  1902  (pp.  837-839). 

The  Alsatian  tests  were  carried  out  with  Uhler  &  Schwoerer' 
forms  of  superheaters  and  with  a  moderate  amount  of  superheat. 
Professors  Gutermuth  and  Ewing  reported  upon  the  Schmidt 
apparatus,  in  which  superheating  was  carried  up  to  700°  P. 

*  <<  Bulletin  de  lalSoc.  Indus,  de  Mulhouse,"  April,  May,  and  Oct.,  1896. 
"Mem.  et  Conipt.  Reced.  de  la  Soc.  des  Ing.  Civ.,"  Feb.,  1893.  Min.  Proc. 
Injit.  C.E.,  vol8.cxvi,  p  454;  cxxvi.,  p.  457 ;  cxxvii.,  p.  435. 

t  Bulletin  de  la  Soc.  Indus,  de  Mulhouse,  April,  1893.  Min.  Proo.  Inst. 
C.E.,  vol.  exiii.,  p.  428 ;  vol.  czviii.,  p.  511. 

^Zeit.  des  Ver.  Deutscher  Ingenieur,  vol.  zzzz.,  1896,  pp.  1390-1417. 
Min.  Proc  Inst.  C.E.,  vol.  oxxviii.,  pp.  104—118. 

{Min.  Proc.  Inst.  C.E.,  vols,  oxzvii.,  p.  437;  oxxviii.,  p.  118. 


44  SUPERHEATED   STEAM 

An  account  of  the  Schmidt  apparatus  was  also  given  in  two 
papers  by  Mr  R.  Lenke  to  the  Inst.  Mech.  Eng.  at  the  Inter- 
national Engineering  Congress,  Glasgow,  1901,  and  to  the  West  of 
Scotland  Iron  and  Steel  Institute  (Journal,  March  and  April,  1902). 

The  results  published  in  Professor  Ewing's  report  gave  rise  to 
some  controversy  in  "  The  Engineer,"  and  some  figures  were  given 
by  Mr  W.  H.  Booth  and  **  The  Engineer"  to  show  that  the  Manning- 
tree  Schmidt  engine  did  not  yield  so  great  an  economy  as  might 
have  been  expected  in  comparison  with  a  Reavall  engine  at  Dart- 
ford  and  a  triple-expansion  engine  at  Middlesbro',  both  using 
:  saturated  steam. 

The  Schmidt  engine  used  9-4, 90,  and  9-5  lbs.  of  steam  per  i.h.p. 
hour,  and  15*4,  150,  and  17-2  lbs.  per  kilowatt  hour  when  running 
.at  full,  three-quarters,  and  half  load  respectively.  Taking  the  most 
favourable  load,  steam  consumption  per  kilowatt  hour,  15  lbs.  at 
1 40  lbs.  pressure,  superheated  to  700°  I)'. 
Total  heat  in  1  lb.  steam  from  32°  F.  to   140  lbs. 

pressure  =      1192       B.Th.U. 
Heat  added  by  superheating  (700  -  361 )  x  -48  =        162-7 

Total  heat  per  lb.  =      1354-7 

Total  heat  per  kilowatt  hour    =       20320         ,, 


With  the  Middlesbro'  engine — 
'Steam  consumption  per  kilowatt  hour,  I9*551bsat  150  lbs.  pressure 
.and  24in.  vacuum — 

Total  heat  of  1  lb.  steam     =       1 194-5  B.  Th.U. 
„      19-55  lbs.     „         =       23352 


"  The  Engineer "  contended  that  making  allowance  for  4in 
vacuum  this  result  would  be  reduced  to  21483  B.Th.U. 

Nevertheless  the  result  with  superheated  steam  is  in  advance  of 
.anything  hitherto  accomplished  with  steam  engines,  even  although 
the  combined  efficiency  of  boiler  and  superheater  seem  to  afford 
ffoom  for  improvement. 


Fi(f,  J'>. 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM  25 

Prof.  W.  H.  Watkinion. 

Discussion. 

•  Prof.  W.  H.  Watkinson  (Member)  said  that  by  superheating  and 
the  steam  turbine  the  life  of  the  steam  engine  might  be  prolonged  in 
its  competition  with  gas  and  oil  engines.  He  had  intended  referring 
to  the  great  saving  by  superheating  due  to  the  reduction  of  leakage 
past  valves  and  pistons,  but  that  matter  had  already  been  referred 
to  by  two  gentlemen  who  had  sent  communications,  so  that  he 
need  not  say  more  on  that  subject.  It  was  found  that  with  super- 
heated steam  the  scoring  of  piston  rods  and  other  parts  was  very 
much  less,  for  when  saturated  steam  was  used  the  water  was 
squeezed  out  between  the  packing  and  the  rod,  which  caused  scoring 
of  the  rod.  With  superheated  steam,  under  proper  conditions,  the 
engines  worked  far  more  smoothly  and  with  less  wear  than  with 
saturated  steam.  On  pages  18  and  19  Mr  Bowan  referred  to  some 
calculations  made  by  Professor  Thurston  as  to  the  thermodynamic 
efficiency  of  superheated  steam  when  working  round  the  Carnot 
cycle.  In  this  connection  either  Mr  Eowan  or  Professor  Thurston 
had  made  some  mistake.  He  thought  that  Mr  Bowan,  in  the 
hurry  of  preparing  his  paper,  had  made  the  mistake  by  overlooking 
the  fact  that  the  Carnot  cycle  could  not  be  carried  out  with  super- 
heated steam.  The  calculations  given  were  entirely  misleading. 
The  Carnot  cycle  consisted  of  two  isothermal  and  two  adiabatic 
steps.  Superheating  was  not  an  isothermal  process.  Regarding 
the  saving  which  might  be  effected  by  using  superheated  steam, 
he  might  be  allowed  to  mention  an  instance.  At  the  Cadzow 
Colliery,  near  Hamilton,  one  of  his  independently  fired  type  of 
superheaters  had  been  put  down  and  had  been  working  for  some 
months.  Prior  to  its  installation  nine  boilers  were  required,  and 
now  only  six  were  used.  Accurate  tests  as  to  the  saving  in  fuel 
had  not  yet  been  completed,  but  so  far  as  could  be  estimated  from 
present  data  the  saving  was  28  per  cent,  or  thereabouts. 
The  superheater  adopted  in  that  case  was  illustrated  in  Figs.  23 
and  24.  The  tubes  were  arranged  very  close  together,  so  that  the 
.gases  were  divided  into  thin  sheets,  and  in  that  way,  although  the 


26  SUPERHEATED   STEAM 

Prof.  W.  H.  Watkinton. 

temperature  of  the  gases  going  to  the  superheater  might  be 
1400®  F.,  the  temperature  of  the  gases  leaving  the  superheater 
was  only  between  450;  and  470°  F.  Mr  Stothert  had  stated  that 
in  the  case  of  an  independently  fired  superheater  the  products 
must  necessarily  leave  the  superheater  at  a  temperature  higher 
than  that  of  the  superheated  steam.  In  the  case  mentioned  the 
temperature  of  the  products  leaving  the  superheater  fluctuated 
between  450**  and  470°  F.,  and  the  temperature  of  the  steam 
leaving  the  superheater  at  the  same  time  was  660°  F.  This  result 
was  effected  by  the  regenerative  action  due  to  the  arrangement 
of  the  tubes.  In  the  case  of  Lancashire,  dryback,  and  similar 
boilers  the  superheater  was  fitted  as  shown  in  Figs.  25  and  26. 
Figs.  27  and  28  illustrated  one  of  his  superheaters  fitted  on  board  the 
T.S.S.  **  Yarmouth,"  belonging  to  the  Great  Eastern  EailwayCoy.^ 
and  he  drew  attention  to  the  comparatively  small  space  it  occupied. 


Fig.  24. 


SXn>ERH£ATED  STEAM 


27 
Prof.  W.  H.  Watliiiwoii. 


The  total  horse  power  developed  was  2,000,  and  the  coal  consump- 
tion on  a  voyage  from  Dundee  to  Harwich  was  ahout  22  per  cent. 


I 


I 


; 


i 


w^ 


1 
I 


I 


'^1 


Fig.  25. 
less  than  with  a  sister  ship  having  no  superheater.    In  cases  where 
an  increased  demand  for  steam  had  arisen  it  was  far  cheaper  to  put 


Pig.  26. 


28 

Pm#.  W.  H.  WatkiBson. 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM 


in  a  superheater  instead  of  additional  boilers,  because  not  only  was 
the  boiler  power  very  largely  increased,  but  there  was  at  the  same 


Fig.  28, 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM  29 

Prof.  W.  H.  WatkmioB. 

time  a  great  saying  due  to  the  use  of  superheated  steam.  Then, 
again,  the  differences  in  the  efficiencies  of  steam  engines  was  due  far 
more  to  differences  in  workmanship  in  connection  with  the  valves 
and  pistons  than  it  was  to  any  special  type  of  valve  or  valve-gear. 
The  fact  that  the  leakages  could  be  so  enormously  reduced  by 
superheating  indicated — ^and  the  indication  was  borne  out  by 
experience — that,  by  the  adoption  of  superheating,  the  efficiency 
of  comparatively  old  engines  could  be  brought  up  very  nearly  to 
that  of  the  efficiency  of  modem  ones,  and  in  many  instances  old 
engines  might  be  saved  from  the  scrap  heap. 

Mr  John  Biekie  (Member)  thought  there  was  no  subject  which 
could  be  of  greater  interest  to  a  body  of  engineers  and  steam  users 
than  the  one  which  dealt  with  economy  in  the  production  of  steam. 
Various  attempts  had  been  made  to  improve  the  steaming  efficiency 
of  boilers  by  the  use  of  water-tubes  and  other  devices,  which  in- 
creased the  heating  surface,  and  caused  rapid  circulation  of  the 
water,  but  did  not  improve  the  quality  of  the  steam.     To  get  the 
maximum  economy  from  steam  it  was  important  that  it  should  be 
delivered  dry  to  the  cylinders.     By  so  doing  the  volume  of  steam 
was  not  only  relatively  increased,  but  any  tendency  to  loss  due  to 
condensation  was  minimised.    From  experiments  which  he  had  car- 
ried out,  he  was  led  to  the  conclusion  that  it  was  perfectly  immaterial 
whether  the  boiler  was  of  the  water  or  fire-tube  class.    So  long  as  it 
was  large  enough,  and  there  was  ample  heating  surface  with  sufficient 
grate  area,  there  would  be  no  lack  of  steam.     Under  no  conditions, 
however,  did  he  consider  that  any  ordinary  boiler  was  capable  of  pro- 
ducing steam  dry  enough  to  ensure  great  economy.   Such  being  the 
case,  no  boiler  could  be  considered  efficient  unless  fitted  with  an  ap- 
paratus to  dry  the  steam.  One  condition  by  which  the  quality  of  the 
steam  could  be  greatly  improved  was  to  carry  a  very  high  steam 
pressure  in  the  boiler,  and  allow  the  steam  to  be  wire-drawn  down 
to  a  low  pressure,  but  even  this  method  could  be  further  improved 
upon  by  the  use  of  a  superheater.     Mr  Rowan's  paper  was  interest- 
ing as  showing  that  there  was  really  nothing  new  under  the  sun, 
and  that  the  modern  superheater  was  no  improvement  on  those 


30  SUPERHEATED   STEAM 

lErJohnBlelda. 

used  in  the  past.  At  the  same  time  great  credit  was  due  to  all 
who  undertook  the  designing  of  superheaters  with  a  view  to  re- 
covering as  much  as  possible  any  heat  which  would  otherwise  be 
wasted;  Forced  draught  was  responsible  for  great  waste.  He 
did  not  wish  to  imply  that  forced  draught  should  not  be  used,  for 
in  many  cases  it  might  be  indispensable.  It  was  not  the  use  but 
the  abuse  of  forced  draught  that  should  be  condemned.  He  spoke 
feelingly  on  the  subject  of  forced  draught,  as  for  many  years  he 
had  been  connected  with  a  branch  of  engineering  where  forced 
draught  was  made  use  of  to  an  extent  unknown  in  marine  practice. 
He  referred  to  locomotive  work.  The  forced  draught  in  a  loco- 
motive could  be  really  enormous,  and  was  so  great  that  a  waste 
of  heat  equal  to  about  30  per  cent,  of  the  power  of  the  engine 
passed  up  the  chimney  when  doing  ordinary  work  on  a  level  track, 
and  was  no  less  than  100  per  cent,  when  doing  maximum  duty  on 
grade  climbing.  It  was  this  great  waste  of  heat,  coupled  with  an 
experiment  he  made  with  water-tubes  in  the  fire-box  of  a  loco- 
motive boiler,  which  caused  him  to  turn  his  attention  to  the 
necessity  for  superheating  steam,  and  also  induced  him  to  design 
an  apparatus  for  drying  the  same.  He  described  an  experiment  he 
had  made  with  water-tubes,  and  said  that  some  four  years  ago  he  had 
a  number  of  locomotives,  which,  although  first-class  engines,  were 
poor  steamers — the  boilers  having  been  made  rather  small  for  the 
duty  required  of  them,  so  as  to  keep  down  the  weight  on  the  axle — 
and  it  occurred  to  him  that  he  might  increase  the  heating  surface  by 
the  use  of  a  few  water- tubes  without  adding  materially  to  the  axle 
load.  The  opportunity  was  taken  of  fitting  the  tubes  in  the  fire- 
box of  one  of  these  boilers  which  was  laid  up  for  repairs,  the  box 
having  been  taken  out  to  have  a  new  tube  plate  put  in.  Fig.  29 
showed  a  section  through  the  box,  in  which  19  two-inch  tubes 
were  placed.  Holes  2J  inches  in  diameter  were  drilled  in  the 
outer  shell  and  fitted  with  brass  wash-out  plugs,  so  as  to  allow 
the  tubes  to  be  removed  for  repairs.  A  strengthening  plate  was 
also  riveted  to  the  inside  of  the  shell  plate  as  shown,  and  f-inch 
stays  were  put  through  each  tube  to  stay  the  outer  shell.     When 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  31 

MrJohnRlekie. 

the  engine  was  put  to  work  he  was  astonished  to  find  that  there 
was  not  the  slightest  improvement  in  the  steaming  power  of  the 
boiler.  The  engine  was  allowed  to  work  for  nine  months,  when 
the  tubes  were  withdrawn  and  the  holes  plugged  up.     Again  there 


f 


o    <^    o-    -p-    o 

hi 

R 

it?' 

K 

b^ 

^■^.-^^ 

K 

0-  '^    -<f^ 


-^  -0  -^  -0  0 
■^  -^  -^  0  -(J> 
-^      -^       -Q-       "^       <^ 


was  no  difference  in  the  steaming  of  the  engine.  When  taken  out 
the  tubes  were  found  to  be  almost  as  clean  as  when  put  in,  indica- 
ting that  the  circulation  had  been  rapid  and  thorough.     As  to  why 


32 

Mr  John  Riekie. 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM 


O 

00 


bD 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  33 

HrJohnBleki*. 

the  addition  of  so  much  heating  surface  made  no  improvement  in 
the  steaming  power  of  the  boiler  he  was  at  a  loss  to  explain,  but 
he  was  inclined  to  think  that  the  density  of  the  steam  must  have 
been  considerably  increased,  or,  in  other  words,  the  steam  must 
have  been  more  highly  saturated  with  water,  the  inference  being 
that  such  extra  heating  surface  was  of  no  practical  value  withoutr 
a  superheater  to  dry  the  steam.  In  describing  the  superheater,  he 
stated  that  he  had  tried  the  experiment  of  blocking  up  a  consider- 
able number  of  tubes,  and  finding  that  it  did  not  impair  the  efficiency 
of  the  boiler  he  was  encouraged  to  dispense  with  a  certain  number 
of  tubes,  so  as  to  afford  accommodation  for  a  large  corrugated  fine 
to  pass  through  the  boiler,  in  which  to  place  the  superheating 
pipes.  It  would  be  seen  from  Fig.  30  that  in  place  of  the  steam- 
pipe  going  direct  to  the  steam -chest,  it  was  made  to  pass  twice 
through  the  fine.  A  damper  was  placed  at  the  fire-box  end  of  the 
flue,  and  was  worked  from  the  footplate,  so  that  it  could  be  closed 
when  getting  up  steam,  or  regulated  to  any  desired  extent.  The 
steam  had  to  pass  a  valve  to  get  into  the  superheater,  and  then 
pass  the  regulator  to  get  to  the  cylinders.  Unfortunately,  circum- 
stances did  not  allow  of  his  carrying  out  this  experiment,  so  that 
he  was  unable  to  state  how  far  his  expectations  might  have 
been  realised.  He,  however,  cordially  invited  an  expression  of 
opinion  from  any  gentlemen  present  as  to  why  he  got  no  advantage 
from  using  water-tubes  in  the  boiler. 

Mr  E.  E.  DoDDRELii  (Associate)  considered  the  illustration  which 
Mr  Bowan  had  given  of  the  Schmidt  superheater  as  somewhat 
ancient,  and  said  he  would  like  to  show  the  modern  Schmidt 
superheater,  Fig.  31,  fitted  to  a  few  up-to-date  plants.  He  thereupon 
put  on  the  screen  a  direct-fired  Schmidt  superheater  without  any 
brickwork,,  one  with  the  brickwork  incomplete,  and  another 
complete  and  under  steam.  He  also  showed  a  set  of  four 
Lancashire  boilers  fitted  with  flue-fired  Schmidt  superheaters^ 
and  drew  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  coils  of  all  these  super- 
heaters were  composed  of  two  distinct  groups,  The  steam  entered 
the  top  of  the  upper  group  of  coils  furthest  from  the  fire,  and  waa 

3 


34 

Ifr  £.  £.  DoddnU. 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM 


there  dried  and  superheated  a  few  degrees  ;  it  then  passed  into  the 
bottom  of  the  lower  group  of  coils  nearest  the  fire,  and  took  up  the 


Fig.  31. 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  35 

Mr  E.  £.  Doddrell. 

degree  of  superheat  desired.  These  superheaters  were  completely 
under  control  and  easily  manipulated,  as  all  the  fireman  had  to  do 
was  to  open  or  shut  the  dampers  according  to  the  reading  of  his 
pyrometer.  He  pointed  out  that  all  joints  were  protected  from  the 
direct  heat  of  the  flue  gases,  and  repairs  could,  if  necessary,  be 
made  in  a  very  short  time  without  stopping  the  steam  plant ;  and 
further,  that  the  superheater  could  be  absolutely  drained  either  by 
opening  the  drain  cocks  provided,  or  by  having  the  pipes  connected 
to  suitable  traps.  He  also  showed  some  sections  of  locomotives 
fitted  with  superheaters,  and  of  the  Manningtree  engine.  Speaking 
of  the  economy  resulting  from  the  application  of  the  Schmidt 
superheater,  Mr  Doddrell  said  that  the  gain  might  be  anything 
from  10  to  40  per  cent,  in  dealing  with  old  or  wasteful  types  of 
plant ;  but  in  modem  plants  the  economies  ranged  from  10  to  15 
per  cent.,  which  represented  from  35  to  50  per  cent,  return  on 
capital  outlay  per  annum  in  the  Glasgow  district,  and  rather  more 
where  fuel  was  higher  in  price.  According  to  figures  given  by  the 
superintending  engineer  of  the  Canadian  Pacific  Eailway,  the 
economy  with  a  simple  locomotive  engine  fitted  with  a  super- 
heater, compared  with  an  exactly  similar  simple  engine  without  the 
superheater,  was  over  50  per  cent.,  and  compared  with  a  compound 
engine  of  the  same  power,  fully  30  per  cent.  In  marine  work,  17 
per  cent,  economy  had  resulted  in  a  round  voyage  to  New  York, 
and  one  steamer  which  with  hard  firing  could  only  average  9J 
knots  was  now  able  to  steam  at  10^  with  easy  firing.  In  August 
last,  trials  were  conducted  at  the  Greenbank  Com  Mills,  Preston, 
with  a  superheater  installation.  The  results  showed  a  saving 
of  1  cwt.  of  coal  and  14  lbs.  of  water  per  hour,  representing  a 
monetary  economy  of  31s  per  week,  or  a  nett  saving  due  to  the 
superheater,  after  allowing  a  depreciation  of  10  per  cent.,  of 
£50  10s  per  annum. 

Mr  AiiEXANDEB  Clbqhobn  (Member  of  Council)  said  the 
adoption  of  superheated  steam  was  now  being  carefully  considered 
by  all  manufacturers  and  engineers  who  necessarily  had  to  employ 
the  most  economical  means  of  production  in  these  times  of  severe 
competition.     Professor  Watkinson  had  already  questioned  some 


86  SUPERHEATED   STEAM 

Mr  Alexander  Cltffhon. 

figures  said  to  have  been  given  by  Professor  Thurston,  and 
he  would  like  to  ask  if  the  figures  stated  on  page  18  could  also^ 
as  there  stated,  be  attributed  to  Professor  Thurston,  seeing  that 
the  same  were  to  be  found  on  page  435  of  Professor  Bankine'a 
Manual  of  the  Steam  Engine.  He  believed  that  these  calculations, 
were  originally  made  by  Professor  Rankine.  In  the  choice  of  th& 
extract  from  Professor  W.  Ripper's  paper,  describing  the  tempera- 
ture-entropy diagram  for  superheated  steam,  he  thought  Mr  Rowan 
had  been  unfortunate.  There,  for  example,  the  entropy  added  to 
the  feed -water,  in  passing  through  the  heater,  was  defined  as  the 
**  total  heat  supplied  during  the  change  from  To  to  Tf  divided  by  the 
mean  temperature  during  change."  A  similar  statement  was  made 
regarding  the  entropy  due  to  superheating,  in  making  the  length 

d  e,   Fig.  22,   equal   to  0*48  |  T     _.  T     J  divided  by  the  mean 

temperature  between  T,  and  T,.  Although  the  use  of  the  mean 
temperature  as  a  divisor  would  give  results  not  greatly  in  error^ 
yet  the  use  of  the  expression  **  mean  temperature  "  was  extremely 
misleading ;  and  after  the  trenchant  criticism  by  Professor  Unwin, 
in  his  discussion  on  Professor  Ripper's  paper,  he  thought  that  Mr 
Rowan  would  have  refrained  from  perpetuating  the  use  of  an 
expression  which  was  mathematically  erroneous.  He,  however,, 
could  recommend  the  perusal  of  Professor  Ripper's  paper  to  all 
interested  in  the  subject,  and  especially  his  conclusion  quoted  by 
Mr  Rowan,  on  page  22,  **that  no  important  gain  can  be  theoreti- 
cally," or  rather  therraodynamically,  **  expected  from  super- 
heating," as  evidenced  by  Fig.  22.  At  the  time  when  Professor 
Rankine  wrote,  the  great  practical  gain  of  annulling  the  cylinder- 
wall  action  was  not  clearly  foreseen.  The  lessened  amount  of 
leakage  past  pistons  and  valves  also  increased,  in  a  practical 
manner,  the  economy  effected  by  the  use  of  superheated  steam  ^ 
and  was  to  be  explained  by  the  diminished  amount  of  initial 
condensation. 

Mr  A.  S.  BiGGART  (Member  of  Council),  remarked  that  as  super- 
heated steam  was  coming  more  into  vogue,  it  was  well  that  the 
subject  should  be  fully  discussed  in  order  to  make  available  the 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM  37 

Mr  A.  8.  Biggart. 

experience  of  those  who  used  it.  He  remembered  having  seen  a 
superheater  removed  from  a  steamer  on  the  Clyde  about  thirty 
years  ago,  and  on  mentioning  this  matter  to  his  friend  (Mr 
James  Rowan)  that  day,  Mr  Rowan  stated  that  about  that  time 
he  was  personally  engaged  on  the  design  of  several  superheaters, 
and  that  his  father's  firm,  as  well  as  others,  then  fitted  many 
superheaters  into  steamers,  all  of  which  were  in  a  comparatively 
short  period  discarded.  The  principle  of  superheating  was  not  at 
fault ;  what  was  wrong  was  the  type  of  superheater  adopted. 
The  advent  of  solid  drawn  tubes,  and  the  better  knowledge  of  how 
to  superheat  steam  properly,  had  in  recent  years  brought  about 
success.  As  he  happened  to  be  one  of  those  who  had  had  some 
experience  of  superheating,  he  desired  to  lay  a  few  simple  facts 
before  the  meeting.  Some  years  ago  his  firm  laid  down  a 
large  new  work,  and,  after  considering  the  question,  decided 
to  put  down  a  generating  station  that  would  ultimately  be  a  centre 
of  power  for  their  old  as  well  as  their  new  works.  The  boiler 
plant  adopted  was  of  the  Babcock  and  Wilcox  type,  without 
superheaters.  For  some  time  after  starting  little  trouble  was 
experienced  with  the  boilers  or  engines,  but  by  and  by,  as 
the  power  demanded  of  the  boilers  became  greater,  trouble  began 
to  be  felt.  That  was  entirely  due,  so  far  as  he  could  judge, 
to  the  saturated  state  of  the  steam.  As  the  power  demanded 
increased  the  trouble  gradually  got  worse,  till  ultimately  the 
engines  could  not  be  run  without  having  all  the  drain  cocks,  at 
least,  partially  open.  On  asking  Messrs  Babcock  and  Wilcox 
to  look  into  the  matter  they  reported  that  the  boilers  were  being 
overtaxed,  and  that  additional  boiler  power  was  required.  His 
firm  admitted  the  boilers  were  overtaxed,  but  maintained  if  they 
^ve  ofiF  dry  instead  of  saturated  steam,  there  would  be  abundance 
for  the  power  then  required  from  the  engines.  After  looking  into  the 
matter,  and  having  decided  to  take  further  power  from  the  station,  it 
was  deemed  advisable  to  add  another  boiler  plant  with  superheaters, 
thus  doing  away  with  saturated  steam.  This  had  been  done,  and  the 
new  plant  had  been  working  for  some  time.    The  station  was  now 


38  SUPERHEATED    STEAM 

HrA.8.  Biggmrt. 

worked  wholly  with  superheated  steam,  using  only  the  new 
boiler  plant  which  was  an  exact  duplicate,  as  far  as  grate  area  and 
heating  surface  was  concerned,  of  the  old  plant.  All  the  old 
engines  in  the  engine  room,  besides  additional  plant,  was  now  being 
driven  with  superheated  steam.  The  quantity  of  water  evaporated 
in  the  boilers  by  the  new  plant  was  now  only  as  six  to  nine  in  the 
old  plant,  in  spite  of  the  additional  power  used.  In  short,  it  came 
to  this ;  had  superheaters  been  added  to  the  old  plant  they  would 
not  have  required  to  add  any  new  boiler  plant  at  all.  That  waa 
rather  a  remarkable  expeiience.  He  did  not  profess  to  give  exact 
details,  but  for  practical  purposes  the  results  were  convincing. 
Some  statements  appeared  in  the  discussion,  as  well  as  in  Mr 
Rowan's  paper,  dealing  with  the  saving  accruing  from  the  use 
of  superheated  steam,  showing  this  to  vary  from  10  to  40  per 
cent.  That  was  a  striking  percentage,  but  when  it  was  remem- 
bered that  secondary  considerations,  in  exceptional  cases,  came 
into  play  in  working  with  superheated  steam,  it  might  be  said 
with  confidence  that  even  a  saving  of  40  per  cent,  was  not 
unknown — not  due  to  superheating  directly,  but  due  largely  to 
being  able  to  shut  drain  cocks,  and  effect  other  savings  in  the 
engine  and  outside  of  it. 

Mr  Bobert  Baillie  (Member)  said  that,  having  recently  seen 
and  studied  some  superheater  practice  on  the  Continent,  he  thought 
he  might  be  able  in  some  small  measure  to  add  to  Mr 
Rowan's  interesting  paper  by  repeating  a  few  facts  regarding 
the  use  of  a  much  higher  superheat  than  was  usual  in  this 
country.  He  accordingly  communicated  with  his  friend,  Mr 
Holgar  Hansen,  the  Engineer  of  the  Corporation  Electricity 
Works,  Copenhagen,  and  that  gentleman  very  generously 
responded  to  his  request  by  sending  the  following  statements 
which  he  now  made.  Mr  Hansen  had  been  good  enouo^h 
to  allow  him  also  to  illustrate  his  remarks,  and  also  to 
send  the  specimen  of  fatigued  tube  now  lying  on  the  lecture 
table.  The  superheaters  in  the  West  Electricity  Station,  Copen- 
hagen, were  originally  made  as  illustrated  in  Figs.  32  and  33,  with  a 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM 


39 

MrBobertBaiUie. 


'T^rc-iiTT^^rr 


40  SUPERHEATED    STEAM 

Mr  Robert  Baim<». 

surface  of  about  408  square  feet ;  but  two  or  three  days  after  they 
were  installed  this  arrangement  was  found  to  be  a  complete  failure. 
Then  the  superheaters  were  changed  to  the  type  shown  in  Figs.  34 
and  35.  In  this  shape  the  superheater  from  which  the  tube 
specimen  was  taken  was  used  768  hours,  when  the  tubes  of  the  lower 
row  were  found  to  be  burnt,  and  some  of  them  having  changed  their 
form  were  hanging  in  a  bight.  Another  superheater  of  the  same  type 
had  been  standing  about  double  the  time  mentioned  before  it  was 
replaced,  and  had  not  sustained  any  injury.  This  showed  that  the 
normal  use  did  little  or  no  harm  to  the  tubes,  but  occasionally 
there  might  be  overheating  of  the  tubes,  a  few  hours  of 
which  was  enough  to  throw  the  superheater  out  of  action.  In 
the  summer  of  1902  the  superheaters  shown  in  Figs.  34  and  35  were 


$■■■■■■- ^  ~^*'  \-//}'^ 


Fig.  34. 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  41 

Mr  Robert  Baillie. 

replaced  by  those  illustrated  by  Figs.  36  and  37,  and  these  had  since 
then  been  in  constant  service,  and  were  now  in  good  working 
order.  The  brickwork  also,  it  would  be  obsei-ved,  was  strengthened. 
The  temperature  of  the  steam  was  in  the  first  instance  over  752* 
F.,  in  the  second  about  608'  F.,  and  in  the  third  about  536*  F. 
The  pressure  was  176' 4  lbs.  per  square  inch.  In  the  Eastern 
Electricity  Works  the  superheaters  were  constructed  as  shown  in 
Fig.  38.  The  bye-pass  dampers  were  built  of  firebrick,  bound 
together  by  wrought  iron  rods,  and  stiffened  by  a  cast  iron  frame. 
The  rods,  however,  soon  got  burned,  and  giving  way  somewhat 
blocked  the  flue.  Even  under  these  circumstances  there  obtained 
a  superheat  of  about  572*  F.  New  dampers  were  then  fitted,  and 
the  trials  to  ascertain  the  economical  value  of  superheating  were 


--«.     '■  /    -'"-'.1     i^-Nv'    I.     1 

J 11  v~''  '-"'■■/  m 


Fig.  37. 


42 

Mr  Bobert  BaUUe. 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM 


Fig  38. 


carried  out  at  the  Eastern  Works.     The  results  of  these  trials  were 
contained  in  the  following  tables  : — 


Date  of  trial 

Boiler  number 

Type  of   boiler,  all    Borsig 
make 

Duration  of  trial 

Steam  pressure  at  boiler 
engine 

Temp,  of  steam  at  super- 
heater 

Temp,  of  steam  at  engine 

Vacuum 

Revolutions  per  minute 

Total  weight  of  steam  evap- 
orated in  lbs. 

Total  weight  of  steam   per 
hour  in  lbs. 

Average  i.h.p. 

Fuel  per  i.h.p.  lbs. 

Lbs.  of  steam  per  i.h.p. 


20/4/03 
5 


21/4/03 
3 


27/4/03 
5 


2  storey  water  tube  2  storey 

7  hours  6  hours  6  hours 

175  lbs.  168  lbs.  170  lbs. 

168  lbs.  161  lbs.  165  lbs. 


604^  F. 
557^  F. 

26* 

991 


485°  F. 
433''  F. 

2618" 

99-1 


57,438         55,206 


8,205 
721 
1-49 
11-37 


9,201 
681 
1-76 
13-5 


433"*  F. 
417'  F. 
25-9'' 
100-9 

56,847 

9,474 
726 
1-606 
13-05 


One  pound  of  coal  burnt  in  the  boiler  gave  9,900  B.Th  U.  to 
the  steam  up  to  the  point  of  leaving  the  superheater.     On  this  test 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM  43 

MrBobereBftUUe. 

the  superheater  flue  was  somewhat  blocked  by  fire  bricks  due  to 
the  collapse  of  the  damper.  In  all  these  tests  the  same  engine  and 
dynamo  were  used.  The  steam  pipes  were  somewhat  short,  but 
still  the  reducing  influence  of  this  was  clearly  shown  by  the 
following  observations  taken  quite  at  random  : — 


Superheater  tempera- 
tures, degrees  F.  532,  617,  640. 

£ngine  temperatures, 

degrees  F.  539. 

Superheater  tempera- 
tures, degrees  F.  593,  597,  592. 

Engine  temperatures, 
degrees  F.  561. 

Superheater  tempera- 
tures, degrees  F.  675,  530,  588. 

Engine  temperatures, 
degrees  F.  565. 


575,  581,  635. 

556. 
633,  653,  661. 

559. 
624. 
'550. 


653,  656,  599. 

570. 
590,  608,  635. 

575. 


The  boiler  observations  were  taken  every  five  minutes,  and  the 
engine  observations  every  fifteen  minutes.  Mr  Hansen  closed  his 
remarks  by  saying  "  If  I  were  completely  free  to  build  a  new 
station  of  sufficient  size  I  should  use  independently  fired  super- 
heaters." He  was  pleased  to  say  that  the  Copenhagen  authorities 
had  ordered  their  new  installation  of  boilers  from  Scotland,  instead 
of  from  Germany.  These  boilers  were  to  be  supplied  by  the 
Stirling  Boiler  Company,  Motherwell,  and  would  be  fitted 
with  high  temperature  superheaters,  Fig.  39,  the  inlet  and 
outlet  headers  or  drums  of  which  were  of  sufficient  size  to 
enable  a  man  to  have  access  to  the  interior.  Divisions  were 
arranged  in  the  drums  to  give  a  long  travel  and  rapid  circula- 
tion to  the  steam  in  the  tubes.  The  path  of  the  flue  gases 
was  shown  by  the  arrow ;  the  first  bank  of  main  tubes  in  the  boiler 
intervened  between  the  superheater  tubes  and  the  furnace.  When 
the  superheater  was  out  of  action  the  usual  water  flooding  appliances 
were  brought  into  operation  to  prevent  rapid  deterioration  of  the 
tubes.   Temperatures  up  to  750"  F.  could  be  obtained  with  this  super- 


44 

MrRobettBailUe. 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM 


Fig.  39. 

heater.  With  the  low  temperature  superheater,  which  had  straight 
horizontal  tubes,  a  temperature  of  only  about  500^  F.  was  obtained, 
as  it  was  arranged  in  the  Stirling  boiler  somewhat  remote  from 
the  fire,  between  the  middle  and  back  drums,  and  received  the 
action  of  the  furnace  gases  only  after  the  latter  had  travelled  over 
the  first  three  banks  of  tubes. 

Professor  A.  Jamieson  (Member)  said  that  the  Members  of  the 
Institution  had  received  from  Mr  Eowan  the  results  of  a  very 
thorough  research  into  the  history  of  this  most  important  subject. 
As  Professor  Watkinson  and  Mr  Clegbom  had  drawn  attention  to 
certain  quotations  and  formulsB  in  Mr  Bowan's  paper,  he 
(Professor  Jamieson)  would  not  further  refer  to  these,  but  pass 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM  45 

Prof.  A.  JAmieaon. 

on  to  a  description  of  some  data  and  curves  which  he  had  received 
since  the  last  meeting  from  Mr  E.  A.  Reynolds,  M.A.,  of  Messrs 
Willans  &  Bobinson's  scientific  staff,  Rugby;  and  from  Mr  John 
Belliss,  of  Messrs  Belliss  &  Morcom,  Birmingham.  It  would  be 
seen  from  an  examination  of  the  three  curves  in  Fig.  40,  that  the 
percentage  gain  in  the  feed  water  supplied  to  the  boiler  or  steam 
taken  from  it,  increased  much  more  rapidly  with  the  simple  non- 

CuBVBs  Showing  the  Percentage  Gain  in  Feed  Water,  or 
Steam  Used  per  i.h.p.  per  Hour  due  to  Superheating  the 
Steam,  with  Messrs  Willans  &  Robinson's  Simple^ 
Compound  and  Triple-Expansion  Engines. 


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8UPeilN£AT    AT  STOP    VALVE   IN   DCGRCCS  FMf 


Fig.  40. 


condensing  engine  (up  to  a  certain  degree  of  superheat)  than  with 
either  a  compound  or  a  triple-expansion  condensing  engine.     H© 


46  SUPERHEATED    STEAM 

Prof.  A.  Jamieson. 

was  sorry  that  he  had  not  been  supplied  with  the  data  for  a 
simple  condensing  engine.  It  was  evident,  however,  that  the 
curve  for  such  an  engine  would  lie  on  the  diagram  somewhere 
between  that  of  the  curves  for  the  simple  non-condensing  and  the 
compound  condensing  engines ;  because,  it  might  be  taken  as  a 
general  rule,  that  the  greater  the  economy  which  an  engine 
showed  without  superheating,  the  less  would  be  the  percentage 
gain  by  aid  of  superheating.  It  would  be  observed  from  the 
inclination  of  the  curves  that  a  quicker  increase  of  gain  was 
obtained  at  the  lower  degrees  of  superheat  than  at  higher 
temperatures  This  led  to  the  conclusion  that,  there  was  not 
much  gain  as  a  whole  by  superheating  steam  to  a  higher  degree 
before  it  entered  a  cylinder  than  would  just  enable  it  to  exhaust  in 
a  dry  condition  from  that  cylinder.  Consequently,  it  would 
appear  from  this  fact,  and  also  from  the  other  circumstances  to  be 
referred  to  later  on,  that  instead  of  applying  such  a  high  degree 
of  superheat  as,  say,  200°  F.,  to  steam  before  it  entered  the 
first  or  high-pressure  cylinder  of  multiple -expansion  engines, 
it  would  be  better  to  simply  superheat  at  first,  by  50°  to  100°  R, 
and  then  to  reheat  the  exhaust  steam  from  each  cylinder  by  just 
the  required  amount ;  except,  of  course,  the  last  or  low  pressure 
exhaust,  which  was  in  connection  with  the  condenser.  From  Mr 
Beynolds'  tests  it  appeared  that  very  little  difiference  in  per- 
centage gain  was  obtajjied  with  triple-expansion  over  that  of  the 
same  class  and  power  of  compound  engines  with  the  same  initial 
steam  pressures  and  the  same  superheats.  The  gain  in  each  case 
varied,  of  course,  with  the  point  of  cut-ofiF,  or  ratio  of  expansion. 
But,  taken  generally  and  roughly,  it  appeared  that  for  a  fixed 
cut-off  in  all  the  cylinders,  the  consumption  lines  at  different 
degrees  of  superheat  formed  a  series  of  convergent  straight 
lines,  as  shown  by  the  diagram.  Under  these  circumstances,  he 
(Professor  Jamieson)  considered  that  a  simple  non-condensing  en- 
gine using  superheated  steam,  could  be  made  to  work  as  economically 
as  a  condensing  one  at  the  same  piston  speed  and  power  with 
dry  saturated  steam.     Also,  a  simple  condensing  engine  would  be 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM  47 

Prof.  A.  JamiMon. 

equal  to  a  compound  one,  and  that  it  was  scarcely  worth  while  to 
employ  triple-expansion  engines  as  far  as  economy,  simplicity, 
and  sweet  working  was  concerned,  when  their  extra  complication, 
first  cost,  and  upkeep  were  taken  into  consideration.  It  had  been 
pointed  out  that  results  gi\en  in  lbs.  of  water  per  i.h.p.  per  hour 
when  using  superheated  steam  were  misleading,  from  the  fact  that 
such  a  statement  did  not  take  into  account  the  extra  heat  units  im- 
parted to  the  steam  by  superheating  it ;  and  it  bad  been  suggested 
that  a  better  comparison  would  be  the  number  of  lbs.  of  coal  burned 
in  the  boiler  furnace  per  i.h.p.  per  hour.  But  it  was  well  known 
that  coal  varied  much  in  calorific  value,  and  boilers  in  efficiency. 
This  rough  and  ready  method  might  therefore  be  discarded  as 
being  unscientific  and  inaccurate.  Mr.  Keynolds,  in  his  paper  on 
'*  The  Economy  of  Superheated  Steam,"  read  recently  before  the 
Kugby  Engineering  Society,  suggested  that — **The  more  exact 
method  was  to  give  the  results  in  heat  units,  supplied  to  the  water 
per  I.H.P.,  adding  together  the  units  supplied  by  boiler  and 
superheater."  In  applying  this  method  he  had  assumed,  that  the 
feed  water  was  at  200'  F,  This,  however,  was  a  mere  arbitrary 
feed- water  temperature,  which  might  be  specially  applicable  to 
Willans  and  Eobinson's  installations,  but  could  not  be  recognised 
as  general  practice.  He  (Professor  Jamieson),  however,  thought 
that,  if  the  results  were  reckoned  in  B.  Th.U.  supplied  to  the  feed 
water  from  32°  F.  or  from  212'  F.,  a  fair  and  uniformly  applicable 
start  could  then  be  made  from  one  or  other  of  these  two  fixed 
temperatures.  It  would  be  most  convenient  to  start  from  water 
at  the  higher  fixed  temperature  of  212°  F.  For  example,  it  was 
found  that  when  using  steam  of  65  lbs.  pressure  per  square 
inch  by  gauge,  or  80  lbs.  absolute  in  the  steam  chest,  with  a  cut-ofT 
at  '3  of  the  stroke,  a  gain  of  35  per  cent,  in  weight  of  steam 
resulted  by  superheating  it  200*  F.,  with  a  consumption  of  only 
20  lbs.  of  steam  per  i.h.p.  per  hour,  in  the  case  of  the  simple 
non-condensing  engine.  Fig.  40.  Now,  if  35  per  cent,  were  the 
gain  in  this  case,  due  to  superheating,  what  would  be  the  lbs.  of 
steam   per   i.h.p.   per  hour,  at  the   same  pressure,  cut-ofl^,  and 


43  SUPERHEATED   STEAM 

Prof.  A.  JamieMu. 

revolutions  per  minute,  y^hen  supplied  with  ordinary  dry 
saturated  steam  ? 

66%    :     100%    :  :     201bs.     :    x. 
.\    X     =     30-8  lbs. 

At  80  lbs.  pressure  absolute,  reckoned  from  32^  F.,  the  number  of 
B.  Th.U.  per  lb.  of  this  steam  was  1177.  Subtracting  from  this  total 
the  sensible  heat  units  per  lb.  between  32*  F.  and  212°  F.  then 
1177  -  180=997  B.  Th.U.  This  quantity  multiplied  by  30-8  (the 
lbs.  of  steam  required  per  i,h.p,  per  hour),  gave  30,707*6  total 
B.  Th.U.  from  and  at  water  of  212°  F.  But  the  steam  was  super- 
heated by  200°  F.  and  assuminp^  the  specific  heat  of  such  steam  to 
be  0-48 ;  then  0-48  x  200  =  96  B.  Th.U.  per  lb.,  which  added  to 
the  above  997  gave  1093  B,  Th.U.  per  lb.  of  superheated  steam.  Con- 
sequently, since  20  lbs.  of  such  steam  were  used,  20  x  1093  =  21,860 
B.  Th.U.,  the  total  heat  units  in  the  superheated  steam  required 
per  i.H.p.  per  hour,  hence  : — 

B.TH.U.  B.TH.U. 

30,707-6     :     21.860     :  :     100%     :     y%. 
.-.  y     =     71-2%. 

Or,  100% -71-2%  =  28-8^;;;  which  was  the  net  gain  when  reckoned 
in  B.Th.U.  added  to  feed  water  from  212°  F.  due  to  super- 
heating, instead  of  the  previously  measured  35  per  cent  gain 
in  lbs.  of  steam  used  per  i.h.p.  In  all  cases  it  would  be 
found  that  the  difference  between  these  two  systems  of 
estimating  the  gain  due  to  superheating,  increased  with  the 
superheat.  When  testing  engines  using  superheated  steam, 
it  would  be  found  interesting  and  instructive  to  plot  down 
curves  of  their  percentage  gains  by  both  methods.  The 
following  set  of  results  obtained  last  month  from  a  300  B.H  p. 
triple-expansion  condensing  engine  by  Messrs.  Belliss  &  Morcom, 
Limited,  Birmingham,  using  different  degrees  of  superheat  up  to 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  49* 

Prof.  A.  Jamleflon. 

307"*  F.,  showed  that  the  per  centage  gain  or  saving  in  lbs.  of 
steam  per  i.h.p.  per  hour,  agreed  very  closely  with  that  of  the 
triple-expansion  condensing  engine,  by  Messrs  Willans  and  Bobin- 
son,  at  the  same  power,  and  with  the  same  steam  pressm*e  as  depicted 
apon  the  previous  diagram.  Although  this  remarkable  economy  of 
only  10  lbs.  of  steam  per  lh.p.  per  hour  was  obtained  with  these 
splendid  reciprocating  engines,  yet  he  felt  bound  to   state  that 

Diagram  Illustrating  Eesults  Obtained  on  25th  Januaby, 
1904,  with  a  300  b.h.p.  Bbllibs  &  Morcom's  Triple- 
Expansion  Engine,  using  Steam  op  160  lbs.  Pressure,  and  a 
Vacuum  of  26.75  Inches  at  475  Eevolutions  per  Minute.. 


Sy. 

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SUPERHEAT  DEGREES   FAh 


Pig.  41. 


50  SUPERHEATED    STEAM 

Prof.  A.  Jamiesoii. 

very  great  care  and  watchfulness  must  be  observed  by  those  who 
meditated  using  such  highly  superheated  steam,  since  one  or 
more  of  the  following  disadvantages  might  be  encountered  : — 

1.  Superheater  tubes  were  liable  to  get  warped,  burned,  or 
chemically  acted  upon. 

2.  Highly  superheated  steam  eroded  or  cut  into  brass  and  gun 
metal.  Nothing  less  than  nickel  steel  would  permanently  stand 
its  effects  upon  valves  and  valve  seats. 

3.  It  spoiled  the  working  surface  of  the  softer  kinds  of  cast-iron 
cylinders.  Great  care  should  be  taken  in  applying  superheated 
steam  to  cylinders  which  were  not  made  of  the  very  best  hard 
grey  Scotch  cast  iron. 

4.  When  plumbago  or  graphite  was  used  as  a  lubricant  for 
cylinders,  it  was  apt  to  clog  and  jam  the  piston  rings,  &c. 

5.  It  had  been  found  that  engines  in  a  first-rate  condition 
could  be  run  with  very  little  lubrication.  When  lubrication  was 
necessary  with  superheated  steam,  then  only  the  best  kind  of 
high  flash  point  lubricant  must  be  used,  such  as  '*  valvoline." 

6.  Steam-pipe  and  cylinder  laggings,  as  well  as  everything  which 
came  into  contact  with  steam  pipes  containing  very  highly  super- 
heated steam,  should  be  fire-proof,  since  they  might  be  subjected 
to  temperatures  approaching  700°F. 

7.  The  stresses  arising  from  highly  superheated  steam  were 
very  great,  and  due  allowance  must,  therefore,  be  made  in  the 
design  of  an  engine  to  permit  of  free  expansion  without  twisting, 
warping,  or  overstraining  the  parts  thus  affected  by  the  extra 
heat.  In  the  case  of  steam  turbines  of  Parsons'  type,  it  had  been 
reported  that  the  rotating  turbine  vanes,  which  worked  perfectlv 
clear  cf  the  fixed  guides  with  ordinary  saturated  steam,  and  with 
low  degrees  of  superheat,  had  been  known  to  strike  the  latter  due 
to  heat  expansion  with  highly  superheated  steam.  It  was  also 
reported,  that  Mr  Parsons  objected  to  superheating  altogether  in 
the  case  of  the  new  Transatlantic  Allan  liner.  The  high  percen- 
tages of  gain  due  to  superheating  steam  which  were  obtained 
tmder    the    foregoing  circumstances   might,   therefore,   in    some 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  51 

Prof.  A.  JamiesQfn. 

cases,   have  to  be   considerably   reduced  before  the  net  gain  in 
£.  8.  d.  was  correctly  arrived  at  and  duly  appreciated. 

*  Formula  Devised  by  Professor  Jamibson  for  Ascertaining 
THE  Percentage  Gain  in  B.Th.U.  given  to  Feed- Water 
DUE  to  Superheating. 

Let,  H5t£=:Heat  units  per  lb.  of  superheated  steam  from  temp,  of 

feed  water  to  temp,  of  superheat. 
„     H5a  =  H3at  units  per  lb.  of  saturated  steam  from  temp,  of 

feed  water  to  temp,  due  to  pressure  p  in  lbs.  per  sq. 

inch  absolute  at  the  steam  chest. 
„    W5tt= Weight  of  superheated  steam  used  per  i.h,p.  per  hour 

at  pressure  p  and  temp,  of  superheat. 
„     Wsa= Weight  of  saturated  steam  used  per  LH.p.per  hour  at 

pressure  p. 


Then  %gain  in  B.Th.U.  due  to  superheat = 100  -  ■ 


100  mu .  Wsu 
B.sa .  Wsa 


But,  Hsa=(H-  S) 

Where,  H=  Total  heat  in  B.  Th.  U.  per  lb.  of  feed  water  from 
32°  F.,  as  found  from  '*  Tables  on  the  Properties 
of  Saturated  Steam,"  up  to  and  at  pressure  j?. 
And,  S  =  Sensible  heat  in  B.Th.U.  per  lb.  of  feed  water  from 

32°  F.  to  temp,  of  feed,  tf^    Or,S = (tf  "  ^^''\ 

Also,  B.SU  =  Hsa  +  H<^  tsu 
Where,  H^  =  0*48  the  specific  heat  of  steam. 

And,  fsti  *=  Superheat  at  steam  chest  in  degrees  F. 
Substitute  these  values  in  the  above  formula  : — 

^  IOoFh-Z^^  -32°\  +  H^<.,u]w#w 

Fh  -  U.  _  32')nWsa 

*yoie. — Thifl  fonuula  was  received  from  Professor  Jamieson  after  the 
close  of  the  discussion  on  Mr  Rowan  -'s  paper.— Ed. 


Then,  %  gain  =  100-- 


62  SUPERHEATED    STEAM 

Prof.  A.  Jamieson. 

Taking  the  same  test  and  values  as  in  the  previous  example  for  the 
simple  non-condensing  engine,  where  7?  =  80  lbs.;  H  =  1177 
B.Th.U.;  tf  =  212" ;  H^  =  -48;   €^  =  200°;  Wstt=201bs.,and 

Wsa  =  30.8  lbs. 

mu      0/      •         1AA        (100  [1177-^(212 -32)  -f  -48  x  2001  20^ 

Then.o^gam  =  100  -  { [im  -  (212  -  32)]  30>8        '        I 

Or.  %  gain    =  100  -    ( 12?L^L+^i^ !  =  100 -71-2  =  28-8 
(         997  X  30"o  f 

.-.  gain  =  28-8  %,  as  found  before,  and  from  the  test  of 
Messrs  Willans  &  Robinson's  simple  non-condensing  engine  with  a 
superheat  of  200°  F. 

It  would  be  seen  that  the  only  variables  in  the  above  formula 
were  Im  and  W5^^  Consequently,  a  constant  could  easily  be 
found  for  the  other  values ;  the  various  calculations  could,  there- 
fore, be  quickly  worked  out  for  one  complete  set  of  trials  at 
different  degrees  of  superheat,  their  results  marked  on  squared 
paper,  a  mean  curve  drawn  through  them,  and  comparisons  made 
with  tests  of  the  same  or  of  other  engines  for  any  agreed  upon 
temperature  of  the  feed  water. 

Mr  W.  A.  Ohamen  (Member  of  Council)  exhibited  a  piece  of 
superheater  pipe  that  had  been  given  to  him  by  an  engineer  from 
Copenhagen.  He  said  it  would  be  noticed  that  the  tube  had  been 
in  use  when  red  hot,  and  the  outside  of  it  had  become  scaled  by 
oxidation.  The  inside  appeared  at  first  sight  to  be  coated  with 
some  peculiar  composition  to  the  depth  of  ^  of  an  inch.  This 
proved  to  be  blue  oxide  of  iron  formed  by  the  union  of  oxygen  from 
the  steam  with  the  highly  heated  inner  surface  of  the  tube,  and  it 
was  interesting  to  note  the  depth  to  which  this  action  had  pene- 
trated. The  experience  he  had  at  starting  with  superheated  steam, 
some  five  years  ago,  was  that  a  temperature  was  obtained  suffi- 
cient to  run  out  the  white  metal  from  an  engine  governor  gland, 
and  also  to  set  fire  to  some  temporary  timber  steam  pipe  supports. 
He  came  to  the  conclusion  that  he  was  getting  too  much  superheat, 
and  took  steps  to  reduce  it.     The  engine  builders  considered  that 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  53 

Mr  W.  A.  Chunen. 

the  superheat  should  be  kept  within  50  degrees  of  the  normal 
temperature  of  saturated  steam  at  200  lbs.  pressure.  This  was 
done  at  some  trouble  and  expense  to  the  boiler  makers,  and  now, 
after  only  three  or  four  years  had  elapsed,  one  was  told  how  much 
benefit  would  accrue  if  superheated  steam  at  200  degrees  were 
used. 

Correspondence. 

Mr  H,  W,  Andkews  (Member)  stated  in  his  communication  that 
he  was  sorry  he  could  not  be  present  to  hear  the  discussion  on  Mr 
Rowan's  paper  on  **  Superheated  Steam."  There  was,  however, 
not  much  room  for  discussion,  as  the  paper  was  pretty  well  con- 
fined to  a  short  description  of  the  different  makes  and  t^'pes  of 
superheaters,  with,  to  conclude,  some  particulars  of  Professor 
Ewing's  test  of  a  plant  at  Manningtree.  That  test  gave  700°  F. 
at  the  cylinder,  and  it  did  not  seem  to  show  up  very  well  when 
the  duty  from  the  apparatus  was  reduced  to  B,Th,U.  per  kilowatt, 
and  compared  with  the  Middlesborough  engine.  Possibly  had  the 
emperature  been,  say,  550'  F.  (or  say  190°  F.  superheat)  the 
total  heat  per  kilowatt  would  have  been  reduced.  Apart  from  the 
B.Th.U.  contained  in  the  steam,  which,  of  course,  did  not  take  into 
«<;count  the  means  of  obtaining  this,  it  was  perhaps  questionable 
whether  any  independently  fired  apparatus  could  consistently  burn 
the  coal  to  the  best  advantage.  He  had  just  had  to  do  with 
installing,  in  Fife,  a  **  Galloway  "  all-steel  superheater,  which  was 
fixed  in  the  down-take  behind  the  boiler,  as  shown  by  Mr 
Kowan  in  his  illustrations.  This  superheater  was  designed  to 
^ve  150°  F.  of  superheat  when  the  boiler  was  fully  working. 
In  view  of  the  fact,  for  such  he  assumed  it  to  be,  that 
the  greatest  economy  due  to  superheating  was  in  the  first 
100**  F.,  he  ventured  to  think  that  when  150°  F.  could  be 
obtained  without  any  trouble  in  the  above  way — that  was  by  a 
relatively  simple  design  fixed  in  the  down-take — the  best  practical 
economy  was  seciwed,  and  that  was  what  they  were  all  aiming  at ; 
or,  to  put  it  more  plainly,  a  horse  power  for  the  least  amount  of 


54  SUPERHEATED   STEAM 

Mr  H  W.  ADdzewa. 

coal,  and  not  necessarily  the  smallest  amount  of  steam  orB.Th.U» 
per  horse  power. 

Mr  E.  G.    CoNSTANTiNB  (Member)  observed    that    the  paper 
by  Mr  Eowan,  coming  as  it  did  at  a  time  when  the  subject  of 
superheating  was  attracting  more  and  more  attention,  was  very 
opportune.     The  history  of  the  development  of  superheating,  as. 
traced  by  the  author,  was  extremely  interesting,   although   the 
designs  of  apparatus  described  by  no  means  exhausted  the  Hst,  one 
of  the  most  efficient  and  satisfactory  being  that  of  the  **  Field 
Tube  "  type.     The  two  main  problem^  of  superheating  were  : — (a) 
Why  the  use  of  superheated  steam  in  engines  resulted  in  economy;, 
and  (b)  The  accurate  determination  of  the  value  of  the  results 
obtained.     That  the  use  of  superheated  steam  enabled  engines  ta 
work  on  a  lower  steam  consumption  had  been  conclusively  demon- 
strated, such  economy  varying  according  to  the  temperature  of  the 
steam ;  the  distance  the  steam  had  to  travel ;  the  condition  of  the 
radiating  surfaces ;  and  the  design  and  condition  of  the  engine. 
Curiously  enough,  it  was  not  invariably  the  most  carefully  designed 
engine,   or   the  one  in  the   best  working  order  as  regarded   the 
condition  of  the  valves  and  pistons,  which  showed  the  best  results. 
This  fact,  with  other  results  of  observations  of  engines  working 
with  superheated  steam,  produced  a  strong  doubt  in  his  mind  as  ta 
the  correctness  of  the  usually  accepted  reason  for  the  economy 
experienced.     It  was  very  probable  that  some  of  the  gain  was  due 
to  preventing  cylinder  condensation,  but  that  did  not  account  for 
the  extraordinary  results  sometimes  obtained,  and  which,  in  his 
opinion,  were  mainly  brought  about  by  diminished  valve  and  piston 
leakage.      From  experiments  made  by  Professors  Nicolson  and 
Callender  at  the  McGill  University,  Montreal,  it  was  found  that 
economies  from  10  per  cent,  to  30  per  cent.,  varying  with  the  type 
of  engine,  were  brought  about  by  curing  valve  leakage.     As  wet 
steam  was  said  to  leak  from  forty  to  fifty  times  faster  than  dry  steam, 
it  naturally  followed  that  the  use  of  superheated  steam  would  go  far 
to  cure  the  evil  of  leakage,   resulting  in   greater  power  being 
developed  for  the  steam  consumed.     More  li^ht  was  needed  to 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM  56 

Mr  £.  O.  CouUntliM. 

enable  the  true  value  of  superheated  steam  to  be  accurately 
calculated.  The  specific  heat  factor  for  calculating  the  total  heat 
of  superheated  steam  was  taken  at  the  same  figure,  whether  the 
quantity  of  superheat  imparted  was  low  or  high.  Reasons  were 
not  lacking  for  supposing  that  when  the  temperature  1^  passed  a 
certain  point  the  specific  heat  was  also  increased.  The  questions- 
were — To  what  temperature  was  the  specific  heat  constant  ?  and. 
In  what  ratio  did  the  specific  heat  increase  with  the  rise  of 
temperature  ?  It  was  understood  that  several  experimenters  were 
at  work  to  determine  these  points,  and  until  the  results  of  their 
labours  were  forthcoming  any  calculations  as  to  thermal  efficiency, 
either  of  combined  boilers  and  superheaters,  or  engines  using 
superheated  steam,  must  be  regarded  as  approximate  only, 
especially  when  dealing  with  high  degrees  of  superheat.  If  Mr 
Rowan,  by  introducing  the  subject  of  auperheated  steam,  stimulated 
research  in  that  direction,  a  great  benefit  would  be  conferred  on 
the  engineering  profession. 

Mr  J.  K.  Stothebt  stated  that  Mr  Rowan  had  described 
various  classes  of  superheater,  but  the  Babcock  &  Wilcox  super- 
heater he  only  mentioned  by  name.  It  might  interest  the 
Members  of  the  Institution  to  know  that  Messrs.  Babcock  <fe 
Wilcox  manufactured  several  types  of  superheaters,  chiefly  the 
one  which  formed  an  integral  part  of  their  well-known  boiler  with 
U-tubes.  They  also  made  independent  superheaters,  similar  to* 
that  made  by  Professor  Watkinson,  except  that  the  tubes  instead 
of  being  vertical  were  horizontal,  and  were  expanded  in  square 
boxes  instead  of  round  tubes,  while  there  were  hand-hole  fittings  at 
the  end  of  each  nest  of  tubes  by  which  the  tubes  could  be  cleaned 
and  examined.  It  was  claimed  for  the  superheater  illustrated  in 
f^.  42  that  it  formed  an  integral  part  of  the  boiler ;  it  required  no- 
separate  attention ;  and  it  required  no  ground  space.  It  was- 
designed  to  give  from  100"*  to  120°  F.  of  superheat,  although  it 
could  be  so  arranged  that  more  than  that  could  be  obtained.  It 
was  not  liable  through  inattention,  by  keeping  the  doors  open,  to* 
become  a  condenser.      The  temperature  of  the  gases  leaving  the 


^6 

.3fir  J.  K.  Strothert. 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  67 

Mr  Edwin  H.  Jadd. 

independent  superheater  must  be  higher  than  that  of  the  super- 
heated steam,  and  therefore  the  hot  gases  escaped  to  the  air  and 
were  lost.  In  this  superheater  the  gases  generated  in  the 
furnace  of  the  boiler  passed  through  the  first  section  of  the  tubes 
of  the  boiler  and  then  through  the  superheater  tubes  ;  leaving  the 
superheater,  they  passed  through  the  second  and  third  section  of  the 
boiler  tubes,  where  they  parted  with  some  more  of  their  heat  and 
entered  the  chimney  at  a  low  temperature,  not  necessarily  higher 
than  that  of  the  temperature  of  the  natural  steam  due  to  the 
pressure  at  which  the  boiler  was  working.  These  super- 
heaters had  been  in  use  since  1894,  and  there  were 
some  5,000  now  at  work,  and  no  trouble  had  been  experienced 
with  the  tubes.  That  might  be  due,  to  some  extent,  to  the  device 
adopted  for  flooding  the  tubes  when  raising  steam,  and  draining 
water  from  the  tubes  before  admitting  the  steam  to  the  engine.  It 
was  the  experience  of  the  makers  that  the  economy  of  the  super- 
heater ranged  from  12  to  25  per  cent,  in  everyday  working.  That 
percentage  was  not  quoted  as  the  result  of  a  special  test  made  for 
the  purpose,  but  was  the  result  of  rough  commercial  observations 
submitted  to  them  by  users  of  the  superheaters  themselves.  He 
might  instance  the  case  of  Messrs.  Dewrance  &  Coy.,  of  London. 
Previously  that  firm  burned  13,846  lbs.  of  coal  with  natural  steam, 
whereas  with  superheated  steam  they  only  burned  11,340  lbs.  of 
coal,  or  a  saving  of  18  per  cent.,  and  the  amount  of  work  done  by 
the  boiler  was  rather  greater  when  using  superheated  eteam.  The 
boiler  was  not  large  enough  to  do  the  work  before  the  superheater 
was  fitted,  and  after  the  superheater  was  installed  it  did  the  work 
quite  easily. 

Mr  Edwin  H.  Judd  (Member)  remarked  that  as  one  of  the  objects 
of  this  paper  was  evidently  to  show  the  advantage  of  superheated 
steam  over  saturated,  or  wet  steam,  he  thought  the  figures  given 
for  engines  working  under  the  latter  conditions  required  some 
slight  modification  before  a  correct  comparison  could  be  made. 
Almost  the  only  cases  quoted  for  comparison  of  the  two  systems 
was  that  of  the  Schmidt  engine  at  Manningtree  as  compared  with 


68  SUPERHEATED   STEAM 

Mr  Edwin  H.  Jodd. 

the  Reavall  engine  at  Dartford,  and  the  Davy  engine  at  Middles- 
brough. The  Schmidt  was  a  compound,  double-acting,  slow- 
speed  engine ;  the  Eeavall  was  a  so-called  compound  engine  of 
the  single-acting  type.  In  the  case  of  the  Beavall  tests,  the  steam 
condensed  in  the  **  running  "  jacket  which  surrounded  the  steam 
cylinder  was  actually  deducted  from  the  steam  used  by  the  engine, 
instead  of  being  added  to  it,  the  makers  claiming  that  this  jacket 
should  be  considered  in  the  same  way  as  the  steam  and  water 
separator,  which  was  usually  fitted  to  this  class  of  engine,  the 
water  drained  from  this  separator  on  other  engines  being  credited 
to  the  engine.  He,  however,  did  not  consider  this  a  correct  basis 
for  comparison  with  other  engines  in  which  the  jacket  steam  was 
debited  against  the  engine,  for  in  the  case  of  a  short-stroke  engine 
working  condensing  and  doing  all  its  expansion  in  one  cylinder, 
this  condensation  must  amount  to  a  considerable  quantity,  and  so 
it  would  be  interesting  to  know  if,  in  the  tests  of  the  Schmidt 
engine,  the  steam  used  in  the  L.P.  cylinder  jacket  was  included  in 
the  result  of  9  lbs,  per  i.h.p.  hour,  or  15  lbs.  per  kilowatt  hour. 
Then,  again,  with  the  Davy  engine,  at  Middlesbrough,  the  steam 
consumption  was  given  as  19o  lbs.  per  kilowatt  hour  at  24  inches 
vacuum.  The  actual  facts  were  that  it  was  2147  lbs.  per  kilowatt 
hour,  with  a  vacuum  of  19J  inches,  the  figure  of  19J  lbs.  being 
arrived  at  by  making  a  reduction  of  2  per  cent,  for  each  inch  of 
vacuum  below  24  inches,  this  being  the  specified  vacuum  at  which 
the  engine  was  to  work.  This  allowance,  if  only  for  a  fraction  of 
an  inch,  might  be  allowable,  but  it  was  not  at  all  likely  that  there 
would  be  anything  like  a  difference  of  2  per  cent,  for  each  inch, 
for,  if  this  was  continued  throughout  the  whole  range,  one  would 
have  to  allow  50  per  cent,  more  steam  for  an  engine  working 
non -condensing  than  for  one  working  condensing  at  25  inches, 
while  the  maximum  saving  due  to  working  condensing  was  only 
about  25  per  cent.  The  correspondent  in  the  **  Engineer,"  referred 
to  by  Mr  Bo  wan,  still  further  emphasised  this  by  stating  that 
to  compare  the  Middlesbrough  engine  with  the  Schmidt,  the 
former  should  have  a  further  allowance  of  8  per  cent.,  because  the 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  69 

Mr  Edwin  H.  Judd. 

latter  had  28  inches  vacuum  instead  of  24  inches.  On  that  basis 
it  was  held  that  the  Middlesbrough  engine  used  only  21,483 
B.Th.U.per kilowatt  hour  as  against  20,320  B.Th.U.  for  the  Schmidt 
engine.  In  a  series  of  careful  tests  made  by  Professor  Weigh  ton, 
the  results  of  which  were  given  in  a  paper  read  before  the 
Institution  of  Mechanical  Engineers  in  July,  1902,  he  showed  that 
after  reaching  about  from  20  inches  to  21  inches  vacuum  there  was 
practically  no  saving  to  be  effected,  but  rather  that  the  steam  con- 
sumption actually  went  up  again;  one  reason  for  this  peculiar  fact 
being  that  the  difference  in  temperature  at  the  higher  vacua  was  so 
large  that  it  had  a  greater  coohng  effect  on  the  cylinder  walls. 
The  same  consulting  engineer  who  allowed  2  per  cent,  for  each 
inch  defective  vacuum  in  the  Middlesbrough  engine  case  now  only 
allowed  1  per  cent,  per  1  inch,  and  this  would  appear  to  be  much 
more  correct,  particularly  in  view  of  Professor  Weighton's  tests. 
Making  an  allowance,  then,  of  1  per  cent,  per  inch,  the  Middles- 
brough engine  figures  should  be  equal  to  20-6  lbs,  per  kilowatt  hour 
at  24  inches  vacuum  or  19-7  lbs.  at  28  inches  vacuum  (to  compare 
with  the  Schmidt  engine).  Eeducing  this  to  heat  units  the  result 
would  be  23,531  B.Th.U.  per  kilowatt  hour  for  the  Middlesbrough 
engine  against  only  20,320  for  the  Schmidt  engine,  or  a  saving  of 
something  like  13^  per  cent,  in  favour  of  the  engine  with  super- 
heated steam,  quite  apart  from  the  fact  that  the  one  was  a  triple- 
expansion  engine  while  the  other  was  only  compound.  Another 
advantage  due  to  superheating,  but  one  which  was  more  practical 
than  theoretical,  and  did  not  appear  to  have  been  mentioned 
in  the  paper,  was  that  superheating  the  steam  greatly  reduced  the 
leakage  past  valves  and  pistons.  As  evidence  of  this,  the  following 
figures  taken  from  an  actual  test  of  a  double-acting  high  speed 
engine  would  be  interesting : — 


60 

Mr  Edwin  H.  Judd. 


SUPEBHEATED    STEAM 


Effect  of  Superheat  on  Leakage  Past  Valve. — Test  made 
ON  100  B.H.P.  Compound,  Double  Acting,  High  Speed 
Engine. 


Valve,  Good 

Fitrt.e.. 

tAto  0^  *"*  In<5h 

Slack). 

T,Si  inch, 
Turned  off. 

Inch  Slack. 

Wet 
Steam. 

Dry 
Steam. 

Wet 

Steam. 

Diy 
Steam. 

Steam  pressure  on  range,  lbs.  per\ 
square  inch,       

98 

98 

108 

1 

99 

Temperature  of   saturated  steamy 
corresponding  to  pressure,  Fah.,  J 

336-7° 

336-7° 

343" 

337-4'  1 

Temperature  as  noted,  Fah., 

— 

339-5° 

— 

343-6° 

1 
Note, — Very  slight  superheat. 

Steam  pressure  in  governor  valve,  \ 
lbs.  per  square  inch,     / 

57 

57 

57 

! 
57: 

1 

Vaccum,  inches, 

26-2 

26-2 

26-2 

26-2 

Revolutions  per  minute, 

500 

500 

600 

500' 

E.H.P.,       

69-32 

60-3      60-3 

603 

Lbs.  of  water  per  hour, 

1,532 

1,549    1,724 

1,591 

Lbs.  of  water  per  E.H.P.  hour,  ... 

2539 

26-6      28-5 

26-3 

Increase  per  cent 

— 

—         12-2 

1 

2-7 

Mr  A.  Scott  Youngek,  B.Sc.  (Member),  considered  that 
Mr  Bowan  deserved  the  thanks  of  the  Institution  for  bring- 
ing so  prominently  forward  the  question  of  superheating, 
which     was     one     of     great    interest      and      importance      on 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM  61 

Mr  A.  Scott  Younger. 

account  of  the  economy  to  be  obtained  from  its 
adoption.  The  historical  part  of  the  paper  showed  consider- 
able research,  and  it  was  curious  to  observe  that  all  the 
early  types  of  superheaters  were  fitted  to  marine  boilers,  especially 
as  its  use  in  marine  work  was  practically  discontinued  soon  after 
the  principle  of  compounding  was  introduced.  The  reason  for 
this  seemed  to  have  been  partly  due  to  the  trouble  experienced  with 
the  early  superheaters,  but  chiefly  to  the  fact  that  the  use  of  higher 
pressures  and  the  compound  engine  absorbed  the  energies  of  the 
engineers  of  those  days.  The  principle  of  compounding  had  since 
been  carried  to  its  limit  by  the  introduction  of  triple-  and 
quadruple-expansion  engines,  and  some  engineers  had  even  ^one 
the  length  of  using  five  cylinders,  though  it  was  doubtful  if  the 
reduced  cylinder  condensation  compensated  for  the  increase  of 
friction  and  multiplication  of  parts.  Engineers  had  accordingly  to 
look  for  other  sources  of  economy,  and  the  advantages  of  super- 
heating offered  a  fruitful  field  in  this  direction.  These  advantages 
were  practical  rather  than  theoretical,  and  consisted  chiefly  in 
reduced  cylinder  condensation,  and  greatly  reduced  leakage  past 
valves  and  pistons.  The  work  done  by  Professor  Watkinson  in 
this  respect  had  been  excellent,  and  the  experiment  of  fitting  one 
of  his  superheaters  in  the  T.S.S.  **  Yarmouth  "  would  be  watched 
closely  by  all  marine  engineers.  It  was  a  matter  for  regret  that  the 
ratio  of  heating  surface  of  the  superheater  to  the  heating  surface 
of  the  boiler,  along  with  the  funnel  temperatures  and  amount  of 
superheat,  were  not  given,  though  doubtless  this  information 
would  be  obtained  in  due  course.  The  difficulty  of  making  a 
reliable  superheater  was  very  great.  It  was  partly  constructional, 
but  the  chief  difficulty  was  to  control  the  temperature  and  prevent 
the  tubes  from  being  overheated  or  cooled  below  the  temperature 
of  the  steam.  In  fact,  this  question  of  control  of  temperature  was 
at  the  root  of  the  problem.  If  a  thoroughly  reliable  superheater 
could  be  designed  which  did  not  get  out  of  order,  nor  cost  much 
for  repairs  and  upkeep,  then  shipowners  would  gladly  welcome  an 
apparatus  which  could  offer  them  such  a  substantial  saving  in 
coal  consumption  as  15  or  20  per  cent. 


62  SUPERHEATED    STEAM 

HrW.  8.Hide. 

Mr  W.  S.  Hide  (Member)  stated  that  as  he  had  fitted  several 
steamers  under  his  charge  with  superheaters,  perhaps  a  few  details 
might  be  of  interest.  The  first  steamer  so  fitted  was  the  **  Claro," 
of  5350  tons  displacement,  and  from  9  to  9J  knots  speed,  and  her 
first  voyage  was  made  in  November,  1900.  That  vessel  was  fitted 
with  forced  draught,  a  superheater  in  the  funnel,  and  an  air  heater. 
The  funnel  gases  were  discharged  at  a  temperature  of  about  420"  F., 
the  temperature  of  the  steam  being  from  490°  to  520°  F.  at  the 
engine  stop- valve,  the  temperature  depending  to  some  extent  on  the 
quality  of  the  coal.  The  machinery  had  run,  with  the  exception  of 
some  few  initial  troubles,  without  any  bother  whatever.  The  troubles 
at  the  commencement  were  due  entirely  to  ignorance  of  the  require- 
ments imposed  by  the  dryness  of  the  steam  at  the  above  tempera- 
tiure ;  but  having  overcome  these,  no  more  trouble  had  been 
experienced  than  with  ordinary  machinery.  The  steam  pressure 
was  nominally  200  lbs.  per  square  inch,  the  engineer  usually 
working  with  about  195  lbs.  on  the  boiler  and  190  lbs.  on  the 
engine,  the  superheat  being  thus  about  120°  F.  average  in  the  h.p. 
cylinder.  The  vessel  having  given  very  satisfactory  results,  it 
was  decided  to  fit  a  superheater  in  the  "  Colorado,"  a  vessel  of  8400 
tons  displacement  and  11 J  knots  speed,  employed  in  the  Atlantic 
trade.  This  was  done  in  1902,  and  the  vessel  had  been  running 
with  the  superheater  since  March  of  that  year.  The  boilers  were 
worked  with  natural  draug-ht,  and  a  temperature  of  500''  F.  at  the 
engine  stop-valve  was  attained,  the  steam  pressure  being  160  lbs. 
per  square  inch.  He  enclosed  cards,  Figs.  48  and  44,  showing  records 
over  24  hours  of  the  recording  thermometer  fixed  for  a  voyage  to  the 
engine  stop-valve,  and  also  of  the  recording  pressure-gauge,  showing 
how  steady  both  the  steam  and  the  temperature  were  kept  in  prac- 
tical working.  The  fires  were  cleaned  in  the  usual  course.  The 
''  Aleppo,"  a  vessel  engaged  in  the  Indian  trade,  of  8600  tons  dis- 
placement, and  9  knots  speed,  was  next  fitted,  giving  similar  results 
to  the  above,  the  boilers  being  worked  with  natural  draught.  The 
**  Martello,"  a  vessel  similar  to  the  *•  Colorado,"  fitted  with  water- 
tube  boilers  of  the  Babcock  &  Wilcox  type,  under  natural  draught, 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM 


MrW.8, 


63 

Hide. 


I  ! 


c  c 
r  < 


Sg  i 


^  :? 


o 


64  SUPERHEATED    STEAM 

Mr  W.  S.  Hide. 

had  also  been  fitted  with  a  superheater  in  the  funnel,  and  had  just 
completed  her  first  voyage  since  being  fitted,  with  results  practically 
equal  to  those  of  the  **  Colorado.*'  The  steam  pressure  was  210  lbs. 
The  "Idaho,"  anew  vessel  of  11, 100  tons  displacement  and  Unknots 
speed,  had  just  been  completed  and  was  on  her  first  voyage.  The 
engines  were  of  the  quadruple-expansion  type,  working  at  a 
pressure  of  215  lbs.  per  square  inch  ;  the  boilers  had  forced  draught 
and  were  fitted  with  a  superheater  and  an  air  heater.  The  engineer 
reported  from  Boston  very  satisfactory  results,  the  steam  tempera- 
ture at  the  engine  stop-valve  being  from  510**  to  520°  F,,  and  the 
funnel  temperature  from  350°  to  360°  F.,  while  the  consumption  of 
coal  was  also  most  satisfactory.  There  had  been  no  deterioration 
of  the  superheater  tubes  whatever,  observed  in  the  '*  Claro,'^ 
although  she  had  now  been  running  for  upwards  of  three  years. 
It  was  contemplated  to  alter  more  of  the  ships  under  his  charge  as 
opportunity  offered,  the  results  obtained  in  others  fitted  with  super- 
heaters having  been  so  satisfactory.  He  purposely  gave  no  details 
of  the  coal  consumption  per  i.h.p.  as  the  vessels  under  his  charge 
appeared  extraordinarily  wasteful  compared  not  only  with  published 
accounts,  but  also  with  statements  he  had  heard  in  connection 
with  other  ships,  viz.,  consumptions  as  low  as  IJ  lbs  per  i.h.p. 
Seeing  that  their  vessels  included  nearly  all  the  most  eminent 
firms  of  engineers  on  the  N.E.  Coast  as  builders  of  the  propelling 
machinery,  he  could  only  come  to  the  conclusion  that  as  the  coal 
could  not  very  well  deteriorate  on  being  put  on  board  their  ships, 
nor  the  water  be  more  difficult  to  evaporate  in  their  boilers,  their 
vessels  must  be  very  fortunate  in  requiring  so  much  less  h.p.  to 
drive  them,  and  that  the  economy  in  power  fully  compensated  for 
the  apparent  extravagance  of  the  machinery.  In  the  working  of 
their  vessels  the  consumption  per  day,  or  per  voyage,  was  foimd  to 
compare  very  favourably  with  that  of  other  similar  ships.  From 
careful  experiments  at  sea  with  measuring  tanks,  he  found  that 
very  few  bunker  coals,  as  usually  supplied  on  the  N.E.  Coast  to 
cargo  ships,  would  evaporate  more  than  from  7^  to  8 J  lbs.  of  water 
from  and  at  212°  F.,  and  he^  thought  there  were  very  few  of  the 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM  65 

Mr  W.  8.  Hide. 

ordinary'  type  of  triple-expansion  engines  as  usually  fitted,  having 
much  larger  cylinders  than  were  necessary  for  the  economical  pro- 
duction of  the  requisite  power,  using  less  than  from  15J  to  16  lbs.  of 
water  per  i.h.p.  per  hour,  including,  of  course,  auxiliaries,  leaks  from 
glands,  etc. ,  and  the  steering  engine.  He  would  leave  those  interested 
to  calculate  the  coal  per  i.h.p.  from  these  figures,  as  he  had  rather 
digressed  from  superheating.  As  to  the  economy  of  superheating, 
a  saving  of  from  14  per  cent,  to  17  per  cent,  could  be  safely 
reckoned  on,  depending  to  a  large  extent  on  the  conditions  and  on 
the  type  of  machinery  (he  referred  to  triple-  and  quadruple- 
expansion  engines  only,  as  he  had  had  no  experience  of  superheat 
with  other  types),  but  more  than  that  he  could  not  estimate  having 
gained  by  superheating.  Speaking  approximately,  he  found  that  it 
took  about  from  70°  to  80°  F.  of  superheat  to  get  the  steam  dry  at 
the  H.p.  exhaust,  and  any  superheat  above  that  figure  was  available 
for  the  next  cylinder.  The  difiFerence  in  the  running  of  the 
engines  with  superheated  and  saturated  steam  was  very  marked  ; 
directly  the  former  was  turned  on  all  leakages  of  water  at  the 
glands  were  stopped,  and  the  engine  ran  quite  dry.  The  oil  used 
for  lubrication  was  a  specially  made  pure  hydro-carbon  oil,  having 
a  flash  point  of  about  700°  F.,  and  it  had  given  most  satisfactory 
results ;  the  amount  used  in  an  engine  of  about  1800  i.h.p.  being 
about  two  quarts  per  24  hours,  including  that  for  swabbing  all  rods. 
He  had  been  much  interested  in  Professor  Watkinson's  remarks  re 
the  S.S.  *•  Yarmouth,"  and  should  be  glad  if  he  could  give  the 
temperature  of  the  steam  at  the  engine  stop-valve  and  the  steam 
pressure.  The  reason  he  asked  was  that  the  superheating  surface 
appeared  to  be  very  limited  for  2000  i.h.p.,  and  if  the  tubes  were 
so  close  together  as  described,  he  thought,  judging  from  his  experi- 
ence, that  they  would  soon  soot  up.  He  presumed,  from  the 
ownership,  that  the  vessel  was  on  a  trade  requiring  only  a  few 
hours*  run,  and  was  supplied  with  Welsh  coal,  and  if  so,  there 
would  perhaps  hardly  be  time  for  much  soot  to  deposit,  but  with 
vessels  running  on  long  trades  with  poor  coal,  he  was  afraid  that 
the  draught  would  very  soon  be  entirely  stopped.     A  njore  scientific 

5 


66  SUPERHEATED    STEAM 

HrW.  8.  Hide. 

and  accurate  statement  of  economy  might  have  been  expected  from 
anyone  of  Professor  Watkinson's  reputation,  than  when  he  stated 
that  the  "Yarmouth  "  showed  22  per  cent,  economy  as  compared 
with  a  sister  ship  in  a  run  from  Dundee  to  Harwich.  To  those 
familiar  with  ships  the  fallacy  of  such  a  comparison  was  apparent, 
and  they  would  not  be  misled;  but  there  were  others  who  might  be, 
and  he  would  advise  those  not  to  base  any  calculations  on  obtaining 
such  an  economy  without  a  more  detailed  account  of  experiments 
with  and  without  superheat  on  the  same  vessel,  all  other  conditions 
being  the  same,  more  especially  the  quality  of  the  coal  and  the 
firemen.  Perhaps  Professor  Watkinson  could  supply  these  figures. 
If  Mr  Doddrell  would  give  some  few  details  of  the  two  vessels  he 
mentioned,  it  would  no  doubt  be  of  interest  to  compare  them  with 
those  he  had  given  particulars  of.  In  conclusion,  he  might  say 
that  his  experience  taught  him  that  triple-  and  quadruple-expansion 
marine  engines  could  be  safely  worked  without  trouble  when  using 
superheated  steam  up  to  520"*  F.;  that  a  considerable  economy  was 
attained,  and  that  the  installation  paid  On  vessels  making  voyages 
occupjdng  any  considerable  time,  or  running  any  considerable 
distance.  He  also  thought  it  would  be  worth  while  for  the 
Admiralty  to  consider  the  use  of  superheated  steam  when  running 
at  the  low  powers  usually  required  at  cruising  speeds  in  battleships 
and  cruisers,  as  he  felt  certain  the  economy  would  be  quite  worth 
the  small  expenditure  involved  and  the  space  occupied. 

Mr  H.  Cruse  (Manchester)  observed  that  this  phase  of  steam 
engineering,  although  it  had  been  the  subject  of  experiment  and 
discussion  for  upwards  of  a  century  and  a  half,  was  still  indiffer- 
ently followed  by  the  average  engineer.  From  the  historical  point 
of  view,  he  wouJd  suggest  that  Joseph  Hately  was  one  of  the  first 
in  this  country  to  advocate  the  cause  of  superheating.  It  was 
believed  that  he  had  been  experimenting  upon  superheated  steam 
prior  to  1780;  certainly  he  patented  in  1786  an. improved  boiler, 
and  claimed  great  economy  from  '*  surcharging''  or  "  rarefying  *' 
the  steam.  Concerning  the  use  of  superheated  steam,  and  the 
higher  efficiency  obtained  from  it  in  the  cylinder,   it  was  now 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM  67 

Mr  H.  Cruae. 

becoming  generally  recognised  that  the  chief  advantage,  if  not  the 
whole,  of  superheating  was  derived  from  the  following  effects, 
obtained  by  and  in  the  process  of  superheating : — 

1.  The  '*  wet  "  steam  from  the  boiler  was  thoroughly  dried; 

it  was  fully  saturated  with  heat  and  subsequently  super- 
heated. 

2.  Condensation  between  boiler  and  engine  was  eliminated. 

3.  When  sufficient  superheat  had  been  added,  the  steam  was 

carried  at  full  saturation  to  cut-off  in  the  cylinder. 

During  these  three  periods  the  superheat  would  have  performed  its 
natural  functions  of  diminishing  the  rate  of  heat  radiation  in  the 
pipes ;  of  sacrificing  itself,  instead  of  the  latent  heat  in  the  steam, 
to  give  out  whatever  heat  might  pass  in  such  radiation ;  and  of 
yielding  itself  to  reheating  and  drying  the  valves,  ports,  and 
cylinder  metals,  etc.,  until  by  the  time  cut-off  had  been  reached 
the  superheat  would  have  vanished  and  left  the  steam  at  its  fullest 
power,  saturated  according  to  the  pressure  and  in  corresponding 
volume.  Incidentally,  superheat  also  reduced  leakage  in  the 
reciprocating  engine.  Loss  by  leakage  appeared  to  increase  in 
ratio  with  the  wetness  fraction  of  the  steam.  Might  not  both 
Talve  and  cylinder  leakage  be  attributed  to  purely  mechanical 
action  ?  Might  it  not  be  that  in  both  cases  it  arose  from  creeping 
and  over-carriage  by  the  slide-valve  and  piston,  of  the  film  of  water 
on  which  they  both  ride,  and  which  was  deposited  by  condensation 
and  continuously  replenished  ?  He,  therefore,  suggested  that  the 
thermodynamic  equation  should  not  enter  into  the  consideration  of 
superheat.  The  functions  stated  above  would  seem  to  be  the  only 
really  valuable  ones  which  it  performed.  It  did  not  add  to  the 
intrinsic  power  of  the  steam  ;  on  the  contrary,  the  steam  was 
expanded  by  it  and  contained  less  heat  in  a  given  volume.  In  the 
cylinder  the  higher  temperature  limit  of  the  range  should  be  taken 
as  the  temperature  of  the  saturated  steam  and  not  of  the  super- 
heat ;  the  power  exerted  behind  the  piston  during  admission  was 
that  of  displacement  by  the  steam  forming  in  the  boiler,  and  the 


68  SUPERHEATED    STEAM 

Mr  H.  Cruse. 

work  efifected  during  expansion  was  effective  from  the  pressure  and 
volume  of  steam  at  cut-off.  It  might  be  advanced  that  super- 
heating could  be  advantageously  carried  through  expansion.  He 
doubted  whether  under  actual  working  conditions  this  could 
be  done  on  a  large  scale,  and,  if  possible,  he  questioned  the 
advantage  to  \>e  gained  from  doing  it.  Certainly,  some  engineers 
had  remarked  that  the  efficiency  curve  ceased  to  all  intents  and 
purposes  to  rise  after  a  temperature  of  superheat  of  250°  P.  had 
been  reached  in  steam  supplied  directly  to  the  cylinder,  t.c., 
working  without  re-heating  arrangements.  Could  the  increase  in 
volume  or  expansion  by  superheating  be  considered  an  advantage  ? 
Was  it  not  rather  a  necessary  outcome  of  the  increase  in  tempera- 
ture without  rise  in  pressure  ?  If  the  superheat  did  not  disappear 
by  reason  of  the  special  functions  performed,  and  with  the  super- 
heat the  excess  volume  :  Would  not  the  size  of  the  cylinder  require 
to  be  increased  to  effect  a  given  work?  He  ventured  to  think 
Fig.  45  supplied  an  answer  to  these  queries.  It  should  always  be 
remembered  that  **heat"  was  the  "power-giver,"  and  steam 
merely  the  medium  of  transmission  from  the  furnace  to  the  motor. 
Concerning  the  specific  heat  of  superheat,  the  value  generally 
adopted  no  longer  stood  unquestioned  for  the  higher  reaches  of 
temperature.  Between  150°  F.  and  300°  F.  of  superheat,  with 
steam  at  180  lbs.  working  pressure,  the  specific  heat  should  be 
placed  somewhere  near,  if  not  above,  0*550.  If  he  remembered 
rightly  Regnault  fixed  this  specific  heat  at  0*4805  for  saturated 
steam  and  steam  superheated  to  low  temperatures  only ;  he  also 
found  that  not  until  he  had  added  some  18°  F.  of  superheat  had 
he  finally  overcome  the  moisture  in  suspension.  Berthelot,  on  the 
other  hand,  stated  that  the  specific  heat  of  the  gases  rose  with 
the  temperature.  Treating  superheated  steam  in  the  higher 
temperatures  as  a  gas  or  compound  of  gases,  it  would  be  interest- 
ing if  scientists  worked  out  the  grades  of  specific  heats,  say  to 
500°  F.  of  superheat. 

P  V  Diagram  showing : — 

1st.  For  saturated  steam  at  150  lbs.  working  pressure. 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM  69 

MrH.  CroM. 

2nd.^For  steam  at  same  pressure,  superheated  300*  F,  the  points 
at  which  cut-off  would  be  necessary  to  allow  admission  of 
that  volume  of  steam  in  each  state  to  supply,  in  both  caseSi 
an  equal  value  of  heat  to  the  engine  cylinder — assuming,  in 
both  cases,  no  heat-loss  during  admission. 

Cylinder — Diameter,  24  inches. 

Net  length  of  stroke,  4  feet. 
Clearances  neglected. 


Pressure  A 


« 

in 
£ 

O 


(0  375)  B      C  (0  454; 


(■  -  Sar"*  Sream  - 

(-  2075  6  B.Th  U.  ->\ 
e-  4  71  Cud  Peer  -  -  -^ 
^-        I  73  lbs      -    •->! 


f~  Superheated  300 
f---    2075-6   B  Th.U    ^ 
-  -     5  7P  Cub  Peer    -\ 
I  54  lbs      - 


ISTS. 


o 


k Lenqrh 


oF     Srroke  -    4    Peer 
Fig.  45. 


Steam— 1st,  150  lbs.  boiler  pressure  (165  lbs.  absolute)  =  366*  F. 
2nd,  150  „       „  „         superheated  300°  F.  =  666'  F. 

„       One  cubic  foot,  saturated  =  0*369  lb.    Heat  value  =  440-4 

B.Th.U. 
M        One  cubic  foot,  superheated  =  0-268   lb.      Heat  value 
363-2  B-Th.U. 

(Assuming  mean  specific  heat  for  this  range 
of  superheat  to  be  =  0-525.) 

Heat  value  admitted  =  2075*o  B.Th.U. 

6 


70  SUPERHEATED    StEAM 

MrH.  GnM. 

Steam — Saturated  steam  admitted  =  4-713  cubic  feet. 
„        Superheated  „  „         =  5.72      „       „ 

4-713  c.f. 


Admission— A  B,  saturated,  ,  ,     "*  '^?^'''-.. —   =  cut-off  at  0375 

4  ft.  -f-  24  m.  diam. 

of  stroke. 

5'72  c  f 
„  A  C,  superheated,  .-=- ,,  .  '  '  =  cut-off  atO'454 

4  ft.  -f-24in.  diam. 

of  stroke. 
Steam— Cubic  feet  per  lb.  weight,  saturated  =  2-72  =  1-733  lb. 
supplied. 
„         Cubic  feet  per  lb.  weight,  superheated  =  3*72  =  1*538  lb. 
supplied. 

The  outstanding  feature  of  the  Cruse  system  of  superheating,  as 
illustrated  in  Figs.  46,  47,  48,  and  49,  was  the  method  devised  for 


Fig.  46. — Thirty-two  Pipe  Superheater. 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM  71 

HrH.  Craae. 

controlling  the  temperature  of  the  superheat.  The  same  device  also 
served  to  preserve  the  tubes  from  being  overheated  at  critical 
periods,  say,  when  the  volume  of  steam  passing  through  them  was 
greatly  reduced,  or  when  steam  was  being  raised  after  lighting  up. 
The  controlling  element  consisted  of  a  stream  of  water  circulating 


Hfi- 

H 

I^^^^^^^^HV 

"^K 

^^^H 

m:  - 

• -^  ^k   - 

Fig.  47. — Sixteen  Pipe  Superheater. 

from  one  end  to  the  other  of  the  superheater  through  copper  pipes 
inside  the  steel  superheater  tubes.  As  would  be  seen  from  the 
illustrations,  the  weldless  steel  superheater  tubes  were  of  large 
bore,  6  inches  in  diameter ;  they  were  assembled  to  form  semi- 
independent  elements,  each  element  containing  from  6  to  16  pipes, 
and  the  number  of  elements  would  vary  according  to  the  import- 
ance of  the  apparatus.     The  elements  were  built  to  form  spirals, 


72  SUPERHEATED    STEAM 

MrH.  CruBe. 

and  this  gave  to  the  steam  a  fair  length  of  travel  in  the  super- 
heater. The  internal  water  or  controlling  pipes  were  of  solid 
drawn  copper,  and  followed  the  form  and  course  of  the  steam 
superheating  system.  In  the  flue-fired  superheater,  as  constructed 
to  operate  with  the  Lancashire  boiler,  the  steam  entered  the  super- 


Aj»A  '. 


Fig.  48. — Superheater  combined  with  Feed-Water  Heater. 

heater  at  the  back  and  travelled  zig-zag,  in  counter  current  to  the 
heating  gases,  to  the  front.  The  controlling  water  travelled  con- 
currently with  the  steam  from  back  to  front,  and  was  taken  firstly, 
from  the  boiler  water  space ;  secondly ^  from  the  economizers ;  thirdly, 
from  the  hotwell  or  cold  main  ;  and  after  travelling  the  various 
elements  of  the  apparatus,  was  collected  into  one  stream,  and 
entered,  or  re-entered,  the  water  space  of  the  boiler,  always  below 


;ipe  Mze. 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM  73 

MrH.CrttM. 

low  water  level.     The  factors  determining  the  use  and  proportion 
of     any    one     or    of    all     these     different     waters    were    the 
heaviness  of  the  firing,   the  weight  of  steam  to  be  passed,  and 
especially  the  maximum  temperature  of  superheat  required  to  be 
added  to  the  steam.    Where  high  temperatures  were  wanted  the 
circulating  water  taken  from  and  returned  to   the  water  space 
of  the  boiler  was  used  alone,   and  the  flow  was  regulated  or 
governed  by  a  steam  jet  connected   to  the  superheated  steam 
collector.     The  steam  jet  was  initially  set  as  might  be  required  to 
give  such  flow  of  water  as  would  allow  of  a  given  average  tempera- 
ture of  superheat,  after  which  the  governing  effect  became  auto- 
matic, balancing  the  water  flow  with  the  increase  and  fall  of 
velocity  and  kinetic  energy  of  the  superheated  steam.     In  the 
independently-fired  apparatus  the  superheater  proper  was  built  on 
lines  similar  to  the  flue-fired  type,  with  this  essential  difference,  that 
the  pipes  were  placed  horizontally,  and  the  steam  and  water  travelled 
from  the  collectors  and  distributers,  at  the  bottom,  to  the  collector  and 
drum  at  the  top  of  the  apparatus,  in  counter  current  to  the  heating 
gases.     The  controlling  medium  in  this  kind  of  apparatus  was  the 
feed- water,  primarily  that  from  the  economizers,  which,  intercepted 
m  its  travel  to  the  boilers,  was  passed  through  the  water  drums  at 
the  side,  on  top  and  at  the  back  of  the  furnace,  as  also  through 
the  internal  pipes  of  the  superheater,  and  was  therein  re-heated 
from    tbe^  temperature    at    which    it    was    delivered  from    the 
economizers  to  that  of  the  pressure  of  the  steam  in  the  boilers* 
Further   circulation    was    obtained    by  independent  downcomer 
pipes,  which  carried  water  from  the  top  storage  drums,  or  last  link 
of  the  reheating  chain,  to  the  bottom  receiver  drums.      This  flow 
was  regulated  by  steam  jets.      A  third,  and  perhaps  the  most 
powerful,  element  of  control  consisted  in  auxiliary  feed  pipes  to 
the  bottom  water  collector  of  the  superheater,  and  these  might  be 
connected  to  the  economizers,  to  the[hotwell,  and  to  the  cold  mains. 
It  would   be  readily  seen  that  the  quicker  the  flow   of  water 
through  the  pipes  and  the  lower  its  initial  temperature,  the  greater 
would  be  the  reducing  effect  upon  the  temperature  of  the  super- 

8 


74  SUPERHEATED    STEAM 

Mr  H.  Cruse. 

heated  steam.  The  elements  of  control  described  there  might  be 
operated  in  parallel  with  regulation  of  draught  and  of  firing.  The 
temperature  of  the  gases  from  the  superheater  furnaces  might  be 
placed  at  about  2,800°  F.— too  high  for  safe  application  to  super- 
heater tubes.  In  most  superheaters  the  necessary  reduction  of 
gas  temperature  was  obtained  by  an  elaborate  system  of  baffling, 
and  by  extensive  air  dilution.  This  was  wasteful,  and  as  a  conse- 
quenr»e  the  coal  efficiency  of  the  superheater  was  brought  down  to 
a  low  percentage.  In  the  Cruse  superheater  the  excess  heat 
in  the  gases  was  absorbed  by  the  water  system,  and  usefully 
employed  in  reheating  the  feed-water,  and  the  general  coal 
efficiency  of  the  apparatus  was  maintained  at  a  high  standard. 
This  apparatus  was  especially  designed  for  use  with  batteries  of 
water-tube  boilers,  and  to  them  it  proved  not  merely  a  steam 
superheater  but  also  a  useful  evaporative  auxiliary  and  standby, 
ever  ready  to  meet  overload  with  an  ample  supply  of  feed- water 
heated  to  the  steam  temperature.  The  water  drums  had  a 
containing  capacity  equal  to,  approximately,  one  hour's  feed  for 
the  battery  of  boilers  with  which  the  superheater  operated. 

Herr  Hans  Keisert  (Cologne)  considered  that  some  accoimt  of 
the  superheater  of  Szamatolski  was  necessary  to  complete  Mr 
Eowan's  paper.  This  superheater  consisted  primarily  of  two 
chief  parts,  a  system  of  U  -shaped  tubes  and  a  wrought  iron  steam 
chest,  into  which  all  the  superheating  tubes  opened,  as  illustrated 
in  Fig,  50.     The  steam  issuing  from  the  boiler  entered  through  the 


Fig.  60. 


SUPERHEATED    STEAM  75 

Herr  Hans  Beiaert. 

pipe  A  into  the  steam  chest,  D.      It  then  flowed  through  the 
U-shaped  tubes,  1,  2,  and  3,  and  was,  at  their  outlets,  1^  2^,  3^ 
guided  through  the  cap  K^  into  tubes  4  and  5,  from  which  it  issued 
into  the  cap  K^,  and  entered  tubes  6  and  7,  and  from  thence 
through  cap  K3  into  tube  8,  whence  again  it  issued  into  cap  K^, 
and  entered  tube  9,   from  which  it  was   conveyed  in  a  super- 
heated state  through  the  transmission  cap  B  to  the  outlet  pipe  B, 
and  onward  to  the  place  of  consumption.     The  caps  were  inside 
the  steam  chest,  and  were  therefore  under  working  pressure  on 
all  sides,  so  that  they  had  consequently  no  pressure  to  resist. 
There  was,  therefore,  the  special  advantage  that,  notwithstanding 
forced  circulation  in  a  required  direction,  there  was  no  need  for 
flanges  or  flanged  curves  and  caps  under  pressure,  such  as  were 
found  in  some  water-tube  boilers.    The  steam,  in  the  first  instance, 
passed  simultaneously  through  three  distinct  superheating  tubes, 
then  through  two  tubes  only,  and  finally  through  a  single  tube. 
In  order  to  get  the  steam  through  in  this  way,  the  steam  velocities 
must  increase  in  ratio  with  the  interdependent  tube  cross  sections. 
Assuming  that  the  steam  passed  through  the  first  three  tubes  with 
a  velocity  of  15  metres  per  second,  it  would  rush  through  the  next 
two  at  a  velocity  of  22^  metres,  and  at  a  velocity  of  45  metres 
through  the  last  single  tube.     The  velocities  increased,  therefore, 
with  the  superheating  temperatures,  and  this  could  be  effected  at 
once,  because  the  steam,  as  superheated,  assumed  the  properties 
of  a  gas  and  showed  hardly  any  trace  of  frictional  loss,  so  that 
there  could  be  no  danger  of  throttling  or  choking.     With  saturated 
steam,  on  the  other  hand,  extensive  throttling  was  set  up  as  soon 
as  the  speed  exceeded  a  certain  limit.     A  longer  steam  passage 
^as  secured  with  increasing  velocity  of  the  steam  in  the  super- 
heating tubes,  and,  in  consequence  of  its  accelerated  motion,  the 
steam  took  up  more  heat  units  from  the  combustion  gases,  which 
effected  better  cooling  of  the  tube-heating  surface,  and  made  for 
efficiency  and  durability  of  the  apparatus.     As  superheated  steam 
was  a  bad  conductor  of  heat,  in  ordinary  superheater  tubes  there 
were  different  degrees  of  temperature  at  the  tube  walls  and  in  the 


76  SUPERHEATED   STEAM 

Herr  Hans  Reiaert. 

centre.  The  tube  surfaces  were,  therefore,  not  fully  utilized,  and 
in  order  to  overcome  this  defect  a  simple  device  had  been  intro- 
duced in  this  superheater  to  cause  mixing  of  the  steam.  This  was 
shown  in  Fig.  61.    As  would  be  seen  from  the  illustration,  the 


Fig.  51. 

outside  layer  of  steam,  in  passing  along  the  tube  walls,  was  caught 
up  by  the  ring  R,  without  throttling  the  flow  of  steam,  and  was 
carried  into  the  centre  of  the  tube  through  four  channels  which 
opened  into  the  inner  tub^  r,  whilst  the  steam  flowed  along  the 
centre  and  was  conveyed  through  four  other  channels  to  the 
surface  of  the  tube.  After  a  certain  distance  the  same  process  was 
repeated  by  the  next  steam  mixer,  and  thus  any  degree  of  mixing 
could  be  attained  and  the  coolest  portions  of  the  steam  always 
brought  in  contact  with  the  tube  surfaces.  This  ensured  the 
greatest  amount  of  superheating,  because  the  heat  receptivity  of 
the  steam  was  in  direct  proportion  to  the  difference  between  its 
temperature  and  that  of  the  combustion  gases.  In  other  respects 
this  superheater  was  constructed  on  the  lines  of  good  water-tube 
boilers,  with  metal  to  metal  joints,  and  it  could  be  applied  to  any 
kind  of  boiler,  or  arranged  for  independent  firing. 

Professor  Storm  Bull  (University  of  Wisconsin)  observed  that 
the  subject  was  at  the  present  time  of  such  great  importance,  that 
it  deserved  the  closest  attention  of  all  engineers  interested  in  the 
steam  engine.  It  was  not  too  much  to  say  that  the  only  hope  for 
fairly  successful  competition  of  the  steam  engine  with  the  gas 
engine,  rested  in  the  use  of  highly  superheated  steam.  Without 
such  use  the  battle  was  already  lost,  as  evidenced  from  recent 
performances  of  gas  engines  in  connection  with  producer  plants. 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  77 

Prof*  Btonn  BnlL 

And  it  was  also   fairly  possible  that    the   steam   turbine,   also 
by  means  of  superheated  steam,  would  in  the  long  run,  in  a  ^eat 
many  instances,  prove  to  be  the  most  economical  steam  motor. 
Fortunately  for  the  steam  engine  and  for  the  manufacturers  of  the 
same,  there  would  always,  it  seemed  to  him,  be  a  large  field  open 
to  them,  provided  the  designers  kept  up  with  the  best  and  most 
progressive  ideas  with  respect  to  the  use  of  superheated  steam. 
For  ocean  going  steamers,   he  doubted  very  much  whether  for 
a  long  time  to  come  at  least,  either  the  steam  turbine  or  the  gas 
engine    would    become  a  real  competitor  of    the  reciprocating 
steam  engine.     It  was  therefore  probable  that  the  great  ship 
building  industry  of    Scotland,   which    the   Institution   so  ably 
represented,  would  not  feel  the  competition  of  the  gas  engine 
so  keenly  as  the  designers  of  the  stationary  steam  engine.      The 
very  rapid  increase  in  the  case  of  superheated  steam  during  the 
last  few  years,  was  in  itself  the  very  best  answer  to  the  question, 
so  often  repeated  in  technical  papers,  whether  there  really  was  an 
economy  in  its  use.      With  many  thousand  installations  all  of 
which  cost  a  good  deal  of  money,  it  would,  it  seemed,  be  foolhardy 
to  question  the  economy  of  the  investment  as  a  general  thing. 
When  to  this  were  added  the  results  of  a  very  large  number 
of    accurate  tests,   anybody  with    competent  insight    must    be 
convinced  that  the  superheater  had  come  to  stay.      The  question 
whether  one  had  the  right  to   expect  a  gain  in  economy  on 
theoretical  grounds,  seemed  to  be  a  secondary  one.      It  was  very 
likely  true  that  one  had  no  right  to  do  so,  neither  could  any  gain  be 
expected  from  the  compound  engine  as  compared  with  the  single- 
expansion  engine  on  theoretical  grounds,  but  nevertheless,  the 
gam  was  real,  and  it  was  on  that  side  that  the  practising  engineer 
was  looking.       The  reason  why  one  had  [the  right  to  expect 
an  increase  in  economy  by  superheated  steam,   was,   as   was 
well  known,   the  reduction  of  cylinder  condensation,  especially 
during  the  admission  period,  and  not  during  expansion  as  stated 
by  Bankine,  and  quoted  by  Mr  Eowan.      The  other  two  reasons 
given  by  Bankine  were  not  valid  at  the  present  time  at  least. 


78  SUPERHEATED   STEAM 

Prof.  Stonn  Ball. 

Superheated  steam  was  certainly  not  used  at  present  in  order 

to  raise  the  temperature  at  which  the  fluid  received  heat,  as 

everybody  knew  that  one  of  the  most  serious  objections  to  its  use 

had    been    the    high    temperature.       From    theoretical    reasons 

Bankine's  reason  had  of  course  its  validity.    Another  reason  given 

by  Eankine  to  diminish  the  density  of  the  steam,  seemed  now 

entirely  unimportant.     It  might  have   been  noticed    by  a  good 

many  that  in  various  editorials  in  technical  papers,  it  was  stated 

as  a  fact  that  a  separately  heated  superheater  could  never  be  a 

paying  investment,  that  the  only  manner  in  which  it  could  be  made 

to  pay,  was  to  instal  it  in  such  a  manner  that  the  temperature  of  the 

flue  gases  might  be  reduced  before  reaching  the  smoke  stack. 

Both  of  these  statements  were  wrong,  as  proved  by  various  tests 

of  separately  heated  superheater  plants  with  boilers  and  engines. 

The  trouble  was  that  these  editors  did  not  thoroughly  understand 

why  the  superheated  steam   showed   a  gain   in  practice.     The 

cylinder  condensation  depended  especially  on  the  temperature 

of  the  saturated  steam,  and  of  the  condenser,  as  well  as  the  cut-off. 

Theoretically  it  would  be  profitable  to  use  steam  of  very  high 

pressure,  and  an  early  cut-off.      But  because  of  the  condensation, 

this  cutoff  could  not  in  practice  be  made  so  short  as  to  get  the 

full  benefit  of  the  steam  pressure.     This  was  true  whether  it  was  a 

single  cylinder,  compound,  or  triple-expansion  engine.     What  one 

gained  by  the  increased  expansion  was  more  than  lost  by  the 

increased  condensation.     When  the  question  of  the  installation  of 

a  superheater  arose,  it  would  have  to  be  decided  whether  the 

increased  cost  of  producing  a  sufiiciently  superheated  steam  was 

less  than  the  waste  occasioned  by  the  cylinder  condensation.     As 

was    well     known,  this    cylinder    condensation    might    almost 

entirely  be  done  away  with  by  means  of  highly  superheated  steam, 

and  various  accurate  tests  had  shown  that  a  considerable  amount 

of  fuel  might  be  spent  to  produce  this  superheat  in  order  to  reduce 

the  cylinder  condensation,  and  that  there  still  would  be  left  quite 

a  margin  of  economy  in  favour  of  the  plant  using  superheated 

steam.     Very  frequently  the  temperature  of  the  fuel  gases  leaving 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  79 

Prof.  Btoim  Ball. 

the  boiler  could  not  be  lowered  without  impairing  the  draught. 
In  such  a  case  the  installation  of  a  superheater  in  the  boiler 
setting,  or  between  the  boiler  and  the  smoke  stack,  would  be 
worse  than  useless.  But  he  was  free  to  state  that  he  was  fully 
convinced  that  a  separately  heated  superheater  would  be  a  paying 
investment,  provided  that  economy  was  desired  and  that  the  cost 
of  coal  was  not  very  low.  Attention  .had  already  been  called  in 
the  discussion  to  the  fact  that  the  specific  heat  for  superheated 
steam,  as  computed  by  Eegnault,  had  too  low  a  value  for  steam 
superheated  to  the  extent  as  now  practised.  From  recent 
investigations,  it  seemed  that  there  could  not  be  any  doubt  what- 
soever, that  this  value  was  not  constant,  but  increased  with  the 
degree  of  superheat.  A  good  deal  more  work  was  needed  in  this 
direction  before  one  would  know  as  much  about  the  properties  of 
superheated  steam  as  one  now  knew  about  saturated  steam  ;  but, 
to  judge  from  the  amount  of  work  which  was  now  being  done  in 
this  direction,  especially  in  Germany,  it  would  not  be  so  very  long 
to  wait  before  the  whole  subject  would  be  thoroughly  cleared  up. 
Before  concluding,  he  desired  to  state  that  he  had  read  with  a 
great  deal  of  interest  both  the  excellent  paper  and  the  valuable 
discussion.  He  was  very  certain  that  no  timelier  subject  could  be 
taken  up  for  discussion. 

Mr  EowAN  in  reply  said  he  must  thank  the  Members 
for  the  favourable  reception  they  had  given  to  his  paper,  which 
was  intended  more  as  an  introduction  to  the  subject  than  as  an 
exposition  of  it ;  and  he  thought  the  Institution  was  to  be 
congratulated  upon  the  amount  of  interesting  information  which 
had  been  communicated  in  the  discussion.  The  description  of  the 
Cruse  system,  and  the  valuable  particulars  contributed  by 
Professor  Jamieson,  would  probably  be  considered  as  by  no  means 
the  least  interesting  part  of  that  information.  He  was  in  the 
fortunate  position  of  having  no  special  interest  in  any  superheater, 
80  that  he  endeavoured  to  give  effect  to  the  desire  that  all  should 
be  fairly  represented  and  discussed,  Mr.  Constantine  would  find 
at  page  12  of  the  paper,  that  mention  of  the  superheaters  having 


80  SUPERHEATED   STEAM 

MrBowan. 

** Field,"  or  more  properly  "Perkins,"  tubes  had  not  been  omitted. 
He  was  glad  that  Mr  Judd  had  expanded  the  comparison  between 
the  engines  using  superheated  and  those  using  saturated  steam, 
referred  to  in  the  paper,  because  in  it  the  object  was  not  to  demonstrate 
the  value  of  superheated  steam  over  saturated  steam,  but  was 
only  to  show  that  statements  had  been  made  both  for  and  against 
that  contention.  A  demonstration  would  have  required  a  much 
longer  paper.  The  remarks  of  Professor  Watkinson  as  to  the 
scoring  of  piston  rods,  and  other  parts,  showed  the  advance  that 
had  been  made  in  the  use  of  superheated  steam,  because  that 
which  used  to  be  one  of  the  great  evils  charged  against  it  was 
now  not  only  overcome,  but  was  actually  reversed  in  its  favour. 
No  doubt  in  early  days  there  were  chemical  actions  entering  into 
the  problem,  but  it  was  satisfactory  to  see  that  these  had  been 
comprehended,  and  that  their  cause  had  been  removed.  Professor 
Watkinson  disagreed  with  the  quotation  from  Professor  Thurston ; 
but  Professor  Watkinson  had  omitted  to  notice  the  way  in  which 
the  case  was  put  on  page  19  of  the  paper.  Professor  Thurston 
merely  said  that  ''if  steam  at  the  pressures  and  temperatures 
quoted,  were  worked  in  a  Carnot  cycle,"  the  result  would  be 
so  and  so.  The  application  of  the  Carnot  cycle  of  reasoning 
to  engines  using  superheated  steam  had,  however,  also  been  made 
by  Professor  Kipper,  and  Professor  W.  C,  Unwin  said  of  it 
that  "  he  did  not  sensibly  differ  from  the  use  made  by  Professor 
Ripper,  of  the  Carnot  measure  of  efficiency."  So  that  apparently, 
as  of  old,  **  doctors  differ."  Mr  Cleghom  also  challenged  some 
of  the  statements  made  in  the  paper,  but  all  he  could  say  was 
that  he  had  quoted  the  actual  words  of  Professor  Eipper,  in 
describing  his  temperature-entropy  diagram,  and  before  doing 
so,  he  had  read  the  criticism  in  the  discussion  on  his  paper. 
That  criticism]  was  not  so  severe  as  Mr.  Cleghom  imagined, 
because,  although  Professor  Unwin  objected  to  the  introduction 
of  the  term  "mean-temperature,"  yet  he  said  **no  doubt  the 
term  was  used  in  a  sense  which  involved  no  error ;  but  there  were 
all  sorts  of  '  means '.      The  mean  temperature  intended  was  not. 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  81 

MrBowan. 

418    might    be    supposed,    the    mean    of    the    initial    and    final 
temperatures,  which  would  be  wrong."    In   replying,  Professor 
Bipper  said  that   *'  he   did  not   think    that  his   use  of   '  mean 
temperature  *  would  be  misunderstood,  as  suggested  by  Professor 
Unvrin:  besides  if  it  were,  the  error  would  be  extremely  small 
within  ordinary  ranges  of  temperature.  * '  Under  these  circumstances 
he  decided  to  retain  Professor  Eipper's  explanation  of  the  diagram, 
but  he  would  have  been  glad  if  Mr.  Cleghorn  had  seen  his  way 
to  contribute  a  more  accurate  description.     With  regard  to  the 
figures  on  page  18,  the  calculation  was  originally  Eankine's,  but 
the  form  given  to  the  expression  of   thermodynamic  efficiency 
in  Professor  Thurston's  paper  seemed  to  be  slightly  more  simple, 
than  that  in  Eankine's  "  Steam  Engine,"  and  therefore,  he  made 
use    of    it   in   preference    to   taking    Eankine's    figures.       The 
•calculation  was  not  expressed  in  precisely  the  same  way  in  both 
works.      Mr.  Eiekie  in  his  interesting  remarks,  referred  to  several 
important  subjects,  which  were  allied  to  that  with  which  the 
paper  was  more  directly  concerned.     With  regard  to  the  forms  of 
.  superheaters,  while  it  might  be  difficult  to-day,  to  suggest  any- 
thing very  novel,  yet  new  methods  of  working  might  be  proposed, 
as  the  various  problems  connected  with  superheated  steam  became 
better  understood.     The   ingenious   system   of   Mr.   Cruse,    was 
an  illustration   of  this,  as  Were  also  some  points  in   Professor 
Watkinson's   and  Mr.  Eeisert's  designs,  which   dealt   with   the 
-conditions  of  heat  transmission.     These  conditions  really  explained 
why  Mr.  Eiekie  did  not  obtain  a  better  result  from  the  water-tubes 
across  the  fire-box  of  his  locomotive.  These  tubes  were  badly  placed 
for  the  generation  of  dry  steam,  and  any  steam  which  was  formed 
in  them  was  exposed  to  the  cooling  action  of  the  tie  rods  conducting 
heat  from  it,  or  from  the  water  in  the  tube,  to  the  outside  shell  of 
the  boiler,  after  the  analogy  of  the  inner  tube  in   the   Cruse 
superheater,  the  steam  being  also  delivered  against  the  outside 
plates,  as  well  as  under  the  water  there.     Moreover,  any  heat 
iwhich  was  taken  up  by  these  water  tubes  diminished  the  power 
*of  the  hot  gases  to  transmit  heat  efficiently  in  their  subsequent 


82  SUPERHEATED    STEAM 

Hr  Bowinn. 

passage  through  the  smoke  tubes.  These  water-tubes,  therefore, 
really  acted  in  the  opposite  way  to  the  blocking  up  of  some  of  the 
smoke  tubes  which  had  been  found  in  several  experiments  to 
increase  the  efficiency  of  the  surface  of  the  remaining  tubes. 
He  hoped  that  the  note  sounded  in  Mr.  Constantine's  remarks, 
would  not  be  forgotten,  and  that  interest  in  the  various  questions, 
connected  with  superheated  steam  would  increase.  Little  had 
been  done  as  yet  to  determine  the  exact  specific  heat,  the  effect 
of  augmented  volume,  and  other  fundamental  matters.  In 
his  recent  **»Tames  Forrest"  lecture,  Mr.  W.  H.  Maw  remarked, 
that  **  A  serious  defect  in  a  very  large  number  of  the  experiments 
on  superheated  steam  hitherto  carried  out,  is  that  they  have  been 
made  on  the  use  of  such  steam  in  more  or  less  defective  engines 
of  ordinary  design,  primarily  intended  to  be  worked  with  saturated 
steam.  No  doubt  the  results  so  obtained  are  of  interest,  but 
to  determine  the  full  economic  value  of  superheated  steam  it  must 
be  employed  in  engines  specially  constructed  for  its  use,  both 
as  regards  the  materials  employed,  and  the  design  of  many 
important  details.  And  in  connection  with  this  matter,  we . 
are  much  in  want  of  a  thorough  determination  of  the  physical 
properties  of  superheated  steam  extending  over  the  range  of 
temperatures  and  pressures  likely  to  be  employed  in  practice. 
.  .  .  Equally  desirable  also,  is  the  thorough  investigation  of  the 
action  of  steam,  in  the  various  t3rpes  of  turbine-motors  ;  a  matter 
which  has,  as  yet,  been  by  no  means  dealt  with  so  exhaustively  at 
its  great,  and  rapidly  growing  practical  importance  deserves, 
and  respecting  which  many  lessons  undoubtedly  remain  to  be 
learnt."  It  was  satisfactory  to  learn  that  an  investigation  into 
the  specific  heat  of  superheated  steam,  was  being  carried  out  by 
Mr.  H.  Cruse,  and  that  some  careful  tests  with  a  special  steam 
engine,  carried  out  independently  by  Professor  Schroter  and  by  Mr 
Vingotte,  were  recorded  in  a  recent  bulletin  of  the  Belgian  Elec- 
trical Society,  and  some  also  in  a  paper  read  by  Professor  Jacobus, 
to  the  American  Society  of  Mechanical  Engineers,  and  it  was  to  be 
hoped  that  such  investigations   would   speedily  be    multiplied.* 


SUPERHEATED   STEAM  83 

MrBowan. 

Professor  Storm  Bull's  interesting  communication  also  showed 
that  the  subject  was  attracting  investigation  amongst  American 
engineers  and  men  of  science.  In  connection  with  this  subject, 
much  importance  attached  to  the  introduction  of  nickel  steel 
tubes,  containing  from  23  to  30  per  cent,  of  nickel,  which 
had  been  found  to  have  nearly  3  times  the  life  of  mild  carbon 
steel  tubes,  under  the  actions  likely  to  be  met  with  in  superheaters 
and  boilers.  These  tubes  were  made  in  France,  Germany,  and 
America,  but  as  yet,  not  in  Britain,  although  their  advantages  had 
been  pointed  out  by  Mr.  A.  F.  Yarrow  in  a  paper  read  to  the 
institution  of  Naval  Architects  (Vol.  41,  pp,  333-346),  and  by  Mr. 
A.  L.  Colby  in  a  paper  read  to  the  American  Society  of  Naval 
Architects  and  Engineers  at  their  11th  Annual  Meeting. 

The  Chairman,  Mr  E.  Hall-Bbown,  Vice-President,  felt  sure 
that  all  present  would  join  in  according  a  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr 
Bowan  for  his  paper,  which  was  a  valuable  one  not  only  for  the 
information  it  contained,  but  for  the  illustrations  accompanying 
it,  and  also  for  the  additional  information  which  it  had  brought 
out  in  the  discussion 

The  vote  of  thanks  was  carried  by  acclamation. 


•  Messrs.  Careis  of  Ghent,  Belgium,  now  guarantee  a  consumption  of  8  8 
lbs.  per  H.p.  at  a  prevure  of  160  lbs.  and  a  temperature  of  350°  C.  on 
entering  the  high-pressure  cylinder,  or  370°  C.  on  leaving  the  superheater. 
The  engine  was  a  triple-expansion  one  of  1200  H.P.  the  intermediate  and 
low-pressure  cylinders  being  steam  jacketed. 


IMPROVEMENTS  IN  VALVE-GEABS. 
By  Mr  John  Eiekie  (Member). 

(SEE  PLATES   V.    AND    VI.) 


Bead  27th  October,  1903. 


The  author  desires  to  emphasize  the  point  that  this  paper  is  not 
presented  in  the  light  of  an  historical  treatment  of  the  subject,  in 
fact  such  a  treatment  would,  in  his  opinion,  be  of  less  interest  to 
the  majority  of  those  present  than  it  is  hoped  the  method  selected 
may  be. 

The  numerous  attempts  which  have  been  made  to  introduce  an 
improved  valve-gear,  superior  to  any  other  already  in  use,  are  in 
themselves  proof  that  there  still  exists  room  for  further  improve- 
ment and  scope  for  new  ideas,  which,  although  in  a  great  measure 
springing  from  principles  well  known,  may  still  retain  in  a  more 
or  less  degree  the  essence  of  novelty,  and  so  have  the  effect  of 
advancing  the  objects  in  view  by  all  who  set  themselves  the  task 
of  designing  a  new  valve-gear. 

Practically  speaking,  there  are  on  the  market  only  two  kinds  of 
valve-gear,  of  the  class  in  which  only  one  valve  is  used,  which  may 
be  said  to  be  generally  adopted  as  standard  types,  viz.,  the 
Stephenson  and  the  Gooch  link  type.  This  latter  appears  to  have 
received  the  most  attention  from  inventors  of  the  many  various 
forms  of  radial  valve-gears.  It  is,  moreover,  supposed  by  some  to 
be  in  its  best  form  when  a  separate  lever  is  used  to  control  the  lap 
and  lead,  as  it  then  gives  a  somewhat  longer  dwelling  motion  to 
the  valve  at  certain  parts  of  the  stroke.  In  practice,  however, 
this  dwelling  movement  appears  to  be  of  no  advantage  whatever, 
indeed,  the  Stephenson  link  motion  is  still  able  to  hold  its  own 
against  the  best  gears  on  the  market,  and  is  still  by  a  great 
number  of  engineers  preferred  to  that  of  the  best  radial  gears,  such 
as  the  "Joy  "  and  "  Walschaert,"  &c.,  for  locomotive  work. 

A  little  consideration  will  perhaps  make  clear  why  it  is  that  no 


IMPROVEMENTS    IN    VALVE-GEARS  85 

particular  t3rpe  of  gear  has  a  decided  advantage  as  regards  economy 
in  steam  consumption  over  that  of  any  other. 

It  is  well  known  that  the  movement  conveyed  to  the  valve 
of  a  horizontal  engine  is  the  resultant  of  two  movements, 
viz.,  a  horizontal  one,  giving  a  movement  to  the  valve  equal 
to  twice  the  lap  plus  the  total  lead,  and  a  vertical  one 
to  give  the  port  opening.  These  movements  can  be  con- 
veyed to  the  valve  either  in  combination  or  separately. 
The  movement,  when  combined,  can  be  used  either  with  a 
Stephenson  or  Gooch  link,  rocking  the  same  about  its  centre  to 
give  the  port  opening,  and  at  the  same  time  giving  it  a  backward 
and  forward  motion  to  control  the  lap  and  lead.  These  move- 
ments can  be  had  from  the  use  of  one  or  two  eccentrics  or  from 
the  connecting-rod  or  crank-pin  or  any  other  part  of  the  engine 
which  will  give  a  combined  vertical  and  horizontal  movement. 
Similarly  the  movement  can  be  actuated  separately,  using  a 
separate  lever  to  control  the  lap  and  lead.  The  results,  however, 
are  practically  the  same  as  regards  economy  in  steam  consumption. 
Were  models  of  all  the  numerous  gears  placed  side  by  side,  and 
the  levers  of  each  placed  in  mid-position,  it  would  be  found  that 
every  one  would  give  a  movement  to  the  valve  equal  to  the  lap 
and  lead  only.  Placing  the  lever  forward  to  cut  off  at  20  per  cent, 
of  the  stroke  of  the  piston,  would  give  a  slight  advantage  in  favour 
of  the  radial  type  of  gear,  owing  to  the  longer  dwelling  motion 
claimed.  This,  however,  is  of  no  practical  value,  as  the  port 
opening  is  only  slightly  in  excess  of  the  lead,  in  fact,  the  advantage 
of  the  dwelling  movement  is  balanced  by  the  increased  port 
opening  of  the  Stephenson  link,  which  has  a  greater  lead  than  the 
radial  type  when  linked  up.  Generally  speaking,  therefore,  there 
is  practically  no  advantage  in  using  any  particular  type  of  gear, 
except  from  its  suitability  for  any  special  design  of  engine.  In  this 
connection  a  good  deal  of  importance  is  often  attached  to  the 
number  of  pins  and  working  parts  when  selecting  a  valve-gear. 
Curiously  enough,  in  actual  practice  this  is  of  minor  importance  as 
regards  wear  and  tear  of  machinery.    A  valve-motion  having  twelve 


86  IMPROVEMENTS   IN    VALVE-GEARS 

or  more  pins,  if  properly  designed  and  made  from  the  best  material, 
will  practically  last  quite  as  long  and  give  no  more  trouble  than 
one  with  six  or  even  a  less  number  of  pins.  The  chief  object  to  be 
aimed  at  in  selecting  a  valve-gear  should,  therefore,  be  to  get  one 
that  will  give  the  best  possible  distribution  of  steam  in  the  cylinders, 
so  as  to  effect  a  decided  gain  in  economy  in  steam  consumption  ; 
plainly  speaking  to  get  the  greatest  possible  amount  of  work  out  of 
the  steam  before  exhaust  takes  place. 

The  object  of  this  paper  is  to  represent  the  advantage  to  be  gained 
by  a  method  of  securing  a  long  dwelling  movement  to  the  valve, 
not  at  the  ends  of  the  stroke,  but  at  half-stroke  of  the  valve. 
Before  describing  the  gear  in  question,  it  may  not  be  out  of  place 
to  say  tbat  similar  to  most  improvements,  the  old  adage  of 
**  Necessity  being  the  Mother  of  Invention  "  applies  in  this  case. 
The  necessity  for  improvements  in  valve-gears  was  forcibly  brought 
to  the  notice  of  the  author  when  conducting  experiments  with  his 
continuous  expansion  system  as  applied  to  compound  locomotives, 
which  requires  that  steam  should  be  cut  ofiF  very  early  in  two  high 
pressure  cylinders  as  against  the  existing  practice  of  cutting  off 
late  in  one  high  pressure  cylinder.  It  was  found  from  actual 
results,  when  using  both  the  Stephenson  and  radial  type  of  gear, 
that  the  benefit  which  might  have  been  expected  from  the  use  of  a 
wide  range  of  expansion  due  to  the  very  early  cut-off  was  not 
realised,  owing  to  the  exhaust  passages  of  the  high  pressure 
cylinders  being  closed  too  early,  thereby  boxing  up  the  steam  in 
the  high  pressure  cylinders  instead  of  allowing  the  same  to  expand 
freely  to  do  work  on  a  large  low  pressure  piston.  It  was  this 
defect  in  valve-gears  that  induced  the  author  to  go  carefully  into 
the  problem  of  devising  some  means  of  improving  not  any  one 
particular  type,  but  all  forms  of  valve-gears. 

From  Fig.  1  it  will  be  noted  that  a  separate  lever  is  made  use 
of  to  control  the  lap  and  lead.  At  first  sight  one  would  naturally 
take  it  to  be  a  combination  of  the  ''Joy"  and  *•  Walschaert " 
form  of  gear,  but  this  is  not  the  case,  for  the  improvement  can  be 
applied  to  the  Stephenson  link  motion  and  to  many  others.      The 


IMPROVEMENTS   IN    VALVE-GEARS  87 

improvement  claimed  is  attained  by  varying  the  length  of  the 
short  arm  of  the  lap  and  lead  lever  during  the  stroke.  It  vnll  be 
noted  that  this  is  accomplished  by  allowing  the  short  arm  to  slide 
in  a  slipper  block  rocking  in  a  bracket,  the  latter  being  a  fixture. 
This  has  virtually  the  effect  of  reducing  the  length  of  the  short 
arm  to  a  minimum  when  the  piston  is  at  half-stroke.  Thus  a  long 
dwelling  motion  is  given  to  the  valve,  which  allows  the  steam  to 
do  work  on  the  piston  during  a  greater  length  of  the  stroke,  and 
also  keeps  the  exhaust  passage  open  later  at  the  opposite  side  of 
the  piston.  Any  delay  in  the  movement  at  half- stroke  has  to  be 
made  good  when  nearing'each  end  of  the  stroke,  and  this  arrange* 
ment  results  in  accelerating  the  movement  of  the  valve  to  steam 
admission  and  exhaust,  so  that  it  becomes  practicable  to  have  a 
large  port  opening,  giving  at  the  same  time  a  rapid  cut-off  when 
the  gear  is  linked  up.  These  points  can  clearly  be  seen  by 
following  the  movements  of  the  model.  Fig.  2  shows  the 
improvement  applied  to  the  "Walschaert"  form  of  gear;  Fig.  3 
that  to  the  Stephenson  link  ;  Fig.  4  shows  how  the  lever  can  be 
actuated  from  the  use  of  an  eccentric ;  Fig.  5  shows  the  paths  of 
pins  A,  B,  and  C  in  mid-gear,  with  20,  40,  70,  and  80  per  cent, 
cut-off;  Fig.  6  illustrates  diagrams  taken  with  full  sized  models ; 
the  broken  lines  were  obtained  from  the  Walschaert  motion  with 
20^  per  cent,  cut-off  and  full  gear,  the  plain  lines  were  obtained 
after  the  gear  was  modified,  as  shown  in  Fig.  2  ;  and  Fig.  7  shows 
the  enhanced  port  opening  and  early  cut-off  resulting  from  raising 
the  bracket,  which  virtually  lengthens  the  short  arm  of  the  lap  and 
lead. 

A  novel  feature  in  the  invention  is  that  the  lead  can  be  varied 
while  the  engine  is  at  work.  This  is  achieved  by  making  the  slipper- 
block  bracket  movable  vertically  by  a  screw  or  other  means.  For 
instance,  moving  the  bracket  upwards  virtually  has  the  effect  of 
lengthening  the  short  arm  of  the  lever,  and  so  correspondingly 
increasing  the  lead.  One  of  the  chief  benefits  to  be  derived  from 
this  is  that  a  greater  volume  of  steam  can  be  got  into  the  cylinders 
when  the  engine  is  running  linked  up.      It  is  needless  to  point  out 


88  IMPROVEMENTS   IN    VALVE-GEARS 

Mr  E.  Hall-Brown. 

that  any  increase  of  power  is  due  not  only  to  the  increased  amount 
of  steam  entering  the  cylinders,  but  also  from  the  extra  work  that 
can  be  got  out  of  the  same  before  exhaust  takes  place  plus  the  gain 
from  a  reduction  in  compression. 

The  advantage  this  gear  has  over  that  of  the  Corliss  or  Tripp  type 
is  that  neither  the  range  of  cut-off  nor  number  of  revolutions 
require  to  be  limited. 

In  conclusion,  the  author  would  like  to  point  out  that  this  improve-^ 
ment  in  valve-gear,  in  conjunction  with  his  continuous  expansion 
system,  opens  up  a  field  for  greatly  improving  all  multiple-expan- 
sion engines,  and  will  enable  his  compound  system  to  compete 
favourably  against  any  triple-expansion  engine. 

Discussian. 

Mr  E.  Hall-Brown  (Vice-President)  said  that  long  ago  he 
thought  he  had  finished  discussing  the  merits  of  radial  valve- 
gears.  There  were  those  present,  no  doubt,  who  had  gone 
through  the  period  of  valve-gear  invention  which  raged  in 
engineering  circles  about  20  years  ago,  and  who  then  had  as  much 
to  do  with  radial  valve-gears  as  to  last  them  quite  a  lifetime.  His 
feeling,  so  far  as  marine  engines  were  concerned,  was  that  no  one 
valve-gear  gave  any  better  results  than  another,  and  the  adoption 
of  any  special  gear  was  merely  a  matter  of  convenience  of  arrange- 
ment in  relation  to  the  general  design  of  the  engines.  Unfor- 
tunately, he  had  not  the  pleasure  of  hearing  Mr  Riekie's  paper 
read,  and  he  found  considerable  diflBculty  in  following  the  most 
interesting  part ;  he  referred  to  the  diagram  that  Mr  Riekie  gave  of 
the  valve-motion.  He  had  no  doubt  that  it  would  have  been  much 
clearer  had  he  heard  it  explained  by  Mr  Riekie,  but  in  the  state  in 
which  they  found  it  in  the  Transactions  he  was  afraid  that  very 
few  of  them  would  find  the  diagram  easy  to  follow.  He  was  not 
at  all  certain  that  he  followed  Mr  Riekie's  meaning,  and  it  seemed 
to  him  that  if  his  interpretation  of  the  diagram  was  correct,  Mr 
Riekie  had  got  a  very  much  larger  port  opening  when  working 
with  an  early  cut-off  than  was  given  by  the  **  Walschaert  "  gear. 


IMPROVEMENTS   IN    VALVE-GEARS  89^ 

Mr  E.  Hall-Bnwa. 

That  might  be  a  matter  of  great  moment  to  Mr  Biekie  for  looomo- 
tive  work,  but  he  did  not  know  that  it  was  to  those  who  Were- 
engaged  in  other  branches  of  steam  engineering ;  and  upon  the- 
value  of  this  increased  port  opening,  alone,  would  depend  the* 
success  or  otherwise  of  that  gear.  If  by  means  of  getting  a  very 
much  larger  opening  when  working  with  an  early  cut-off,  and  a* 
correspondingly  late  compression  point  during  the  exhaust  stroke^ 
Mr  Biekie  could  gain  something  substantial  in  steam  economy, 
then  he  thought  that  the  valve-gear  would  be  a  success,  but  on 
that  point  he  was  just  a  little  sceptical.  In  view  of  the  amount  of 
valve-gear  research  which  had  previously  taken  place,  it  was 
interesting  to  note  that  Mr  Biekie  had  undoubtedly  struck  out  in. 
quite  a  new  direction.  He  did  not  know  that  anybody  had* 
attempted  to  alter  the  length  of  the  lever  which  one  usually 
regarded  as  giving  the  lap  and  lead  motion  in  a  radial  valve-gear,, 
and  he  thought  that  Mr  Biekie  was  to  be  congratulated  in  having, 
done  something  quite  fresh  in  this  direction.  Finally,  he  trusted 
that  the  merits  of  the  gear  were  greater  than  in  the  meantime  he^ 
considered  them  to  be. 

Mr  AiiEXANDEB  Cleohobn  (Member  of  Council)  said  that  the* 
previous  speaker  had  drawn  their  attention  to  the  diversity  of  valve- 
gears  which  were  adopted  for  marine  work  some  20  years  ago. 
That  period  was  simuUaneous  with  the  introduction  of  the  triple- 
expansion  engine,  and  engineers  were  then  finding  their  way 
towards  the  best  arrangement  of  engine.  As  the  triple-expansion 
engine,  with  cylinders  along  side  of  each  other,  occupied  a  longer 
fore  and  aft  space  than  the  compound  engine  of  the  same  power^ 
in  order  to  reduce  this  length  as  much  as  possible,  advantage  wa& 
taken  of  the  facility  afforded  by  one  or  other  forms  of  radial 
valve  -  gear  to  arrange  the  valve-centres  on  the  athwartship 
sides  of  the  cylinders  instead  of  between  the  cylinders,  which 
was  the  position  most  suitable  for  '*  Stephenson's "  gear,  then 
ahnost  universally  fitted.  He  had  at  that  time  designed  engines 
fitted  with  various  forms  of  radial  gear,  and  of  these, 
he  believed  the  *' Walschaert "  gear  to  be  one  of  the  best.     That 

9 


90  IMPROVEMENTS   IN    VALVE-GEARS 

Mr  Alexander  Cleghom. 

gear  he  had  applied  to  some  sets  of  twin-screw  triple-expansion 
horizontal  engines  for  gunboats,  and  had  subsequently  sailed  with 
the  vessels.  The  gear  received  a  considerable  amount  of  care  in  its 
design,  and  theparts  were  strongly  proportioned.  It  wasfound  torun 
well,  although  the  revolutions  of  the  engines  varied  from  180  to  200 
per  minute,  their  aggregate  i.h.p.  being  2,500  In  addition  to  the 
shorter  engine,  a  radial  valve-gear  generally  secured  an  almost 
constant  amount  of  "  lead  of  valve,"  irrespective  of  the  point  of 
cut-off,  and  this  feature  was  a  most  important  one  in  the  case 
of  war  vessels,  which  spent  the  greater  part  of  their  time  in 
cruising  at  reduced  power.  The  conditional  modification 
which  Mr  Kiekie  had  brought  before  them  came,  there- 
fore, as  an  agreeable  surprise,  and  he  was  of  opinion 
that  considerable  advantage  could  be  taken  of  the  adapt- 
ability of  the  motion  of  the  valve,  which  the  varying  length 
of  the  **lap  and  lead"  lever  secured.  Although  the  proposed 
modification  gave  a  large  port  opening  and  a  rapid  cut-off,  it 
combined  this  with  a  late  compression,  which  was  of  great  value 
in  a  locomotive  engine,  exhausting,  as  it  did,  to  the  atmosphere. 
But  in  a  multiple-expansion  condensing  engine,  the  result  of  a  late 
compression  might  be  quite  the  reverse,  and  it  was,  therefore,  with 
considerable  interest  and  anticipation  that  he  listened  to  the  last 
paragraph  of  Mr  Eiekie's  paper,  which  ran  as  follows  :—**  In 
conclusion,  the  author  would  like  to  point  out  that  this  improve- 
ment in  valve-gear,  in  conjunction  with  his  continuous-expansion 
system,  opens  up  a  field  for  greatly  improving  all  multiple- 
expansion  engines,  and  will  enable  his  compound  system  to  compete 
favourably  against  any  triple-expansion  engine."  He  thought  that 
if  Mr  Eiekie  was  able  to  fulfil  his  promises  there  would  be  ample 
scope  for  his  gear. 

Mr  James  Andrews  (Member)  thought  that  Mr  Kiekie  might 
have  extended  his  paper  to  the  advantage  of  the  subject, 
more  particularly  with  reference  to  the  steam  openings  of  a  valve 
operated  by  his  gear  as  compared  with  the  same  valve  operated  by 
the  ordinary  link   motion.      It  seemed    to    him,    after    having 


IMPROVEMENTS    IN    VALVE-GEARS  91 

Mr  James  Andrews. 

eiamined  the  model,  that  the  mean  or  average  steam  opening 
wonld  be  considerably  greater  v^rith  the  Biekie  gear  than  with  the 
Stephenson  link  motion,  v^hen  working  at  the  same  maximum 
^team  opening ;  and,  if  that   were  the  case,  it   appeared  that  a 
smaller  valve  might  be  used  with  the  Biekie  gear.     He  would  have 
preferred  to  have  seen  diagrams  illustrating  this  point  embodied  in 
the  paper.      Another  important  element  which  had  been  over- 
looked was  the  mechanics  of  the  gear.     Mr  Biekie  had  stated  that 
"The  number  of  pins  or  working  parts  in  a  valve-gear  was  of 
miDor  importance  as  regards  wear  and  tear  of  machinery,"  which 
was  no  doubt  true  to  some  extent ;  but  much  depended  upon  the 
load  exerted  upon  the  various  pins  or  working  parts  of  the  gear. 
He  would  have  liked  to  have  seen  this  branch  of  the  subject  more 
fully  dealt  with  in  the   paper,   because   it    was    generally  the 
mechanics  of  a  gear  which  determined  its  success  or  failure,  and 
there  were  two  features  in  the  Biekie  gear,  which,  according  to  his 
experience,  were  not  altogether  satisfactory.      First,  the  sliding 
block,  with  its  rocking  motion,  which  he  thought  was  originally 
adopted  in    the  Hackworth   gear,    was  very  difficult    to    keep 
properly  adjusted  and  well  lubricated.     Those  defects  led  to  the 
introduction  of  what  was  known  as  the  Marshall  valve-gear,  in 
which  a  pendulum  link  was  substituted  for  the  sliding  block. 
Now,  it  so  happened  that  the  history  of   that  gear  admirably 
illustrated  the  point  that    the  number  of  pins  or  moving  parts 
was  of  far  less  importance  than  the  loads  exerted  upon  those 
parts.    The  Marshall  valve-gear  might  be  made  in  two  forms, 
with  five  pins  in  both  cases.      On  the  earliest  cruisers,  havinpj 
horizontal  engines,  to  which  this  gear  was  applied,  the  pendulum 
link  was  placed  between  the  eccentric  and  the  connecting-rod  to 
the  valve-spindle,  as  shown  in  outline  on  Fig.  8  ;  and  it  would 
be  observed  that  the  load  on  the  pendulum  link  and  its  pins 
would  be  approximately  double  that  on  the  valve-spindle.     This 
form  of  the  gear  gave  a  great  amount  of  trouble,  and  during  one 
of    the     trials     which    he    attended   it    broke   down,    notwith- 
standing that  it  was  driving  piston-valves,   which  at  that   time 


92  IMPROVEMENTS   IN    VALVE-GEARS 

Mr  Junes  Andrews. 

(1885)  were  supposed  to  be  practically  balanced.  At  a  later  date 
Mr  Marshall  described  this  gear  as  the  "  unfortunate  form." 
Ultimately  the  design  shown  in  outline  on  Fig.  9  was  adopted, 
having  the  valve-spindle  connection  between  the  pendulum  link 


Fig.  8 


A8TERN 


Fig.  9. 

and  the  eccentric,  so  that  the  load  on  the  pendulum  link,  its  pins, 
and  the  eccentric  were  reduced  to  about  a  half  of  that  on  the 
valve-spindle.  This  gear  has  been  very  successful,  and  he 
believed  was  still  being  fitted.  Keverfcing  to  the  Kiekie  gear,  it 
would  be  seen  that  the  load  on  the  pin  B,  Fig.  1 ,  was  practically 


IMPROVEMENTS   IN    VALVE-GEARS  93 

Mr  James  Andrews. 

double  that  on  the  valve-spindle,  and  consequently  this  increased 
load  must  be  carried  by  the  remainder  of  the  gear  in  a  direct  line 
to  the  eccentric,  for  a  similar  reason  to  that  in  the  Marshall  gear 
OD  ^g.  8.  He  thought  that  if  Mr  Biekie  could  introduce  the 
pendulum  link  in  place  of  the  sliding  block,  and  re-arrange  the 
levers  so  as  to  reduce  the  loads  on  the  gear,  as  was  done  with  the 
Marshall  gear,  a  considerable  improvement  would  be  effected  by 
reducing  the  wear  and  tear. 

Correspondence. 

Mr  Charles  S.  Lake  ( London)  was  firmly  of  the  opinion  that 
Mr  Biekie's  improvement  was  a  step  in  the  right  direction,  and 
that  it  constituted  a  real  improvement  in  this  very  important 
branch  of  engine  construction.  Many  people  had,  as  everyone 
knew,  essayed  to  improve  valve-gears,  and  he  had  closely  followed 
the  course  of  events  in  that  direction,  and  had  been  much  struck 
with  the  fact  that  most  of  the  inventors  had  ignored — at  any  rate, 
very  considerably — the  principle  involved  in  Mr  Eiekie's  plan, 
which  seemed  to  him  to  embody  the  true  key  to  improvement, 
vi2.,  that  of  accelerating  the  movement  of  the  valve  at  those 
portions  of  its  travel  where  rapidity  of  movement  was  desirable 
and  advantageous,  that  was  when  nearing  the  points  of  admission 
and  exhaust,  and  retarding  the  movement  during  the  expansion 
period.  That  system  was  adopted,  only  of  course  in  a  somewhat 
different  manner,  in  machine  tools — especially  those  of  American 
manufacture — in  which  the  movement  of  the  tool-holder  was 
accelerated  during  the  return,  or  "no  work,"  period,  while  on  the 
outward,  or  **  work,"  period,  whilst  machining,  it  was  very  much 
slower. 

Mr  KiEKiE,  in  reply,  said  he  was  pleased  to  learn  from  Mr 
Cleghorn  that  a  late  compression  in  locomotive  work  was 
<x)n8idered  of  great  value.  In  the  multiple-expansion  marine 
engine  the  compression  was  also  late,  due  to  the  late  cut-off  used ; 
he,  therefore,'  failed  to  see  why  the  adoption  of  the  improved  gear 
should  give  reverse  results  to  that  oif  the  locomotive,  especially 


94  IMPROVSMENT3   IN    VALVE-GEARS 

MrBiekie. 

when  there  was  the  possibility  of  being  able  to  cut-oflf  earlier  with 
this  gear  and  so  increase  the  number  of  expansions  in  the  multiple- 
expansion  engine.      Eegarding  the  improved  compound   system 
referred  to,  he  would  be   pleased  to  read  a  short  paper,  entitled 
**  Compound  verstui  Triple-Expaqsion  Engines."     In  his  opinion, 
the  triple-expansion  engine  had  a  threefold  advantage  over  that  of 
the  compound  system  as  now  made,  viz.,  a  higher  boiler  pressure, 
larger  piston  surface,  and  the  use  of  three  cranks.     The  improved 
compound  system  he  advocated  had  similar  advantages  to  the 
triple-expansion  engine ;  it,  moreover,  had  two  advantages  which 
the  latter  did   not  possess,  viz.,  continuous  expansion  of  steam, 
thus  requiring  no  receiver — and  in   being  able  to,  at   all  times, 
expand  the  steam  to  the  end  of  the  stroke  of  the  low-pressure 
.  cylinder,  no   matter  what  the  boiler  pressm-e  might  be.     There 
appeared,  therefore,  no  reason  why  the  system  he  advocated  should 
not  only  equal,  but  probably  surpass,  the  triple-expansion  engine 
in  economy  in  steam  consumption.     Eegarding  the  very  large  port 
opening  referred  to  by  Mr  Hall -Brown,  the  want  for  this  in  high 
speed   engines,  such  as  locomotives,  was  at  the  present  moment 
greatly    felt,    and    it    considerably    handicapped    this    type  of 
engine  from  attaining  high  speeds  with  heavy  loads.     Small  port 
openings  might  be  good  enough  for  the  long-stroke,  slow-running 
marine  engine  as  now  designed.     He  felt  convinced  that  the  day 
was  near  at  hand  when  marine  engineers  would  be  forced  to  turn 
their  attention  to  the  designing  of  high  speed  engines,  otherwise 
the  turbine  would  in  all  likelihood  replace  the  reciprocating  engine 
in  marine  work.     To  make  the  high  speed  reciprocating  engine  a 
success  it  was  very  important  that  very  large  port  openings  should 
be  used,  both  to  steam  and  exhaust.     As  this  could  be  obtained  from 
the  use  of  the  improved  valve-gear,  it  would  probably  go  a  long 
way  towards  enabling  the  quick-acting  reciprocating  engine  to 
more  than  hold  its  own  against  the  turbine  type  of  engine.     With 
reference  to  the  gain  in  power  from  the  use  of  a  late  compression^ 
he  produced  a  set  of  indicator  cards  taken  from*  a  compound 
locomotive,  the  high  pressure  cylinders  of  which  were  fitted  with 


IMPROVEMENTS   IN    VALVE-GEARS  95 

ICrBiekie. 

the  Stephenson  link  motion,  as  also  a  card  taken  from  a  locomotive 
fitted  with  the  improved  gear,  showing  how  the  latter  was  fattened 
without  any  increase  in  steam  consumption,  and  made  clear  the 
gain  that  was  derived  from  a  late  compression.  With  respect  to 
Mr  Andrews*  objection  to  the  sliding  movement,  he  did  not 
anticipate  the  slightest  trouble  with  this.  An  engfine  working  at 
the  high  speed  of  70  miles  an  hour  showed  no  signs 
of  heating  or  giving  trouble;  moreover,  a  similar  objection 
had  been  raised  to  the  "Joy"  gear  when  first  brought 
oat,  but  this  disappeared  when  the  working  parts  were 
well  designed.  Respecting  the  load  on  the  pin  B,  Fig.  1, 
this  could  be  obviated  by  placing  the  lap  and  lead  lever 
direct  in  the  crosshead  of  the  valve-spindle,  and  so  dispense  with 
the  levers  and  pins  shown  in  the  model,  which  were  designed  to 
suit  a  special  case  in  locomotive  work.  He  had  tried  hard  to 
substitute  a  pendulum  lever  for  that  of  the  sliding  movement,  but 
had  to  give  it  up  as  impossible.  When  the  lap  and  lead  lever  was 
at  half-stroke  it  ceased  to  act  as  a  lever,  so  that  it  was  impracti- 
cable to  get  a  lever  with  a  given  ratio  to  meet  the  case.  He 
desired  to  thank  the  Members  who  had  taken  part  in  the 
discussion. 

The  Chairman  (Prof.  J.  H.  Biles,  LL.D.,  Vice-President)  said  he 
was  sure  that  Mr  Riekie's  proposed  paper  on  Compound  versus 
Triple-Expansion  Engines  would  create  a  good  discussion,  as  it 
would  embody  views  entirely  different  to  those  held  by  all 
engineers  during  the  last  twenty  years.  Mr  Riekie's  paper  on 
Valve-Gears  was  a  most  interesting  one,  but  he  (the  Chairman) 
felt  that  the  real  test  of  the  improved  gear  would  be  to  submit 
it  to  an  extensive  series  of  trials.  He  asked  the  members  present 
to  award  a  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr  Riekie  for  his  paper. 

The  vote  of  thanks  was  unanimously  agreed  to. 


MARINE  PROPELLERS  WITH  NON-REVERSIBLE 
ENGINES 

AND 

INTERNAL  COMBUSTION  ENGINES. 
By  Mr.  Rankin  Kennedy  (Member). 


(see    plates   VII.,    VIII.,    AND   XI.) 


Bead  24:th  November,  1903. 


'The  introduction  of  internal  combustion  engines  and  steam 
turbines  for  marine  propulsion  requires  the  careful  consideration 
of  the  fact  that  without  some  special  contrivance  these  motors  are 
not  reversible. 

The  steam  turbine  when  applied  to  larger  vessels  requires  an 
.auxiliary  turbine  for  backing  the  vessel,  and  the  high  velocity  of 
the  screw  propeller  has  been  a  matter  for  considerable  experiment 
and  one  which  has  introduced  new  problems  for  solution. 

This  paper  may,  therefore,  serve  to  direct  attention  to  the 
consideration  of  other  propellers  than  the  screw,  and  to  bring 
together  various  methods  of  employing  the  screw  propeller,  for 
examination. 

There  are  five  systems  whereby  a  vessel  may  be  propelled  and 
controlled  when  driven  by  a  non-reversible  motor  : — 

1.  By  means  of  a  screw  propeller,  with  movable  reversible 

blades  operated  by  a  sliding  rod  through  a  hollow  shaft. 
This  is  a  favourite  method  for  small  craft. 

2.  By  means  of  a  screw  propeller,  and  mechanical  reversing 

gear,  usually  in  the  form  of  friction  clutches  and  ^spur 
wheels. 
S.  By  two  screws,  a  right  and  a  left-handed  screw,  connected 
by  a  sliding  rod  through  a  hollow  shaft,  whereby  either 
screw  may  be  loose,  and  the  other  locked  and  driven,  or 
both  locked  or  loose. 


MARINE    PROPELLERS  97 

4.  By  electrical  control,  the  engine  driving  a  d3mamo  and 

a  motor  driving  the  screw. 

5.  By  water-jet  propellers. 

I  shall  not  refer  to  all  the  systems  for  starting  oil  engines  on 
board  vessels,  for  that  is  a  question  worthy  of  a  paper  in  itself. 
It  may  be  observed  that  there  are  no  starting  difficulties  with  the 
steam  turbine,  nor  with  an  oil  engine  coupled  to  a  dynamo,  for  a 
starting  accumulator  is  a  small  affair,  and  quite  effective  to 
set  the  engine  in  motion 

The  first  system  referred  to  can  be  very  well  shown  by  a 
diagram,  Eig.  1,  made,  from  the  propelling  gear  of  small  vessels 
built  by  Messrs.  Vosper,  of  Portsmouth,  and  driven  by  o^l  engines 
using  ordinary  paraffin  oil.  The  blades  are  reversible  by  the 
lever  and  screw  worked  by  a  hand-wheel  as  shown.  In  the  mid- 
position  of  the  lever  the  propeller  may  run  with  the  blades  set 
to  thrust  equally  fore  and  aft,  the  one  thrust  annulling  the 
other,  or  a  clutch  may  preferably  be  used  to  disconnect  the 
propellers  in  the  stop  position.  A  similar  method  is  also 
adopted  by  the  Mitcham  Motor  Company,  of  Cowes,  Fig.  2, 
who  make  little  marine  oil  engines  for  launches  and  small  yachts, 
and  by  many  others.  It  is  perfectly  satisfactory  for  very  small 
powers,  with  screws  up  to  about  2  feet  in  diameter. 

The  second  method  is  often  used  for  larger  powers,  and  when  well 
designed  and  well  made  works  satisfactorily.  One  form  of  reversing 
gear.  Fig.  3,  may  suffice  to  show  the  general  application.  It  consists 
of  three  bevel  wheels,  A,  B,  C,  with  two  friction  clutches  working 
inside  the  wheels  A  and  B.  A  lever  is  applied  to  throw  either  clutch 
in  or  out  of  gear.  In  the  middle  position  both  clutches  are  out  of 
gear  and  the  engine  runs  free,  the  screw  being  at  rest.  The 
engine  shaft  does  not  extend  beyond  the  first  bevel  wheel  A,  which 
is  either  keyed  to  it  or  forms  part  of  the  engine  fly-wheel.  When 
gomg  ahead  the  propeller  shaft  is  clutched  direct  to  the  engine 
shaft  so  that  the  gear  wheels  C  and  B  simply  run  idle,  and  trans- 
mit no  power.  But  when  going  astern  the  bevel  wheel  B  is 
clutched  to  the  propeller  shaft  which  is  then  driven  through  the 


»b  MARINE    PROPELLERS 

gearing.     This  is  one  of  many  forms  of  reversing  gear  possible, 
and  has  been  found  suooessful  with  considerable  powers. 

The  third  method  has  been  adopted  by  the  **  GrifBn  "  oil  launch 
and  boat  builders,  Fig.  4.  This  arrangement  consists  of  two 
ordinary  screw  propellers  of  right  and  left  handed  pitch  re- 
spectively, the  forward  propeller  being  mounted  on  the  end  of 
a  hollow  shaft  which  extends  into  the  interior  of  the  boat. 
Through  this  hollow  shaft  a  second  shaft  passes,  and  on  the 
end  of  the  latter  is  mounted  the  sternmost  propeller.  Both 
propellers  are  thus  free  to  revolve  independently  of  each  other. 
A  double  friction-clutch  attached  to  the  engine  shaft,  and 
actuated  by  a  hand  lever,  is  connected  with  the  ends  of  these 
shafts  in  the  interior  of  the  boat,  the  arrangement  being  such 
that  either  of  the  propellers  may  be  engaged  with  the  engine, 
or  both  may  be  simultaneously  disengaged.  It  will  thus  be  seen 
that  by  the  simple  movement  of  the  hand  lever  the  whole  opera- 
tions of  starting,  stopping,  and  reversing  the  boat,  are  effected 
without  stopping  or  reversing  either  the  engine,  propeller  shaft, 
propellers,  or  any  part  of  the  driving  mechanism  ;  while  owing  to 
the  entire  absence  of  toothed  gearing  or  racks  of  any  kind,  its 
action  is  absolutely  noiseless  and  free  from  jerk  or  shock. 

The  advantages  claimed  for  this  arrangement  are  many.  There 
is  no  shock  when  the  propellers  are  disconnected  or  put  in 
motion.  There  are  no  cogs,  racks,  or  gearing  of  any  kind  to 
get  out  of  order.  There  is  stated  to  be  no  obstruction  to  the 
movement  of  the  boat  when  the  propellers  are  out  of  action,  which 
is  said  to  render  the  bo^.t  so  fitted  specially  suitable  for  canals. 
The  operations  of  starting,  stopping,  reversing,  and  steering  can 
be  controlled  by  one  man  seated  at  the  stern.  With  regard  to 
the  claim  that  there  is  no  obstruction  to  the  movement  of  the  boat 
when  one  of  the  propellers  is  out  of  action ;  experiments  have  been 
made,  and  no  difference  either  in  speed  or  oil  consumption  could 
be  detected  over  a  measured  distance  with  an  idle  propeller  free 
to  revolve,  or  with  the  propeller  removed. 

These,  then,   are  the  three  methods  proposed  and  used  with 


WITH   NON-REVERSIBLE   ENGINES  99 

screw  propellers  driven  as  nearly  direct  as  possible  from  the 
engine. 

The  fourth  system  also  employs  the  screw  propeller,  but  the 
engine  is  not  connected  to  the  propeller  by  any  shafts  or  gearing  and 
may  be  placed  anywhere  convenient,  while  its  power  is  transmitted 
electrically  to  a  motor  on  the  propeller  shaft.  This  system  has 
been  used  on  road  vehicles  with  some  success,  and  may  be  more 
successful  on  boats  of  larger  powers.  Vessels  fitted  with  the  first 
and  second  systems  have  not  been  built  of  larger  sizes,  say,  than  50 
horse  power,  and  only  for  moderate  speeds  of  from  7  to  10  knots, 
with  a  few  exceptions  to  be  referred  to  later.  For  larger  powers 
and  higher  speeds  something  different  is  required.  Clutches,  and 
gearing,  and  loose  screw  blades,  or  two  loose  screws,  are  all  very 
well  as  far  as  they  go,  but  when  the  use  of  large  internal  combustion 
engines  and  high  speeds  are  contemplated,  something  more  reliable 
mechanically  and  of  greater  strength  is  necessary.  In  a  large 
vessel  the  addition  of  the  dead  weight  of  the  motor  and  dynamo 
required  to  operate  the  fourth  system  is  not  a  serious  matter, 
while  it  offers  several  distinct  advantages.  The  propeller  shaft 
may  be  short  and  the  motor  astern  as  far  as  possible  while  the 
engines  and  dynamo  can  be  placed  forward.  The  vessel  can  be 
controlled  from  the  bridge,  or  lookout,  both  as  to  speed  and  stop- 
ping and  starting.  A  small  auxiliary  engine  and  dynamo  for 
electric  lighting  of  the  ship  can  be  used  to  start  the  large  engines, 
after  which  all  reversing  and  manoeuvring  should  be  done  by 
switches.  This  system  also  offers  advantages  to  small  steam 
tarbine  engines  like  the  de  Laval,  in  which  the  engine  and 
dynamos  are,  due  to  the  high  velocities,  small,  light  in  weight,  and 
take  up  little  space,  a  300  horse  power  de  Laval  turbine  dynamo 
complete  weighing  only  about  11  tons. 

Of  course,  with  the  steam  turbine  must  be  included  the  boiler,  a 
weight  which  is  not  necessary  with  internal  combustion  engines* 
And  although  I  am  aware  of  the  fact  that  internal  combustion 
turbines  run  by  oil  fuel  have  been  brought  to  a  considerable  degree 
of  perfection,  yet  they  are  not  quite  in  a  position  to  compete  with 


100  MARINE   PROPELLERS 

reciprocating  oil  engines.  I  submit  that  if  the  screw  propeller  is 
to  be  retained  with  non-reversible  engines  the  power  must  be 
transmitted  by  some  more  flexible  system  easily  controlled  by 
simple  means,  and  that  many  advantages  are  offered  by  electric 
transmission  from  the  engine  to  the  propeller  in  larger  units. 

The  fifth  and  last  system  is  not  new,  but  has  been  used  in 
vessels  with  some  success,  In  this  system  the  water  jet  propeller 
is  adopted.  This  type  of  propeller  has  been  discussed  before 
in  this  Institution*  and  perhaps  prematurely  condemned,  but 
things  have  changed  since  then,  and  it  may  now  be  looked 
at  from  the  non-reversible  engine  point  of  view,  or  with 
the  high  speed  turbine  as  its  motive  power.  In  the  early 
jet  propelled  vessels  the  centrifugals  employed  to  throw  the 
jet  were  slow  in  speed,  hence  large  in  size,  and  not  efficient. 
It  may  at  once  be  admitted  that  the  jet  propeller  has  some  well- 
defined  limitations  which  will  prevent  it  ever  becoming  a  better 
propeller  than  a  screw,  in  large  steam  driven  ships  employing 
reciprocating  or  other  reversible  engines.  The  column  of  water 
set  in  motion  to  produce  the  jet  is  limited  in  sectional  area.  In 
Ruthven's  "  Waterwitch,"  built  in  1867,  the  area  of  the  jets  com- 
bined was  6*28  square  feet,  equal  to  -po  of  the  midship  section  of 

the  vessel,  and  the  efficiency  was  O'lS.  In  Thorneycroft's 
hydraulic  vessel,  built  in  1883,  the  area  of  the  jets  combined  was 

about  one  square  foot,  equal  to    v^  of  the   midship   section,   and 

the  efficiency  was  0*254.  Efficiency  depends  to  a  large  extent 
upon  the  sectional  area  of  the  jet  being  a  very  large  fraction  of  the 
midship  section. 

The  presence  of  a  large  volume  of  water  on  board  the  vessel  is  the 
chief  drawback  to  the  jet  propeller.  But  by  good  design  this  volume 
can,  however,  be  much  reduced,  for  although  the  water  must  leave 
the  vessel  at  a  slow  velocity  in  a  large  volume,  it  may  pass  along 
inside  the  vessel  at  a  high  velocity  in  a  smaller  column,  and  that 
•  Vol.  XXXV.,  p.  16. 


WITH   NON-REVERSIBLE    ENGINES  101 

is  one  feature  to  which  I  beg  to  draw  your  attention.  A  second 
point  to  which  more  attention  should  be  paid  is  to  the  intake  of 
water,  for  the  vessel  can  be  propelled  by  the  suction  of  the  pump 
as  well  as  by  the  pressure. 

In  Thomeycroft's  hydraulic  vessels,  Figs.  5  and  6,  the  suction 
intake  B,  H,  faces  forward,  so  that  the  water  enters  freely  with  the 
motion  of  the  vessel,  and  if  the  suction  pipe  were  merely  continued 
and  led  astern  to  an  outlet,  the  vessel  being  towed,  the  water 
would  flow  with  the  speed  of  the  vessel  through  the  pipe,  but  the 
water  would  have  no  velocity  relative  to  the  still  water  outside  the 
vessel.    In  Fig.  7,  a  diagram  of  a  jet  propeller,  there  is  a  clear 
passage  for  the  water  fore  and  aft  through  A,  C,  B.     By  means  of  a 
steam  jet  acting  as  in  Morton's  water  lifter,  the  column  of  water 
can  be  set  in  motion,  and  by  tapering  the  pipes  it  may  pass  quickly 
through  the  vessel  as  a  small  column,  although  it  enters  and 
leaves  as  a  large  column.     Again,  by  arranging  the  proper  size  of 
the  intake  and  outlet  orifices,  we  might  have  a  partial  vacuum  or 
saction  at  A  and  a  pressure  at  B,  both  due  to  the  impeller  at  C ; 
and  the  thrust  would  be  the  sum  of  the  forces  acting  at  the  suction 
and  pressure  prifices.     It  may  be  pointed  out  that  in  using  a  steam 
jet  impeller  at  C,  there  would  also  be  a  reactive  impulse  due  to 
the  steam  itself  in  the  steam  nozzle,  for  if  the  area  of  the  steam 
jet  orifice  equalled  1  square  inch,  and  the  pressure  of  steam  was  160 
Ihs.,  a  useful  effect  or  thrust  of  150  lbs.  would  accrue — which  under 
ordinary  circumstances  is  lost,  and  this  in  addition  to  the  thrust 
due  to  the  water.     With  some  slight  modifications  this  presents 
an  ideal  propeller,  in  which  no  engine  with  moving  machinery  is 
required.     Although  the  jet  propeller  driven  by  a  steam  jet  is  not 
highly  efficient,  it  may  in  some  cases  have  counteracting  advan- 
tages.   It  has  one  drawback  when  used  at  sea,  and  that  is  the 
condensed  steam  is  lost.     I  need  not  dwell  on  the  subject  of  steam 
jets  (their  inefficiency  is  too  well  known),  but  will  pass  on  to  the 
further  consideration  of    the    water    jet    propeller.       Whatever 
impeller  is  used  at  C,  there  are  some  further  points  to  observe. 
In  this   simple    arrangement  the  propulsion   would   be  at  A, 


102  MARINE   PROPELLERS 

due  to  suction ;  at  C,  due  to  the  reaction  of  the  steam,  plus  that 
due  to  the  momentum  of  the  water  flowing  away  through  B,  outside 
of  the  vessel.  To  obtain  the  thrust  of  the  pump  due  to  its 
pressure,  the  water  should  be  arrested  somewhere  between  the 
pump  and  the  outlet,  so  that  it  might  flow  away  with  the  proper 
velocity,  and  produce  an  unbalanced  pressure  in  the  direction  the 
vessel  is  to  move. 

The  impeller  was  therefore  made,  in  a  recent  case,  to  deliver 
the  water  into  a  pressure  chamber,  where  its  momentum  was 
converted  into  pressure  gradually,  through  cones,  in  the  well-known 
manner  of  injectors.  The  water  was  discharged  from  the  side  of 
this  chamber  opposite  in  direction  to  the  motion  of  the  vessel. 
This  gave  good  results,  and  is  still  under  experiment. 

The  impeller  hitherto  used  has  been  a  centrifugal  pump.  A 
diagram  of  this  arrangement  is  shown  in  Fig.  8.  The 
pump  P  delivers  into  a  cylinder  V,  wbich,  besides  acting  as  a 
pressure  receiver,  also  acts  as  a  valve  regulator  whereby  the  vessel 
may  be  stopped,  started,  slowed,  accelerated,  or  reversed  by  one 
lever  without  regard  to  the  engine,  which  may  run  steadily  on 
under  a  governor  all  the  time.  The  valve  V  is  made  so  that 
when  it  opens  the  forward  nozzle  N  it  closes  the  aft  nozzle  N|, 
and  when  in  the  mid-position  both  nozzles  are  half  open.  By 
this  means  the  flow  of  water  is  never  violently  checked,  and  high 
velocities  of  flow  through  the  pumps  can  therefore  be  used. 
When  the  vessel  has  to  stop  for  any  considerable  time,  the  engines 
are  of  course  stopped. 

This  arrangement,  it  will  be  observed,  is  one  suitable  for  internal 
combustion,  and  steam  turbine  engines  which  are  not  conveniently 
reversible. 

As  to  the  question  of  efiiciencies,  I  am  unable  to  give  practically 
ascertained  results  of  the  five  methods  on  any  sufficient  scale,  but 
the  theoretical  results  may  be  of  interest  together  with  the  practical 
tests  available. 

In  theThorneycroft  hydraulic  vessel  of  1883,  the  engine  efficiency, 
i.e.,  the  brake  horse  divided  by  the  indicated  horse  power,  was 


WITH   NON-REVERSIBLE   ENGINES  103 

B  flP 

/g'p'=  0-77,  the  pump  efficiency  was  0*46,  and  the  jet  efficiency 

0-71,  which  gives  a  total  efficiency  of  0-251.  The  remarkably  low 
pump  efficiency  is  surprising,  and  no  less  the  engine  efficiency. 
These  figures  were  given  as  results  of  tests  by  Mr  S.  W.  Barnaby 
before  the  Institution  of  Civil  Engineers. 

Engines  and  pumps  can  now  be  obtained  to  give  better 
results.  Last  year  Mr  Konrad  Andersson  read  a  paper 
before  this  Institution,  in  which  he  stated  (Table  III.)  the 
efficiency  of  the  de  Laval  turbine  pumps  to  be  as  high  as  -75  and 
'8.  In  the  same  paper  the  pounds  of  steam  per  brake  horse  power 
are  given,  and  in  Table  YI.  the  pounds  of  steam  consumed  per 
water  horse  power  are  stated  to  be  from  29  to  34*2  per  hour 
Taking  the  efficiency  of  the  pump  and  engine  at  0*75,  and  the 
efficiency  of  the  jet  at  0*66,  then  a  total  efficiency  of  0*498  is  quite 
possible  on  a  consumption  of  steam  upon  the  jet  equal  to  31  lbs.  per 
horse-power  hour. 

The  jet  propeller  obeys  the  same  law  of  efficiency  as  the  screw 
propeller,  namely — 

V 

where  V  =  the  velocity  of  the  ship  in  feet  per  second  and  s  the 

slip. 

Assuming  a  speed  of  20  feet  per  second  for  the  ship  and  the 

20 

same  for  the  slip  s,  we  get    20+20    =  0.66  efficiency  of  the  jet. 

~2 

The  thrust  would  be  equal  to  the  area  of  the  throat  multiplied  by 

the  water  pressure.     The  total  reactive  pressure  would  be  that  due 

to  the  velocities  added,  t.e.,  40  feet  per  second,  and  the  head  H  would 

ya        402 
be   o—  =  gTTJ  =  24*8  feet,  and  the   pressure    due  to  this  head 

=  10  lbs.,  nearly,  per  square  inch«      Hence  an  area  of  one  square 
foot  of  nozzle  would  give  a  thrust  of  1,440  lbs.,  and  the  quantity 


104  MARINE   PROPELLERS 

of  water  to  be  delivered  would  be  equal  to  the  velocity  multiplied 
by  the  area  of  the  nozzle  in  feet,  40  x  1  =  40  cubic  feet  per 
second  =  2,500  lbs.  of  water.  This  conclusion  demonstrates  the 
large  volume  of  water  required. 

By  an  easy  calculation  the  horse-power  in  the  water  in  this  case 
would  be  90,  and  the  engine  indicated  horse-power  probably 
about  200. 

Figs.  9  and  10  illustrate  in  elevation  and  plan  a  form  of  jet 
propeller  connected  to  an  oil  engine.  The  pump  P  delivers  into 
a  vertical  cylinder  called  the  pressure  chamber,  shown  in  Figs, 
9,  10,  and  11.  In  Fig,  9  the  centrifugal  pump,  P,  is  shown  in 
elevation  coupled  direct  to  the  engine  E,  with  the  pressure 
chamber  C  on  top.  Fig.  10  is  a  plan  showing  the  deliver}^ 
nozzles,  N,  N^,  N^,  N3,  two  for  going  astern  and  two  for  going 
ahead.  The  pipes  on  one  side  of  the  boat  are  crossed  in  order 
to  obtain  a  simple  balanced  valve  for  controlling  the  jets.  This 
valve  is  shown  in  Fig.  11.  It  will  be  seen  that  either  pair  of 
tubes  or  jets  may  be  opened  or  closed  at  will,  and  that  the  whole 
four  nozzles  could  never  be  closed  at  once,  the  flow  of  water  from 
the  chamber  being  constant. 

By  making  the  valve  in  C  double,  the  nozzles  can  be  closed  as 
desired  and  the  boat  steered  by  this  same  valve,  and  the  pipes  to 
the  nozzles  need  not  be  in  this  case  crossed  as  at  H.  Whatever 
the  pressure  in  the  chamber  may  be  the  pipes  are  expanded 
towards  the  discharge,  so  that  at  the  nozzle  the  absolute  velocity  of 
outflow  does  not  exceed  the  maximum  speed  of  the  vessel. 

I  have  not  shown  any  diagrams  of  the  electrical  system,  as  it 
only  differs  from  the  common  direct  drive  by  screw,  but  with  an 
electric  generator  and  motor  interposed.  With  high  speed  steam 
turbo-generators  it  is  worthy  of  notice,  and  some  of  our  electrical 
friends  may  discuss  that  system  further. 

Having  now  surveyed  the  various  propellers  for  available  non- 
reversing  engines,  there  remains  of  course  the  possibility  of 
working  internal  combustion  engines  reversible.  This  can  be 
done  with  success  by  the  three-cylinder  Bertheau  engine  and  with 


WITH  NON-REVERSIBLE  ENGINES  105 

one  or  two  other  designs  of  oil  engines.  The  Bertheau  Engine  is 
made  and  used  by  Thomeycroft  for  powers  of  10, 15,  and  30  b.h.p. 
and  upwards. 

In  these  reversing  internal  combustion  engines  compressed  air 
or  compressed  burnt  gases  are  stored  in  order  to  be  drawn  upon 
for  starting,  and  the  engine  valves  are  adjustable  by  levers  and 
cams  so  that  they  run  normally  as  four-cycle  engines,  but  start* 
with  compressed  air  or  gases  as  two-cycle  compressed-air  engines. 

The  principal  advantages  of  the  Thorneycroft  Bertheau  Engine 
are  claimed  to  be  as  follows  : — 

1.  It  can  be  started  in  any  position  of  the  cranks  without  the 

use  of  hand  gear,  and  that  instantaneously. 

2.  It  can  be  reversed  instantaneously. 

3.  The  speed  can  be  varied  as  required. 

4.  The  crank  shaft  is  connected  rigidly  and  directly  to  the  screw 

shafting. 

5.  The  motor  is  quite  as  handy  for  manceuvring  as  a  steam 

engine. 

The  facility  in  starting  and  reversing  is  effected  by  means  of  aa 
ingenious  valve  mechanism,  and  a  reservoir  for  compressed  gases, 
the  gases  being  forced  into  it  automatically  during  the  explo- 
sion in  the  engine,  thus  dispensing  with  a  pump.  The  pressure 
in  the  reservoir  is  generally  about  90  lbs.  per  square  inch, 
and  even  if  the  motor  is  not  in  use  this  pressure  can  be 
maintained  for  several  weeks.  If  the  motor  is  in  disuse  for  a  long 
period  and  the  pressure  in  the  reservoir  becomes  reduced  from  any 
cause  it  is  replenished  with  compressed  air  by  means  of  a  hand- 
pump  before  starting,  but  the  necessity  for  this  is  of  rare  occur- 
rence. 

On  one  occasion  a  motor  was  laid  by  for  four  months,  and  tho 
pressure  was  found  to  have  fallen  2  lbs.  per  square  inch  only. 

The  most  important  novelty  aboiit  the  Bertheau  oil  engine  is. 

10 


106  MARINE   PROPELLERS 

that  it  is  reversible,  that  is  to  say,  the  engine  itself  runs  either  way, 
and  so  can  be  connected  rigidly  to  a  screw  propeller  or  other 
shafting  without  the  complication  of  reversing  clutches.  This  is 
-effected  by  means  of  a  double  set  of  cams,  which  can  be  shifted  by 
simply  moving  a  reversing  lever,  as  in  the  case  of  a  steam  engine. 
The  engine  is  fitted  with  a  reservoir  containing  burnt  gases  at  a 
pressure  of  about  100  lbs.  per  square  inch,  for  the  purpose  of 
starting  and  manoeuvring.  These  gases  come  from  the  cylinder, 
«.nd  are  admitted  by  means  of  a  relief  valve  arranged  to  open 
at  a  pressure  slightly  below  that  of  explosion.  The  reservoir  is 
replenished  by  letting  burnt  gases  enter  for  a  few  revolutions  after 
starting.     It  is  then  shut  off. 

The  engine  has  three  cylinders,  so  that  there  are  no  deadpoints, 
it  can  therefore  be  started,  stopped,  and  reversed  instantaneously. 
The  oil  used  is  heavy  petroleum,  having  a  specific  gravity  from 
•82  upwards,  with  a  flash  point  of  86°  F.  or  above.  The  consump- 
tion of  oil  is  about  1  lb.  per  b.h.p.  per  hour. 

The  engine  is  made  in  the  following  stock  sizes  : — 


r»  IT  i>  RevoIutioDB  per 

^■^•^-  I  Minute. 


10  I  500 

I 

15  325 

30  I  276 


Weight,  includiDg  Automatic 
Starting  Keservoir. 


11 J  CWts. 
25        „ 
40        „ 


yote. — The  weights  given — which  include  reservoirs — are  subject  to 
-alight  modification,  as  they  are  somewhat  dependent  on  the  convenient 
disposition  of  the  reservoirs. 

This  engine  fitted  to  a  27-feet  boat  is  illustrated  and  described 
fully  in  **  Engineering,"  November  6th,  1903. 

A  two-cycle  gas  engine  made  some  years  ago  under  Day's 
patents  would  run  in  whichever  direction  it  was  started.  It  had 
no  valves  except  a  suction-valve  on  the  crank  chamber  for  air  and 


WITH   NON-REVERSIBLE  ENGINES  107 

gas  inlet.  This  type  of  engine  was  first  patented  by  Mr  H.  P. 
Holt  in  1884.  In  small  sizes  it  may  be  stopped  and  started  in  the 
reverse  direction  by  throwing  the  fly-wheel  round  in  the  direction 
it  is  desired  to  run.  In  larger  sizes  made  with  three  cylinders  it 
is  started  by  compressed  air,  and  cam  levers  ;  being  a  two-cycle 
engme,  no  matter  at  what  part  of  a  revolution  it  is  stopped,  one  of 
the  cylinders  will  be  in  a  position  to  start  if  compressed  air  or  gases 
are  admitted.  A  cam  shaft  works  the  air  inlet-valve  for  two  or 
three  revolutions,  the  gas  and  air  charging-valve  being  shut.  As 
soon  as  the  engine  is  fairly  started  the  cam  shaft  is  thrown  out  of 
gear,  the  compressed  air  shut  off,  and  the  oil-charging  valve 
opened. 

Pig.  12  is  a  diagram  of  one  cylinder  of  such  an  engine.  The 
air  and  oil  enter  by  a  valve  at  the  side  of  the  crank  chamber  (if 
the  oil  is  heavy  a  vaporiser  is  used),  and  the  mixture  is  slightly 
compressed  in  the  crank  chamber  until  the  piston  reaches  its 
lowest  point ;  when  the  exhaust  has  been  uncovered  by  the  piston 
the  burnt  gases  escape  at  the  exhaust  ports  and  the  compressed 
gases  flow  in  at  the  intake.  It  has  been  found  that  in  this  simpler 
form  the  gases  in  the  crank  chamber  are  apt  in  time  to  escape  by 
leaking  through  the  shaft  bearings.  At  present  these  engines  are 
made  with  a  vaporiser  on  the  top  of  the  cylinder,  and  only  fresh 
air  is  drawn  into  and  compressed  in  the  crank  chamber. 

Oil  engines  are  not  so  bulky  and  heavy,  for  the  power  given  off, 
as  a  steam  plant,  due  to  the  fact  that  they  require  no  boilei^. 
They  are,  however,  at  best  single  acting,  and  mostly  four -stroke 
cycles  are  used.  Lately  there  has  been  a  large  increase  in  the 
number  of  motor  boats  driven  by  oil  engines,  and  this  fact  may 
forecast  the  adoption  of  this  type  in  large  vessels  of  the  future. 

In  the  description  given  in  "Engineering"  of  the  Thomey  croft 
motor  boat,  the  following  comparison  is  made  with  a  steam  cutter 
as  supplied  to  the  Eoyal  Navy.     It  may  be  of  interest : — 


108 


MARINE   PROPELLERS 


1       Steam  Cutter, 

Motor  Cntter. 

Length, 

27  ft. 

27  ft. 

Beam,  moulded, 

6  ft.    9  m. 

6  ft.  10  in. 

Depth,      

3  ft  11  in. 

3  ft.    9  in. 

Draught, 

2  ft.    6  in. 

2  ft.    3  in. 

Displacement,     .. 

4-29  tons. 

3-42  tons. 

Speed,  in  miles, 

9  miles. 

8  miles. 

Power 

15  I.H.p.  or 

13  B.H.P. 

10  B.H.P, 

Fuel,        

5  cwt.   for    12 

3   cwt.   for  30 

hours. 

hours. 

Length  of  Machinery,    ... 

9     ft. 

4  ft.  6  in. 

Weight,    ...       

27     cwt. 

13  cwt. 

Fuel  per  hour,     

0-4  cwt. 

015  cwt. 

Fuel  per  horse  power  hour, 

3-7  lbs. 

11  lbs. 

The  results  of  the  Harmsworth  cup  trials  at  Cork  on  16th  July, 
1903,  proved  that  small  boats  can  carry  sufficient  oil  engine  power 
to  run  over  a  nine-mile  course  at  the  rate  of  about  20  knots.  The 
largest  boat  was  40  feet  long,  and,  it  is  said,  carried  engines  of  75 
horse  power.  The  second  boat  was  30  feet  long  with  engines 
of  50  horse  power.  And  the  third  a  Thomeycroft  boat  also  30  feet 
long  with  propelling  machinery  of  20  horse  power. 

The  speeds  were  for : — 

No.  1         21-7  knots. 
„   2         19-5      „ 
n   3        17-7     „ 

To  sum  up  I  find  it  is  generally  conceded  that  the  movable 
screw  blades  is  only  acceptable  on  the  smaller  launches  and 
dingheys  probably  up  to  5  horse  power. 

The  mechanical  clutch  gear  is  more  efficient  and  less  Uable  to 
accident,  and  is  reliable  up  to  about  10  horse  power,  and  may  be 
tolerable  in  even  larger  powers  up  to  25  horse  power. 


WITH    NON-REVERSIBLE   ENGINES  109 

For  larger  powers  there  is  little  experience  to  go  upon  ;  but 
there  is  the  choice  between — 

1st.  The  oil  engine,  manoeuvred  and  controlled  as  a  com- 
pressed air  engine  when  starting  and  reversing. 

2nd.  The  water  jet  propeller  and  pump. 

3rd.  The  electric  motor  with  a  dynamo  on  the  engine  and  a 
motor  on  the  propeller. 

The  subject  has  in  this  paper  been  considered  not  with  any 
intention  of  raising  any  questions  of  fast  speeds,  these  may  be 
obtained  for  sporting  purposes,  without  much  regard  to  good 
engineering.  The  boat  contemplated  in  this  paper  should  be  a 
safe  comfortable  und  durable  vessel  with  machinery  designed  to 
run  for  years,  with  little  trouble  and  expense.  A  breakdown  in  a 
boat  is  a  far  more  serious  affair  than  a  failure  on  a  road  vehicle ; 
in  the  former  case  we  cannot  climb  down  and  walk,  nor  can 
assistance  be  so  readily  obtained. 

Dt8C2iSlti07l. 

Mr  T.  Blackwood  Murray,  B.Sc.  (Member),  said  that  as  a  maker 
of  high-speed  internal  combustion  engines  he  was  naturally  interest- 
ed in  their  application  to  the  propulsion  of  vessels,  and  he  thought 
there  was  comparatively  little  doubt  that  within  a  very  few  years  the 
internal  combustion  engine  would  entirely  replace  the  steam  engine 
for  the  propulsion  of  small  craft  up  to,  say,  sizes  of  100  horse  power. 
The  fact  that  internal  combustion  engines  could  be  started 
within  a  few  seconds,  and  that  they  could  run  automatically  in 
every  respect  for  at  least  periods  of  24  hours,  gave  them 
tremendous  advantages  over  steam  engines  with  their  attendant 
boilers,  which  required  practically  constant  attention.  He  had  an 
opportunity  the  other  day  of  seeing  a  very  good  collection  of  the 
latest  marine  type  of  internal-combustion  motors  at  the  Paris 
Automobile  Exhibition,  and  he  noticed  that  while  for  the  small 
sizes,  up  to  say  5  horse  power,  the  feathering  blade  propeller  still 
held  its    own  in  connection  with  the  two-stroke  cycle  engines, 

11 


110  MARINE    PROPELLERS 

Mr  T.  Blackwood  Murray. 

mostly  of  American  make,  for  larger  powers  the  makers  were 
generally  adopting  the  four-stroke  cycle  engine  and  a  type  of 
reversing  gear  rather  different  from  what  Mr  Kennedy  had  shown 
in  his  paper.  In  fact,  advantage  had  been  taken  of  the  experience 
gained  in  motor  car  work,  and  in  most  cases  the  power  was 
transmitted  from  the  engine  fly-wheel  by  a  leather- faced  conical 
friction  clutch.  That  clutch  was  held  normally  in  contact  by  a 
spring.  The  fly-wheel  formed  the  one-half  of  the  clutch,  and  the 
other  half  slid,  and  rotated  freely  on  the  extension  of  the  engine 
shaft,  and  formed  a  gear  box  containing  an  epicyclic  train  of  spur 
wheels  or  balance  gear,  of  which  the  forward  centre  wheel  was 
keyed  direct  to  the  engine  shaft,  and  the  rear  centre  wheel  was 
keyed  to  the  propeller  shaft,  while  the  epicyclic  pinions  were  carried 
on  pins  mounted  in  the  sliding  portion  of  the  clutch.  The  clutch 
was  withdrawn  by  a  hand  lever,  and  this  same  lever  tightened  a 
band  brake  round  the  sliding  portion  of  the  clutch  as  it  was  drawn 
out  of  engagement  In  the  central  position  of  this  lever  the  clutcli 
was  free,  as  was  also  the  band  brake,  consequently  the  sliding 
portion  of  the  clutch  rotated  in  the  same  direction  as  the  engine 
at  one-half  its  speed,  and  the  propeller  remained  practically  at 
rest.  When  the  hand  lever  was  drawn  right  back,  the  band  brake 
brought  the  sliding  portion  of  the  clutch  to  re^t,  and  the  propeller  was 
then  driven  in  the  reverse  direction  to  the  engine.  Figs  13  and  14 
w^ere  illustrated  views  of  a  24  horse-po\v*er  Delahaye  four-cylinder 
motor  fitted  with  such  a  speed  change  gear,  and  it  might  be  taken  as 
typical  of  the  latest  and  best  French  practice.  That  gear  seemed 
to  leave  nothing  to  be  desired,  as  under  normal  conditions — 
namely,  when  running  ahead — the  whole  gearing  revolved  solidly, 
and  there  was  consequently  no  wear  or  tear  on  the  spur  gearing, 
as  the  spur  wheels  were  at  rest  relatively  to  each  other.  The 
change  to  reverse  was  made  without  shock,  as  it  was  earned  out 
by  a  leather-faced  band  brake,  which  brought  the  sliding  portion 
gradually  to  rest.  By  varying  the  pressure  on  the  friction  clutch 
wath  the  hand  lever,  any  desired  revolutions  could  be  transmitted 
to  the  propeller  with  the  engine  running  at  normal  speed,  and 


Fig.  13. 


Fig.  14. 


112  MARINE    PROPELLERS 

Hr.  T.  Blackwood  Marray. 

owing  to  the  mass  of  metal  in  the  rim  of  the  fly-wheel  forming  the 
outer  portion  of  the  clutch  it  would  take  quite  a  considerable 
time  to  overheat  it.  He  saw  no  reason  why  a  similar  design  of 
gearing  to  this  should  not  be  successfully  used  up  to  at  least  100 
horse  power,  and  he  imagined  it  would  be  cheaper,  lighter,  and 
probably  more  eflQcient  than  a  water-jet  propeller.  The  largest 
engine  of  this  type  for  marine  purposes  which  he  saw  was  of  the 
four-cylinder  type,  capable  of  developing  180  horse  power.  To 
him,  it  was  a  wonder  that  in  this  district  more  attention  had  not 
been  paid  to  such  craft,  because  there  was  every  facility  to  build 
and  equip  them,  and  there  was  certainly  a  very  great  market 
for  them 

The  Chairman  (Mr  E.  Hall- Brown,  Vice-President) — When  the 
vessel  was  running  astern,  and  the  pressure  on  the  spring  kept 
the  clutch  and  gear  on  the  rubbing  surface,  he  presumed  there 
would  be  some  trouble. 

Mr  Blackwood  Mubray— No  trouble  arose  from  this  cause,  as 
the  pressure  of  the  spring  was  taken  up  by  a  ball  thrust  bearing 
which  would  run  for  practically  any  length  of  time  with  the  full 
load  of  the  spring  upon  it. 

The  Chairman  said  that  he  had  hoped  that  someone  would 
have  given  some  details  as  to  the  working  of  friction  clutches 
for  the  purpose  discussed  in  the  paper.  A  most  interesting  example 
was  the  clutch  invented  by  Professor  Hele-Shaw,  which  got  rid  of 
the  pressure  of  the  spring  when  the  one  clutch  or  the  other  was 
out  of  gear.  There  was  no  end  thrust  when  the  clutch  was  out  of 
gear  and  no  necessity  to  hold  the  spring  back.  A  large  number 
of  such  devices  was  coming  into  the  market,  because  the  demand 
had  arisen  for  them.  It  would  be  a  pity  to  close  the  discussion  on 
such  an  interesting  subject,  as  it  was  one  that  was  coming  into  great 
prominence  at  the  present  time.  He  did  not  know  that  the  ship- 
builders of  the  Clyde  were  aware  of  it,  but  it  was  a  fact  that  there 
was  a  demand  for  small  craft  driven  by  internal  combustion  engines, 
and  if  they  did  not  take  the  matter  up,  others  would. 


WITH    NON-REVERSIBLE   ENGINES  113^ 

XrS.Gt1An. 

Correspondence, 
Mr  S.  G  BIFFIN  (Bath)  noted  that  Mr  Kennedy  had  referred 
to  the  system  of  "  Bi-unial "  screw  propulsion,  which  had  (until 
quite  recently)  been  the  standard  system  of  his  firm.  It  had  all 
the  various  points  of  novelty  and  adaptability  to  its  purpose  with 
which  Mr  Kennedy  credited  it.  Its  success  had  been  very  marked 
in  the  barge  "  Eoyal  Daylight,"  working  on  the  Mersey  at  Liver- 
pool, to  which  it  had  been  fitted,  together  with  ''  Duplex  "  Hydro 
Oil  Engines  of  60  i.h.p.  The  reversible  bladed  propeller  referred 
to  was,  of  course,  suitable  only  for  very  small  craft,  in  which 
efficiency  and  mechanical  stability  were  of  secondary  importance  ;- 
its  consideration  might  therefore  be  neglected  in  dealing  with  craft 
of  any  size  for  commercial  purposes.  He  considered  that  Mr 
Kennedy  was  very  unfortunate  in  his  illustration  of  a  typical 
reversing  gear  for  use  with  a  single  propeller.  This  arrangement 
was  crude  in  the  extreme,  and  he  had  never  seen  it  in  practice 
applied  to  a  boat.  It  was  described  as  a  friction  clutch,  but, 
as  illustrated,  it  was  evidently  only  an  ordinary  male  and  female 
jaw  clutch.  He  could  well  imagine  what  the  shock  would  be 
when  thrown  into  gear  at  full  speed  ahead,  with  a  propeller 
running  at,  say  300  revolutions  per  minute,  to  say  nothing  of  wear 
and  tear.  Again,  the  continuously  revolving  gear  wheels  would 
be,  Iq  his  opinion,  a  constant  source  of  trouble  and  annoyance, 
while,  owing  to  the  fact  that  (having  regard  to  the  necessarily 
small  diameter  of  the  wheels)  the  whole  driving  strain  was  trans- 
mitted from  the  driver  to  the  driven  at  one  point  of  the  circum- 
ference only,  great  wear  and  tear  and  loss  of  power  would  result. 
He  tried  a  similar  arrangement  of  wheels  many  years  ago,  fitted 
with  friction  (not  solid)  clutches,  but  discarded  it  as  utterly  unsuit- 
able for  its  purpose.  The  essential  points  of  an  efficient  reversing 
gear  of  this  class  for  marine  work  were  : — 

1.  The  working  strain  should  be  transmitted  from  the  driver 
to  the  driven  at  two  diametrically  opposite  points  of 
their  circumference,  so  that  all  lateral  strain  might  be 
removed  from  the  shafts  and  bearings. 

12 


114  MARINE   PROPELLERS 

Mr  8.  OrifBn. 

2.  The  wheels  should  be  locked  together  during  forward 

running,  there  being  no  movement  of  the  transmitting  or 
idle  wheels  on  their  axis ;  the  whole  combination  acting 
virtually  as  a  solid  clutch. 

3.  The  motion  should  be  transmitted  by  means  of  adjustable 

friction  clutches,  which  should  be  of  considerably  larger 
diameter  than  the  wheels  themselves,  thus  allowing  the 
power  to  be  transmitted  without  undue  strain  on  the 
friction  rings. 

His  firm  had  recently  introduced  a  new  reversing  gear  embodying 
the  above  points,  which  worked  well  in  practice,  and  they  were  at 
present  making  an  oil  engine  of  120  h.p.  fitted  with  this  system 
for  the  Junin  Bail  way  Co.,  Chili.  With  regard  to  the  system  of 
reversing  the  engine  itself,  he  had  given  considerable  attention  to 
such  an  arrangement,  but  had  long  since  abandoned  it  as  being  far 
too  complicated  and  uncertain  in  practice,  to  say  nothing  of  the  cost 
of  the  installation.  A  good  system  of  reversing  clutch  mechanism 
was,  in  his  opinion,  infinitely  more  simple  and  reliable.  Such  an 
engine  did  not  even  reverse  in  the  generally  accepted  meaning  of 
the  term  It  was  dependable  on  a  working  medium  altogether 
outside  its  own  legitimate  fuel,  and  whether  this  medium  was 
compressed  air  or  burnt  gases,  the  conditions  were  the  same ;  the 
energy  of  the  engine  must  be  continually  drawn  upon  to  maintain 
it.  During  a  succession  of  quick  and  continuous  reversals,  such  as 
were  often  necessary  in  crowded  water-ways,  he  fancied  the  engine 
would  have  some  difficulty  in  maintaining  an  efficient  pressure  in 
the  reservoir,  and  if  not  maintained  :  What  would  happen  ?  Again, 
the  question  of  leaking  ofif  during  any  considerable  period  of 
inactivity  was  one  of  vital  importance,  as  had  too  often  been 
experienced  with  this  system,  even  when  employed  in  stationary 
work  for  starting  only.  It  was  all  very  well  in  expert  hands  when 
new  and  in  good  condition,  but  the  rough  and  tumble  duty  of  daily 
continuous  work  had  to  be  considered,  with  unskilled  attendance, 
etc.  It  was  under  such  conditions  that  the  true  test  had  to  be 
taken.     And,  after  all,  even  assuming  that  a  successfully  reversing 


WITH  NON-REVERSIBLE  ENGINES  115 

ICr  8.  Griffin. 

engine  had  been  made  at  the  expense  of  complication  and  delicacy: 
What  was  the  practical  gain  ?  A  well  designed  and  constructed 
reyersing  gear  was  simple,  comparatively  cheap,  easily  understood 
by  any  ordinary  mechanic,  and  was  perfectly  adapted  to  every  shade 
of  manoeuvre  which  the  boat  might  be  called  upon  to  perform ; 
while  as  far  as  the  transmission  of  power  was  concerned,  it  was 
certainly  equal  to  every  requirement.  The  friction  clutch 
employed  on  the  "Eoyal  Daylight"  was  only  20  inches  in 
diameter,  and  although  nominally  transmitting  at  full  load  only 
45  H.P.,  it  was  capable  of  transmitting  at  240  revolutions  per 
minute  (the  normal  speed  of  the  engine)  no  less  than  130  b.h.p.  as 
tested  by  a  dynamometer.  The  clutch  which  his  firm  were  apply- 
ing to  120  H.p.  marine  engines  was  of  24  inches  outside  diameter,  and 
capable  of  easily  transmitting  300  h.p.  at  the  above  speed.  For 
similar  reasons  he  should  certainly  take  exception  to  the  employ- 
ment of  electrical  transmission.  Its  first  cost  would  be  very  high. 
Then  there  was  the  question  of  the  employment  of  two  distinct 
motors  and  the  consequent  degradation  of  power  (probably  some 
30  per  cent.)  between  the  prime  mover  and  the  propeller,  while  to 
be  efficient  high  speeds  must  be  employed.  This  meant  that 
either  a  further  reducing  gear  must  be  introduced  between  the 
motor  and  the  propeller,  or  the  latter  must  be  run  at  a  very  high 
speed  with  the  further  loss  and  disadvantage  of  cavitation  and 
centrifugal  displacement — and  all  this  just  to  obtain  a  ready  means 
of  reversing  the  propeller,  for  the  question  of  flexibility  must 
certainly  be  left  out  of  the  reckoning.  The  half-speed  gear  of  the  oil 
motor,  together  with  a  slight  slip  of  the  friction  rings,  when  desired, 
was  all  that  was  necessary  to  give  a  perfect  graduation  of  speed 
from  dead  slow  up  to  full  speed  ahead  or  astern,  every  possible 
movement  being  instantly  and  with  dead  certainty  effected  by  a 
hand-wheel,  which  could  be  fixed  at  any  convenient  point  on  deck  or 
below.  For  the  continuous  work  of  ordinary  full  speed  running, 
direct  coupling  of  the  propeller  with  the  engine  was,  of  course, 
desirable,  any  intermediary,  such  as  dynamo,  motor,  etc.,  being 
only  so  much  added  complication  and  loss  of  efficiency. 


116  MARINE   PROPELLERS. 

MrC.A.MAttfae7. 

Mr  C.  A.  Matthey  (Member)  considered  that  Mr  Kennedy  had 
stated  his  case  very  clearly  and  very  fairly.  He  agreed  with  Mr 
Kennedy  that  the  first  three  systems  mentioned  in  the  paper  were 
only  applicable  to  small  craft.  The  fourth  was  quite  feasible^ 
though  one  grudged  the  loss  of  power  in  the  two  electric  trans- 
formations. Still,  it  might  very  well  be  that  the  superior  economy 
of  the  power-gas  engine  over  the  steam  engine  would  more  than 
outweigh  the  loss  in  the  dynamo  and  motor.  The  fifth  plan,  that 
of  water  jet  propulsion,  was,  in  his  opinion,  the  most  promising  of 
all.  This  system  had  never  had  a  fair  trial,  and  the  subject  was 
very  generally  entirely  misunderstood.  The  jet  itself  as  a  propeller 
was  equal  or  superior  to  the  screw ;  the  poor  figure  that  jet  pro- 
pelled vessels  had  hitherto  cut  was  due  to  the  means  of  producing 
the  jet.  It  was  quite  true  that  the  larger  the  column  of  water 
thrown  astern  the  greater,  ccsteris  paribus^  would  be  the  efficiency  ; 
but  it  did  not  follow  that  for  an  equal  efficiency  with  the  screw  the 
area  of  jet  should  be  anything  approaching  the  area  of  the  screw 
disc  ;  because  there  were  losses  in  connection  with  the  screw  which 
had  no  existence  in  the  jet.  Mr  Kennedy  said : — "  In  Ruthven's 
*  Waterwitch,'  built  in  1867,  the  area  of  the  jets  combined  was  6*28 

square  feet,  equal  to  -^  of  the  midship  section  of  the  vessel,  and 

the  eflBciency  was  0*18.  In  Thornycroft's  hydraulic  vessel,  built 
in  1883,  the  area  of  the  jets  combined  was  about  one  square  foot^ 

equal  to   --  of  the  midship  section,  and  the  efficiency  was  0*254. ''^ 

If  this  meant,  as  it  appeared  to  mean,  that  Mr  Kennedy  attributed 
the  superior  net  coefficient  of  the  Thornycroft  vessel  to  the  fact 
that  the  jet  area  was  a  larger  fraction  of  the  midship  section,  the 
reasoning  was  entirely  fallacious.  In  the  case  of  the  *'  Waterwitch*' 
the  speed  of  the  ship  was  15-6  feet  per  second,  and  that  of  the  jet,, 
relative  to  still  water,  was  13-5  feet  per  second ;  the  efficiency  was 
therefore  0-696.  In  Thornycroft's  vessel  the  speed  of  the  vessel  was 
21  feet  and  that  of  the  jet  16*2  feet  per  second,  the  efficiency  being^ 
0*72.      There  was,  therefore,  little  to  choose  between  the  two 


WITH   NON-REVERSIBLE  ENGINES  117 

MrC.A.Hat(aifl7. 

Tessels  on  this  head.  The  advantage  the  Thomycroft  vessel  had 
over  the  ''  Waterwitch  "  was  in  the  manner  of  taking  the  water 
into  the  ship :  in  the  former  the  speed  of  the  water,  relative  to  the 
ship,  as  it  entered  the  intake  was  conserved,  in  the  latter  it  was 
destroyed  and  had  to  be  reimparted  at  the  expense  of  the  engine. 
The  reason  that  the  jet  area  had  to  be  so  large  in  the  former 
was  that  the  vessel  was  being  propelled  at  an  extremely  dis- 
advantageous speed,  having  regard  to  her  length.  To  get  an 
approximate  idea  as  to  the  size  of  jet  required  in  merchant  ships, 
take  an  imaginary  case,  that  of  a  tramp  steamer  steaming  at  10 
knots,  say  17  feet  per  second,  with  1000  i.h.p.,  the  beam  being 
about  40  feet  and  draught  loaded  20  feet.  The  net  efficiency  of 
the  machinery  probably  did  not  exceed  Fronde's  original  figure 
of  0-4,  so  that  the  thrust  or  reaction  of  the  jet  would  be 

33,000  X  400  H.P.      ..^„ 
1020  ft.  per  minute-  "^^'^^  *^^- 

Assuming  the  ''slip"  or  real  sternward  speed  of  jet  as  being 
equal  to  the  speed  of  ship,  which  gave  an  efficiency  of  two- 
thirds,  the  quantity  of  water  dealt  with  per  second  would  be  found 
thus,  calling  W  the  weight  of  that  water : — 

W  X  17 
32 

80 


=  13,000  lbs. 


^  ^  32  X  13,000 

It 

the  volume  of  this  water,  taking  sea  water  at  64  lbs.  per  cubic 
foot,  would  be 

32  -f  13,000 
17  X  64 

and  the  area  of  intake  (facing  forwards  as  in  the  Thornycroft 
vessel)  such  that  the  water  would  enter  it  without  disturbance, 
would  be 


,M^^^    n  =  22-6  square  feet. 
17  X  17  X  2  ^ 


118  MARINE   PROPELLERS 

MrC.A.Matthey. 

The  area  of  jet  woald  be  one-half  of  this,  because  the  speed 
of  the  jet  was  twice  the  speed  of  the  ship.  Therefore 
such  a  ship  would  be  propelled  by  two  jets  of  about  32  inches 
diameter;  and  if  there  were  two  pumps  with  horizontal  shafts 
standing  athwartship,  each  pump  taking  water  from  two  intakes, 
one  on  each  side,  the  four  intakes  would  also  be  32  inches  in 
diameter,  or  an  equivalent  rectangle.  That  did  not  seem  very 
formidable.  Such  a  ship  would  require  a  screw  propeller  some 
16  or  17  feet  in  diameter ;  and  he  thought  it  was  the  mental  image 
of  such  a  large  screw  which  had  led  to  so  much  misconception  of 
the  subject  of  jet  propulsion.  Taking  the  midship  section  at  800 
square  feet,  and  the  area  of  a  16  feet  screw  disc  at  200  feet,  there 
was  a  proportion  of  1  to  4  ;  "while  with  the  jet  the  proportion  was 
1  to  71.  A  juster  comparison  would  be  to  take  the  area  of  intake, 
instead  of  area  of  jet,  and  compare  it  with  the  area  of  the  screw 
disc  ;  because  in  both  systems  that  gave  the  section  of  the  column 
of  water  entering  the  propelling  instrument.  The  jet  produced 
by  the  screw  was  of  smaller  section  than  the  screw  disc,  there 
being  a  sort  of  vena  cantrada  behind  the  screw.  But  even  on  that 
basis,  the  column  treated  by  the  screw  was  nearly  nine  times 
greater  than  that  dealt  with  by  the  jet.  And  the  efl&ciency  was 
the  same  in  both.  In  the  above  example  of  the  jet  the  efficiency 
was  0*666,  while  Mr  Sydney  Bamaby,  in  his  book  on  marine 
propellers,  gave  the  efficiency  of  the  screw  as  varying  from  0*63 
in  bad  examples  to  069  in  the  best.  It  would  be  seen  from  the 
above  calculation  of  the  area  of  jet  that,  so  long  as  the  slip  was 
kept  the  same  as  the  speed  of  ship,  which  gave  an  efficiency  about 
equal  to  that  of  the  screw,  the  area  of  jet  in  square  feet  was  equal 
to  the  thrust,  or  resistance  of  the  ship  in  pounds,  divided  by  four 
times  the  square  of  the  speed  of  the  ship  in  feet  per  second. 
Although,  however,  the  efficiency  of  the  jet  itself  could  be  easily 
made  equal  to  that  of  the  screw,  it  seemed  hopeless  to  attempt  to 
defeat  the  screw  with  the  jet  in  smooth  water  and  with  the  ship 
in  her  best  trim,  the  motive  power  being  the  same  in  each  case  ; 
because,  to  arrive  at  the  net  efficiency,  or  tow-line  horse  power 


WITH  NON-REVERSIBLE  ENGINES  119 

MrC.  A,Matthe7. 

divided  by  i.h.p.,  there  were  in  the  case  of  the  jet  three  factors  to 
be  moltiplied  together — namely,  the  efficiency  of  engine,  that 
of  pump,  and  that  of  jet ;  while  in  the  case  of  the  screw  there  was 
only  two — ^namely,  that  of  engine  and  that  of  screw.  Fronde  had 
given  from  37  to  40  per  cent,  only  as  the  net  efficiency  of  screw 
machinery;  and  though  that  was  doubtless  true  of  the  ships 
observed  by  that  masterly  investigator,  things  had  changed  very 
much  since  his  time.  The  '*  friction  of  load,"  for  instance,  which 
figured  in  Froude's  researches,  seemed  to  have  no  existence  in 
modem  engines.  Not  long  ago  Sir  William  White  had  given 
50  per  cent,  as  a  fair  estimate  of  the  efficiency  of  the  machinery  in 
the  navy,  the  form,  size,  and  position  of  screws  being  the  outcome 
of  tank  trials ;  but  quite  recently  he  (Mr  Matthey)  had  been 
informed  by  Messrs.  William  Denny  &  Bros,  that  60  per  cent,  had 
been  considerably  surpassed.  The  net  efficiency  vdth  the  jet 
would  probably  be  from  40  to  44  per  cent.,  which  meant  that  the 
combined  efficiency  of  engine  and  pump  would  be  066.  There 
were  firms,  whose  names  would  at  once  occur  to  members,  which 
would  guarantee  that  performance  ;  and,  the  efficiency  of  the  jet 
itself  being  0-66,  the  net  efficiency  would  be  0*44.  Perhaps 
there  would  be  a  further  deduction  on  account  of  friction  in  the 
pipes  and  bends,  but  even  if  that  amounted  to  10  per  cent  of  the 
whole,  which  seemed  unlikely,  the  net  efficiency  would  be  40  per 
cent,  which  was  as  good  as  that  of  a  large  number  of  tramp  steamers 
stiU  working.  While,  therefore,  a  jet-propelled  vessel  could  hold  her 
own  against  these,  she  would  be  defeated  by  a  new  ship  con- 
structed in  the  light  of  tank  experiments.  If  the  modem  screw 
ship  steamed  10  knots,  the  jet-propelled  ship  with  the  same 
indicated  power  would  probably  go  about  9  knots.  In  rough  water, 
however,  or  in  light  trim,  the  speeds  might  be  equal :  while  the 
security  from  breakage  of  shafts,  and  the  fact  that  the  jet-propelled 
ship  could  sail  well,  would  justify  a  shipowner  in  very  seriously 
considering  whether  on  the  whole  the  jet  was  not  the  better 
system.  And  when  it  came  to  comparing  a  steam-propelled  screw 
ship  with  a  gas-propelled  jet  ship  (for  that  really  was  the  question), 
the  advantage  seemed  to  be  entirely  on  the  side  of  the  jet.     The 


120  MARINE   PROPELLERS 

Mr  C.  A.  Matthey. 

triple-expansion   steam    engine    consumed    about  one-and-a-half 
pounds  of  coal  per  horse  power  per  hour,  and  the  gas  engine 
about  three-quarters  of  a  pound ;  so,  supposing  that  with  similar 
ships  the  jet  required  more  power  than  the  screw,  for  equal  speeds, 
in  the  ratio  of  three  to  four,  the  jet  ship  would  still  only  consume 
two-thirds  of  the  coal  burned  by  the  other.     He  would  venture  to 
criticise  Mr  Kennedy's  method  of  computing  the  reaction  of  jets. 
In  connection  with  Fig.  7,  Mr  Kennedy  said : — **  In  this  simple 
arrangement  the  propulsion  would  be  at  A,  due  to  suction ;  at  G, 
due  to  the  reaction  of  the  steam,  plus  that  due  to  the  momentum 
of  the  water  flowing  away  through  B,  outside  of  the  vessel." 
Mr  Kennedy  was  counting  his  xshickens  twice  over.      There  was 
one,  and  one  only,  safe  method  of  estimating  reactions,  and  that 
was  by  calculating  the  momentum  of  the  stress  sent  astern.     Any 
other  method  was  beset  by  pitfalls.      If  it  were  desu*ed  to  split 
hairs  and  distinguish  between  the  water  (in  Fig.  7)  which  had 
entered  by  the  intake  and  tbat  which  came  from  the  condensed 
steam,  then  it  must  be  taken  into  account  that  the  intake  water 
had  had  impressed  upon  it  a  speed  which  was  the  speed  of  jet 
(relative  to  ship)  minus  the  speed  of  ship,  while  the  condensed 
steam  had  had  imparted  the  whole  speed  of  the  jet.       As  an 
example  of  the  pitfalls  to  which  he  had  referred,  he  would  take 
Mr  Kennedy's  estimate  of  the  thrust  of  a  jet  of  one  square  foot, 
the  water  issuing  at  40  feet  per  second,  and  the  speed  of  the  ship 
being  20  feet  per  second.     Mr  Kennedy  said  the  thrust  was  equal 
to  the  area  of  the  throat  multiplied  by  the  water  pressure,  and 
arrived  at  1440  lbs.  as  the  thrust.    According  to  his  (Mr  Matthey's) 
rule  given  above,  that  the  area  in  feet  was  equal  to  the  thrust 
divided  by  four  times  the  speed  of  the  ship  in  feet  per  second,  the 
thrust  was  1600  lbs.     But  the  pitfall  did  not  lie  in  this  discrepancy, 
which  was  due  to  Mr  Kennedy  taking  fresh  water  instead  of  salt, 
as  he  had  a  perfect  right  to  do,  and  had  made  a  rough  estimate  of 
10  lbs  pressure  for  a  head  24*8  feet,  as  he  also  had  a  perfect  right 
to  do.     So  his  estimate  of  the  thrust  was  right ;  but  this  was  only 
by  a  fluke,  because  the  speed  of  the  ship  happened  to  be  one-half 


WITH   NON-REVERSIBLE   ENGINES  121 

the  speed  of  jet  in  this  instance.  If  the  ship  were  placed  with  her 
stem  against  a  quay  wall,  and  the  water  made  to  issue  at  40  feet 
per  second,  the  reaction  of  the  jet,  or  pressure  of  the  stem  against 
the  wall,  would  be  twice,  not  once,  the  area  of  jet  multiplied  by 
the  static  pressure  necessary  to  impart  that  velocity.     If  the  ship 

were  now  allowed  to  move  forward  at  any  speed,  say  — th  that  of 

n 

the  jet,  the  thrust  would  be  diminished  in  the  ratio 

1  to  1  -  — th. 
n 

Thus  if  the  speed  of  the  ship  were  10  feet  per  second,  the  thrust 
would  be  three-quarters  of  twice  the  static  pressure;  if  the  speed  were 
20  feet  per  second,  as  assumed  by  Mr  Kennedy,  the  thrust  would 
be  one-half  of  twice  the  static  pressure,  i,e,,  it  would  be  equal  to  it. 
At  a  speed  of  ship  of  40  feet  per  second  the  thrust  would  be  nil. 
As  to  reducing  the  weight  of  water  carried  in  the  ship,  by  making 
the  speed  through  the  ship  greater  than  the  jet  velocity,  and 
diminishing  it  before  the  nozzle  was  reached,  he  did  not  think  that 
was  consistent  with  economy.  In  all  the  modern  centrifugal 
pumps  which  had  given  high  efficiencies  the  speed  of  water  enter- 
mg  the  eye  of  the  pump  was  very  moderate,  say  8  or  10  feet  per 
second ;  and,  of  course,  the  friction  in  the  pipes  was  less,  the  less 
the  speed.  He  had  a  few  months  ago  patented  an  arrangement 
which  was  exactly  the  contrary  of  Mr  Kennedy's;  he  placed  a 
tapering  or  Venturi  pipe  between  the  intake  and  the  eye  of  the 
pump,  so  that  the  speed  with  which  the  water  eAtered  the  intake 
was  gradually  diminished,  and  was  only  10  feet  or  so  per  second 
when  it  reached  the  eye  of  the  pump.  He  also  made  the  pipe 
leading  from  the  pump  to  the  nozzle  larger  than  the  intake,  only 
reducing  it  by  a  gradual  taper  as  the  nozzle  was  approached.  The 
penalty  to  be  paid  was,  of  course,  the  greater  weight  of  water 
carried,  and  the  larger  and  heavier  pump  and  engine;  but  he 
thought  it  was  worth  while  in  view  of  the  greater  efficiency 
obtained.  To  see  how  it  came  out  in  practice,  one  might  take  the 
case  of  the  ten-knot  tramp  steamer  already  considered,  having 


122  MARINE   PROPELLERS 

Mr  P.  F.  Maccallum. 

four  intakes,  each  of  32  inches  diameter,  and  two  jets  of  the  same 
size.  The  eyes  of  the  centrifugal  pumps,  for  the  speed  to  be  10 
feet  per  second,  would  be,  say  42  inches  in  diameter,  the  fans 
about  7  feet  in  diameter,  and  the  casings  from  12  to  14  feet  in 
diameter.  He  thought  that  bulk  and  weight  of  machinery  was  not 
prohibitive.  He  presumed  Mr  Kennedy  contemplated  taking  the 
gas  producer  to  sea,  although  be  had  not  gone  into  that  part  of  the 
question.  No  doubt  modifications  would  have  to  be  made  in  the 
producer  plant  to  fit  it  to  the  new  conditions,  but  he  was  quite  sure 
that  any  difficulties  that  arose  could  be  overcome.  Before  closing 
his  remarks  he  could  not  refrain  from  alluding  once  more  to  the 
two  historical  jet-propelled  vessels  already  discussed.  The  net 
efficiency  of  the  "Waterwitch"  was  only  018.  The  work  done 
by  the  pump  was,  taking  11,650  pounds  of  water  per  second,  at 
rest  relatively  to  the  pump,  and  impressing  on  it  a  velocity  of  29 
feet  per  second.  That  was  278  water  b.p.,  the  i.h.p.  being  760 ; 
therefore  the  efficiency  of  engine  and  pump  combined  was  0-365. 
Again,  with  respect  to  the  loss  from  the  faulty  mode  of  receiving  the 
water  into  the  ship ;  omitting  constants,  the  power  actually  spent 
might  be  expressed  by  the  square  of  29,  while  all  that  was  needed, 
if  the  speed  of  approach  had  been  conserved,  was  the  difference 
between  the  square  of  29  and  the  square  of  15-5,  so  the  power 
spent  was  greater  than  it  need  have  been  in  the  ratio  of  600  to  840, 
If,  then,  this  ship  had  had  a  proper  intake,  while  retaining  her 
wasteful  pump,  her  net  efficiency  would  have  risen  from  0-18  to 
0-252 ;  and  if,  further,  the  pump  had  been  replaced  by  one  of  a 
combined  efficiency  (pump  and  engine)  of  0*66,  instead  of  0*365, 
the  efficiency  would  have  been  no  less  than  0-46,  a  figure  probably 
greater  than  that  of  any  screw  ship  afloat  at  that  time.  The 
Thomycroft  vessel  lost  nothing  at  the  intake,  but  the  combined 
efficiency  of  pump  and  engine  was  even  worse  than  that  of  the 
"  Waterwitch,"  being  0-355.  Had  this  been  0-66,  the  net  efficiency 
would  have  been  0-466. 

Mr  P.  F.  Maccallum  (Member)  considered  that  in  the  discus- 
sion of  a  paper  dealing  with  internal  combustion  engines  and  jet 


WITH  NON-REVERSIBLE  ENGINES  123 

Mr  P.  F.  MMeaUam. 

propolsioD,  which,  as  Mr  Kennedy  said,  had  perhaps  been  pre- 
maturely condemned,  it  might  be  of  some  interest  to  recall  a  mode 
of  ship  propulsion  patented  by  the  writer  in  1886,  combining  in 
one  apparatus  the  internal  combustion  engine  and  the  water  jet 
propeller,  the  arrangement  being  shown  in  Fig.  15.  The  feed  in- 
take C  faced  forward,  and  when  the  vessel  was  in  motion  the  water 


Fig.  15. 


passed  in  a  fairly  constant  stream  to  one  or  other  of  the  two  large 
cylinders,  A,  A.  The  momentum  of  the  feed  in  the  cylinder  which 
was  being  filled  was  utilized  in  compressing  a  volume  of  air  into 
which,  at  about  the  instant  of  greatest  compression,  a  charge 
of  liquid  or  solid  pulverised  fuel  was  injected  and  ignited. 
The  resultant  combustion  and  expansion  drove  the  water  out 
through  the  nozzle  D  while  the  other  cylinder  was  being  filled, 


124  MARINE   PROPELLERS 

HrB.  T.Napier. 

and  so  on.  The  removal  of  the  combustion  products  was 
facilitated  by  a  scavenging  charge  of  air  or  by  a  steam  jet.  The 
nozzles,  D,  D,  might  be  operated  from  the  deck,  and  turned  in  any 
desired  direction.  The  small  hydraulic  engine  P,  received  a 
reciprocating  motion  from  the  explosions  in  the  large  cylinders, 
and  might  be  used  to  drive  a  fan  or  air  pump.  The  apparatus  was 
only  tried  on  a  very  small  scale,  but  the  action  was  obviously  of 
the  most  direct  kind  possible.  Becent  trials  of  Herr  Vogt's  fluid 
piston  engine  pointed  to  the  probability  of  a  very  high  thermo- 
dynamic efficiency  in  this  type  of  engine. 

Mr  E.  T.  Nafieb  (Member)  observed  that  the  author  was 
enamoured  of  jet  propellers,  and  that  the  unsatisfactory  results 
which  had  attended  past  attempts  to  use  them  were  attributed 
by  him  to  inefficiency  in  the  pumping  machinery  used,  and 
lack  of  ideas  on  the  part  of  the  designers.  The  facts  of  the  case 
with  regard  to  the  "  Water  witch'*  and  the  Thomeycroft  boat 
might  as  well  be  restated.  Shortly  after  the  close  of  the  American 
war  of  secession  the  British  Admiralty  placed  in  hands  the  design 
for  an  armoured  gun-boat,  suitable  for  passing  locks  on  a  certain 
canal.  The  length  was  limited  to  162  feet,  and  the  necessary 
displacement  was  obtained  by  making  the  beam  32  feet.  The  speed 
aimed  at  was  9  knots,  and  three  vessels  were  built.  They  were 
clearly  of  such  a  character  as  to  require  extravagant  power  to  drive 
them.  Through  the  influence  of  friends  of  Mr  Euthven,  one  of  the 
three  vessels  was  placed  at  his  disposal  so  that  he  might  design 
machinery  for  jet  propulsion.  The  other  two  vessels  were  fitted 
with  twin  screws.  On  trial  the  *'  Viper" — a  twin  screw  vessel — 
steamed  9'68  knots  with  696  lh.p.  ;  the  *'  Waterwitch"  came  next 
with  9'3  knots  and  rather  more  power;  while  the  **  Vixen" — also 
a  twin  screw  steamer — did  worse  than  either.  This  was  not  bad 
for  the  jet  propeller,  but  later  experience  showed  that  the  "Viper" 
turned  a  circle  in  half  the  time  required  by  the  "  Waterwitch"  ; 
and  further  that  the  latter  vessel,  in  rough  weather,  lost  most  of 
her  propelling  power,  and  had  to  be  assisted.  From  this  trial  the 
Admiralty  decided  that  the  jet  was  not  a  rival  to  the  screw  pro- 


WITH   NON-REVERSIBLE   ENGINES  125 

Ut  R.  T.  Napier. 

peller,  and  this  decision  was  endorsed  by  marine  engineers 
generally.  The  Thorneycroft  boat  was  built  as  an  experiment  by 
the  Admiralty — through  the  recommendation  of  a  committee  on 
ship  design — to  see  if  the  jet  could  be  substituted  for  the  screw 
in  cases  where  the  latter  would  be  liable  to  foul  or  would  be  other- 
wise objectionable.  The  boat  was  66  feet  4  inches  long  by  7  feet  6 
inches  beam;  being  made  just  so  much  longer  than  a  torpedo 
boat  as  to  carry  the  extra  weight  of  the  pumping  machinery.  On 
trial  the  jet  propelled  boat,  with  engines  indicating  167  h.p.,  ran  at 
12-6  knots ;  a  speed  which  the  competing  screw  boat  attained 
with  70  I  H.P.,  the  highest  speed  of  the  latter,  while  indicating  170 
H.P.,  being  17'3  knots.  Mr  Kennedy  ,took  exception  to  the 
efficiency  of  the  engines  and  the  centrifugal  pumps.  As  the 
engines  were  not  tested  by  brake,  and  as  there  was  no  ground 
for  supposing  that  they  were  less  efficient  than  those  of  the  screw 
boat,  Mr  Bamaby's  assumption  of  an  efficiency  of  -77  might  be 
accepted.  On  the  trial  the  jets  delivered,  when  the  vessel  was 
rmming,  2210  lbs.  of  water  per  second  at  a  velocity  of  37*2  feet  per 
WV2 

aecond.    The  formula  -^^  gave,   with    the  above    figures,    86*5 
ooU 

Water  h.p.  86'5       ^^  i.  i.  i.  i  «  • 

water  h.p.     ^r-r. — :-^ =    :r?7=-=  52 per  cent. total efficiencv,on 

Indicated  h.p.        167 

the  assumption  that  the  pumps  did  all  the  work  ;  but  Mr  Bamaby 
assumed  that  the  pumps  received  water  at  the  velocity  due  to  tho 
boat's  motion,  and  passed  this  on  vnthout  loss.  According  to  hia 
calculation  the  water  h.p.  added  by  the  pumps  was  only  58,  or  as 
nearly  as  might  be,  the  same  as  the  observed  h.p.  in  the  jets  when 
driven  while  the  boat  was  moored.  As  the  water  inlet  was  a  scoop,, 
designed  solely  with  a  view  to  admitting  water  while  the  boai 
was  running,  and  evidently  not  the  most  suitable  for  use  in  a 
stationery  pump ;  and  as  efficiency  in  transmitting  energy 
should  be  considered  as  well  as  efficiency  in  imparting  addi- 
tional energy ;      the  above  method  of  accounting  was  not  fair  to 


126  MARINE   PROPELLERS 

HrR.T.N^rfer. 

the  pumps.     If  the  work  done  by  the  pumps  were  taken  as  a 

mean  between  the  water  h.p.  in  the  jets  with  the  boat  moored, 

72 
and  when  running  free,  then  the  total  eflBciency  would  be  -^-=  '^3. 

167 

Messrs.  Drysdale  &  Co.,  the  well  known  makers  of  centrifugal 

pumps,  kindly  advised  that  a  pump  with  the  size  of  fan  as  in  the 

Thomeycroft  boat,  and  delivering  a  like  quantity  of  water  at  a 

like  velocity,  should,  in  an  ordinary  land  installation,  have  an 

efficiency  of  *7.     Taking  this  value,  and  Mr  Barnaby's  assumption 

of  -77  for  the  engines,   the  power  to  give   72  water  h.p.,   in 

72 
the  jets  would    be  -^ ^==-   or  134  i.h.p.      With  an  engine 

efficiency  of  -85,  this  cotdd  be  reduced  to  121  i.h.p.  The  screw 
boat  would  do  the  same  work  with  70  i.h.p.,  or  58  per  cent,  of 
the  amount.  The  author  said :  "  The  vessel  can  be  propelled  by 
the  suction  of  the  pump  as  well  as  by  the  pressure.''  In  the 
Thomeycroft  boat  the  water  entered  the  inlet  at  a  velocity  of  1*9 
feet  per  second  greater  than  the  velocity  of  the  boat.  This  was  a 
suction  of  negligible  amount;  the  object  of  the  designers  being 
clearly  to  just  avoid  pressure.  It  would  be  open  to  the  designer 
of  the  next  jet  propelled  vessel  to  get — subject  to  atmospheric 
conditions — any  desired  amount  of  suction,  and  that  by  the  simple 
device  of  restricting  the  water  inlet.  Probably  a  few  days  after 
the  trial  he  would  dock  the  boat  and  increase  the  area  of  the  inlet 
to  something  proportionate  to  that  in  the  boat  which  had  just 
been  considered.  There  was  no  promise  in  the  jet  propeller  for 
use  in  any  case  where  a  screw  propeller  was  possible,  and,  as  the 
Thomeycroft  boat  would  hardly  go  astern  at  all,  and  refused 
altogether  to  steer  when  going  to  the  extent  she  did,  there  seemed 
little  scope  for  the  system.  The  true  solution  to  the  problem  of 
adopting  the  internal  combustion  engine  to  marine  purposes 
admittedly  lay  in  producing  a  workable  engine  which  would  reverse. 
With  all  the  brain  power  now  being  devoted  to  this  end,  such  an 
engine  should  yet  be  realised. 

Mr  Kennedy,  in  answer  to  the  observations  of  Mr  Murray  and 


WITH  NON-REVERSIBLE  ENGINES  127 

Mr  Kennedy. 

Mr  GrifSn,  said  he  would  point  out  that  the  clutch  question  was 
not  made  much  of  in  the  paper.  The  clutch  illustrated  was 
perhaps  not  the  best  reversible  clutch,  in  fact  he  knew  it  was  not  so. 
It  was  to  the  method  and  not  to  the  means  for  carrying  it  out  that 
he  wished  to  direct  attention.  The  Hele-Shaw  clutch,  as  a  clutch  for 
reversing  and  regulating  speed,  left  little  to  be  desired ;  but  still 
the  depeindance  upon  a  clutch  system  was  one  which  marine 
engineers  would  consider  a  very  weak  spot  in  the  transmission  of 
power.  Hele-Shaw  clutches  had  been  designed  up  to  1,000 
horse  power.  As  to  the  internal  combustion  engine,  the  motor- 
car type  of  engine  might  satisfy  the  amateur  and  the  sporting 
marine  engineer,  but  few  practical  marine  engineers  would  care 
to  risk  going  to  sea  with  a  four-cycle  engine,  with  all  its  vital 
parts  inaccessible  and  bound  up  out  of  sight.  The  marine 
internal  combustion  engine,  for  serious  business,  would  certainly 
not  follow  the  practice  of  motor  car  design  or  construction.  If  it 
were  not  to  be  a  turbine,  it  would  be  an  engine  differing  not  much 
in  appearance  and  design  from  a  vertical  marine  compound  steam 
engine,  with  two  double-acting  cylinders  giving  four  impulses  per 
revolution  to  the  crank  shaft.  This  was  necessary  to  bring  the 
engine  within  reasonable  weight  and  size,  and  also  to  avoid  the 
necessity  for  a  heavy  fly-wheel.  Figs.  16  and  17  (Plate  XI.)  showed 
a  design  for  a  marine  internal  combustion  engine.  It  was  con- 
structed much  on  the  same  lines  as  the  Korting  horizontal  engine, 
many  of  which,  up  to  2,000  horse  power,  were  in  use  every  day.  The 
engine  shown  was  designed  for  1,000  hoi^e  power,  at  a  speed  of 
150  revolutions  per  minute-  It  differed  from  the  Korting  in 
having  a  steam  boiler  through  which  the  exhaust  gases  were 
drawn  by  a  gas  exhauster,  so  that  there  was  actually  no  exhaust 
valve  on  the  engine.  The  suction  of  the  gas  exhauster  also  drew 
in  the  fresh  charge  of  fuel  and  air  to  be  compressed  and  fired 
again.  Engines  like  these  worked  quiet  and  smoothly,  the  com- 
pression of  the  charge  at  each  end  of  the  cylinder  acted  as  a 
cushion  at  the  reversal  of  the  motion,  and  so  did  away  with  the 
knocking  common  in  uncushioned  engines.      There  were  two 


128  MARINE   PROPELLERS. 

Mr  Kennedy. 

cranks  at  right  angles,  and  the  engine  was  started  by  steam  from 
the  small  boiler  utilising  the  waste  heat  of  the  producer  gases  and 
exhaust  gases,  so  that  there  was  no  difficulty  whatever  in  working 
the  ship— stopping,  starting,  and  reversing,  or  going  at  half,  or 
quarter  speed.  The  waste  heat,  however,  was  not  available  for 
steaming  when  starting  with  everything  cold  ;  but  this  difficulty  was- 
overcome  by  constructing  the  steam  boiler  so  that  it  could  be  fired 
by  coal  for  a  start,  and  afterwards,  when  the  engine  and  producers- 
were  at  work  the  heat  from  the  engine  exhaust  might  be  utilised. 
The  same  boiler  blew  in  the  air  and  steam  for  the  producer,  and 
worked  the  gas  exhauster  by  jet  injectors  and  ejectors.  This  com- 
bination was  as  near  as  possible  the  gas  marine  engine  plant  at  the 
present  moment.  The  engine  could  be,  of  course,  single  acting,  int 
which  case  four  cylinders  on  two  pairs  of  cranks  at  right  angles 
were  used,  giving  an  even  turning  moment.  Only  a  small  fly-wheel 
effort  was  necessary.  He  had  collected  a  considerable  amomit  of 
information  regarding  internal  combustion  engines  and  gas  pro- 
ducers suitable  for  marine  propulsion  for  practical  commercial 
purposes,  and,  with  the  permission  of  the  Institution,  he  proposed 
to  embody  it  in  a  separate  paper,  apart  from  the  question  of  the 
propeller.  For  mercantile  or  naval  purposes,  petrol  or  oil  engines 
were  not  worth  considering ;  the  only  fuel  possible  was  coal  in  a- 
gas  producer ;  anthracite  for  small  powers  up  to  250  or  300  horse 
power,  and  common  non-caking  bituminous  slack  coal  for  higher 
powers.  The  alarm  felt  in  some  quarters  about  the  rapid 
consumption  of  steam  coal  of  high  quality  was,  therefore,  ground- 
less, for  it  would  be  unnecessary  to  use  this  high-class  steam  coal 
in  any  ship  gas  driven.  The  common  slack  would  be  equally  as- 
good  as  the  best  Welsh  steam  coal,  and  the  ship  would  be  smokeless. 
However,  neither  the  clutches  nor  the  engines  formed  the  main 
theme  of  the  paper.  Taking  all  things  into  account,  the  question 
really  was  whether  the  screw  propeller,  which  required  the 
introduction  of  clutches  or  electric  transmission,  could  not  with 
advantage  be  superseded  by  the  water  jet  propeller,  thus  doing 
away  with   two  weak   spots   in  screw  propulsion,   namely,   the 


WITH    NON-REVERSIBLE   ENGINES  129 

Mr  Kennedy. 

!  propeller  outside  the  vessel,  and  the  propeller  shaft  inside  the 

I  vessel.    Mr  Matthey's  remarks  were  confined  to  the  real  question^ 

namely,  whether  a  screw  propeller  with  a  reversing  device  or  a 
reversing  engine   should  he  used,   or  a  jet  propeller  with  an 
unreversihle  engine.     If  the  jet  propeller  could  not  in  practice  be 
brought  into  agreement  with  theory,  the  gas  engine  with  a  screw 
propeller  still  would  offer  advantages  over  the  steam  engine.     The 
question,  he  trusted,  had  been  interesting,  and  Mr  Matthey  had 
advanced  the  knowledge  of  the  jet  propeller  by  his  brief  contri- 
bution to  the  subject.      He  was  glad  to  find  that  Mr  Matthey  was 
rather  inclined  to  favour  the  jet  propeller,  and  assumed  that  he 
(Mr  Kennedy)  would  use  gas  producers  at  sea  instead  of  boilers  ; 
that  was  quite  correct.      The  engine  just  briefly  alluded  to  was 
designed  specially  to  draw  its  fuel  gas  from  a  producer  working 
on  the  suction  principle.       Mr  Matthey  seemed  to  differ  in  his 
calculations  of  the  thrust  of  a  water  jet  from  the  method   he 
(Mr  Kennedy)   employed.      In  both    cases  the  result  was  the 
same.       Mr  Matthey  started  from  the  weight  of    water  acce- 
lerated and  the   acceleration  given    to    it.       He    preferred   to 
take  the   static  pressure  given  to    the  water  by  the    impeller 
or  fan   of   the  centrifugal,   and  his   statement,  that  the   thrust 
was  equal   to  the  area  of  the  throat   multiplied  by  the  static 
pressure   due  to  the  velocity  or  acceleration  impressed  on  the 
column  of  water  by  the  impeller,  as  Mr  Matthey  pointed  out, 
should  have  been — **  The  thrust  was  equal  to  the  area  of  the 
throat  multiplied  by  twice  the  static  pressure  equivalent  to  the 
slip  velocity."       Theoretically  that    might   be   correct,    but    in 
practice  it  could  only  be  obtained  when  the  intake  was  so  arranged 
that  the  water    entered  freely  without  change  of  motion,  and 
would  be   nearly   accomplished  in  practice  by  drawing  in  from 
the  bow  of  the  vessel,   but  that  was  not  practicable.      In  his 
example  the  slip  was  20  feet  per  second,  hence  20  x  2  =  40,  and 

^  =  24  feet  head,  or  10  lbs.  pressure  per  square  inch,  and  similarly 

any  other  thrust  could  be  calculated  for  any  other  slip.     Experi- 

13 


130  MARINE   PROPELLERS 

Hr  Kennedy. 

ments,  however,  were  required  to  elucidate  the  effects  of 
different  intakes,  and  also  to  settle  finally  whether  his  system  of 
placing  the  throat  near  the  pump,  and  using  a  diverging  discharge 
pipe,  or  Mr  Matthey's  system  of  using  converging  pipes,  and 
placing  the  discharge  throat  right  astern,  was  the  better  plan. 
The  question  :  Where  does  the  thrust  act  ?  must  be  considered. 
It  acted  by  pressure  on  the  pump  casing  or  pump  dehvery  pipe. 
Hence  he  placed  the  throats  on  an  extension  of  the  pump  delivery 
with  the  necessary  valves,  and  arranged  the  thrust  to  act  fore  and 
aft  opposite  the  throats,  the  water  then  passed  away  through  the 
diverging  pipe,  and  issued  finally  at  a  velocity  not  much  greater 
than  that  due  to  the  vessel's  speed.  Then  its  final  efflux  velocity 
would  be  nearly  zero  compared  with  still  water  outside,  when  it 
actually  left  the  vessel.  To  Mr  Macallum's  contribution  on  the 
subject,  he  might  say  that  the  method  proposed  in  his  specifica- 
tion had  been  carefully  considered  before,  and  a  boat,  working 
upon  the  same  principles,  but  employing  steam,  was  built  in 
Germany  from  designs  by  Dr  Fleischer,  regarding  which  vessel  no 
results  were  published.  The  diflSculty  in  applying  gas  explosion 
or  combustion  on  this  principle  was  that  of  the  necessity  for 
working  at  a  very  low  pressure  in  the  cylinders.  This  pressure 
was  calculated  to  be  the  pressure  of  the  head  of  water  required 
to  give  the  jet  the  correct  velocity.  Thus,  if  the  vessel 
were    moored,    and    the   jet   velocity   40    feet  per   second,   the 

head  would  be  —   or  a  pressure  of  about  10  lbs.  per  square  inch  ; 

and  this  pressure,  multiplied  by  the  area  of  the  discharge-nozzle, 
would  give  the  thrust,  as  in  the  case  of  a  Barker's  mill  water  turbine. 
If  the  pressure  were  such  that  the  resulting  velocity  was  much 
greater  than  twice  the  velocity  of  the  ship,  the  efficiency  would 
fall  off  exactly  as  it  did  in  a  reaction  turbine  wheel  of  the  Hero  or 
Barker's  mill  type,  in  which  the  angular  velocity  of  the  wheel  orifice 
must  be  a  large  fraction  of  the  velocity  of  the  outflowing 
water.*     The  jet  propeller  in  a  ship  was  simply  a  modification  of 

*  See  Professor  Rankine'a  **  Steam  Engine  and  Prime  Movers,"  pagea 
197,  199,  and  206. 


WITH  NON-REVERSIBLE  ENGINES  131 

Hr  Kennedy. 

Heroes  or  Barker's  jet  turbine,  and  must  obey  the  same  laws,  and, 
if  properly  designed,  would  give  the  same  efficiency,  which,  in  the 
case  of  the  turbine,  was  certainly  very  high  if  the  speeds  were 
properly  chosen.  It  was  difficult  to  bum  the  gases  in  an 
apparatus  like  Mr  Macallum*s,  at  a  sufficiently  low  and  steady 
pressure,  to  get  efficiency.  He  had  considered  it  here  fully,  as  it 
threw  some  light  on  his  ideas  of  jet  propellers  which,  after  all, 
should  be  treated  more  from  the  reaction  turbine  jet  point  of 
view,  Mr  E.  T,  Napier's  standpoint  on  the  question  of  the  jet 
propeller  was  the  common  one,  for  the  reasons  given  at  length  in 
his  remarks.  The  quoted  results  of  jet  propelled  boats  were 
generally  well  known ',  but  instances  of  failures,  in  engineering 
schemes  and  inventions,  which  afterwards  turn  out  successful, 
had  not  been  imcommon  in  the  past.  The  early  steam  turbines 
all  failed  to  compete  with  reciprocating  engines,  but,  neverthe- 
less, the  turbine  had  superseded  the  piston  engine  at  last. 
Similarly  with  the  jet  propeller,  if  treated  from  a  static  pressure 
point  of  view,  as  in  the  case  of  the  water  jet  turbine  of  the  Hero 
type,  very  different  results  would  be  obtained  from  those  recorded 
in  the  previous  attempts  to  work  them  by  simply  whirling  the  water 
off  the  blades  of  a  fan,  and  out  of  the  ship  at  a  high  velocity. 
Mr  Napier  made  a  mistake  in  saying  that  any  amount  of  suction 
could  be  obtained  by  simply  contracting  the  intake.  The  suction 
per  square  inch  of  intake  area  could  be  so  increased,  but  as  the 
total  suction  P,  equalled  the  suction  S  per  square  inch  multiplied 
by  the  Area  of  intake  A,  then  P  =  S  x  A.  But  S  decreased  as 
A  increased  and  vice  versa,  therefore  it  was  not  possible  to  *'  get 
any  desired  amount  of  suction  "  by  restricting  the  intake.  Referring 
to  the  tests  on  the  Ruthven  and  on  the  Thomeycroft  jet 
ships,  which  were  always  quoted  as  conclusive  proofs  of  the 
inefficiency  of  jet  propulsion,  he  ventured  to  question  their 
value  in  that  respect,  as  no  scientific  tests  were  ever  made. 
The  only  attempt  at  a  test  was  that  vecorded  by  Mr  S.  W.  Bamaby, 
who  measured  by  a  proof  plane  (a  small  metal  sheet  l^*'  square 
inserted    in    the    jet,    and    hung   on    a  balance)  the    pressure 


132  IfARINE   PROPELLERS 

Mr  Kennedy. 

of  efflux  at    the  nozzle  outlet    in    Thorneycroft's   vesael,    and 
thereby  found  the  final  quantity  and  velocity  of  the  water  after 
ail  losses    had    occurred.      For    his    purpose  that  result  was 
sufficient.       In  investigating  the  whole    question^  the  method 
he    (Mr    Kennedy)  had  adopted  was    to  use  pressure  guages 
on  the  centrifugal  casing,  on  the  valve  chambers,  and  on  pipes,, 
right  up  to  the  outlet.      Only  by  actually  measuring  the  fall  of 
pressure  and  noting  the  direction  could  any  real  information  be 
obtained  of  the  design  of  the  jet  propeller.      This  had  never  been 
done  in  any  tests  recorded,  and  the  results  of  the  previous  attempts- 
could  not  by  any  means  be  regarded  as  conclusive  scientific  proofs- 
one  way  or  another.   Fig.  18,  showed  the  idea  of  measurement.  In. 
this  system  there  were  two  pressures.     The  centrifugal  pressure^ 
which  would  be  recorded  on  the  gauge  shown,  if  all  outlet  for  the 
water  were  closed  and  the  centrifugal  run  at  normal  speed,  and  the 
working  pressure.  By  opening  the  nozzle  N  the  pressure  would  fall  in 
the  pump  case,  and  generally  the  fall  of  pressure  in  working  pumps, 
was  allowed  to  be  about  26  per  cent,  of  the  centrifugal  pressure,  the- 
remaining  pressure  was  working  pressure.     In  the  diagram  shown 
the  water  escaped  directly  by  the  expanding  pipe,  so  that  no  further 
gauging  was  necessary ;  but  if  valves  and  bends  intervene  d  then 
gauge  pressure  readings  must  be  made  to  find  the  fall  of  pressure 
due  to  them.      It  seemed  to  him  that  to  get  the  best  results,  the- 
centrifugal  pressure,  the  working  pressure,  and  the  power  delivered 
to  the  pump,  should  bear  some  relation  to  each  other  which  ought  to- 
be  ascertained  in   order   to    get    the    best    effect.       Also  that- 
the  location  of  the  thrust  might   be   as  near  to  the  pump  as> 
possible.       The  subsequent  ejection  of  the  water  could  be  effected 
without  loss.      The  relative  values  of  the  working  pressure  and 
centrifug-al   pressures  could  be  varied    by  using  various  sized 
nozzles.     The  speed  of  the  water  passing  the  nozzle  should  not 
exceed  twice  the  speed  of  the  vessel;    this   fixed  the  working; 
pressure  and  centrifugal  pressm-e .     Calculations  based  upon  the 
results  of  failure  were  not  of  much  value,  unless  the  cause  of  the 
failure  could  be  ascertained.     It  was  surprising  that  no  notice  had 


WITH   NON-REVERSIBLE   ENGINES  133 

Mr  Kennedy^ 

been  taken  of  the  result  of  an  actual  test  of  a  De  Laval  turbine 

pump  giving  one  horse  power  in  the  water  jet  for  31  lbs.  of  steam 

per  hour,  as  stated  in  the  paper,    This  was  equal  to  a  jet  of  1*4 

cubic  feet  of  water  per  second,  at  a  velocity  of  20  feet  per  second. 

For  31  lbs.  of  steam  consumed  per  hour  the  area  of  the  jet  in  inches 

1*4 
per  horse  power  would  be  __  =  -07  square  feet,  or  10  square  inches. 

The  pressure  due  to  this  velocity  of  20  feet  per  second  was  2*7 
pounds  per  square  inch,  giving  a  thrust  of  2  x  10  x  2 •  7 = 64  lbs.  with 
efficiency  of  jet  unity  ;  but  if  the  jet  efficiency  was  only  -07,  the 
actual  thrust  would  be  37-8  lbs.  With  a  consumption  of  15,000 
lbs.  of  steam  per  hour  the  thrust  would,  therefore,  be  about  18,000 
lbs.  The  De  Laval  turbine  pump  would,  so  far  as  these  calcula- 
tions showed,  make  an  excellent  marine  engine  with  a  jet  propeller. 
The  steam  turbine  had  given  steam  power  a  prolonged  supremacy 
that  would  not  now  be  doubted,  but  in  the  end  internal  combustion 
engines  must  prevail,  either  as  turbines  or  piston  engines.  He 
had  no  special  preference  for  the  jet  propeller,  but  believed  it 
would  in  many  cases  be  adopted,  and  he  hoped  to  demonstrate  his 
views  in  some  practical  shape  on  a  sufficiently  large  scale  to  prove 
its  capabiUties.  If  for  no  other  reason  than  the  facility  of  using 
cheap  coal  instead  of  special  steam  coal  on  board  a  ship,  and  that 
without  smoke.  The  subject  of  ship  propulsion  by  gas  producers 
and  engines  was  of  great  commercial  and  scientific  importance, 
whatever  propeller  might  be  used.  He  trusted  that  his  some- 
what imperfect  and  incomplete  paper  might  have  had  some 
effect  in  directing  attention  to  a  subject  yet  in  its  infancy. 

On  the  motion  of  the  Chairman  (Mr  E.  Hall-Brown,  Vice- 
President)  Mr  Bankin  Kennedy  was  awarded  a  vote  of  thanks 
for  his  paper. 


AN  INQUIRY  REGARDING  THE  MARINE  PROPELLER. 
By  J.  MUiLBN  Adam  (Member). 


SEE  PLATES  IX.  AND  X. 


Bead  22nd  December,  1903. 


An  endeavour  is  made  in  the  following  paper  to  concentrate 
attention  on  the  propeller  and  the  fluid  which  passes  through  it^ 
as  a  conservative  system  in  the  sense  indicated  by  an  illustratioa 
from  the  art  of  ropemaking. 

To  form  the  strands  of  a  hempen  cable  many  yarns  converge  to 
pass  through  a  fixed  block,  from  which  the  resultant  strand 
emerges  a  rotating  cylinder ;  on  the  other  hand,  in  laying  a  wire 
rope  it  is  the  wire  spools  which  rotate  within  the  machine  while 
the  strand  recedes  without  rotation.  The  result,  however,  is 
similar,  all  motion  being  relative.  Incidentally  it  is  to  be  noted 
for  future  reference  that  the  dynamic  grasp  of  the  block  on  a 
plane  at  right  angles  to  motion  is  essential  to  the  result. 

For  our  present  purpose,  therefore,  let  us  consider  a  rotating 
column  of  water  and  its  impact  on  the  propeller,  or  vice  versa 
without  reference  to  the  surrounding  element,  or  in  other  words 
the  term  ** rotation"  will  be  used  in  its  relation  only  to  the 
propeller  and  its  column  as  defined,  and  energy  and  inertia  will 
be  used  as  convertible  terms. 

Some  elementary  observations  are  made  to  explain  the  point  of 
view  of  the  succeeding  inquiry  into  the  reactions  produced  in  a 
fluid  by  and  upon  a  rotating  screw,  which  may  be  defined  as  an 
instrument  to  produce  axial  acceleration  of  a  homogeneous  current 
passing  through  its  disc,  distinct  from  the  surrounding  element, 
and  to  receive  from  that  acceleration  corresponding  reaction. 

Much  misconception  and  confusion  of  thought  may  arise  from 


AN   INQUIRY    REGARDING   THE   MARINE    PROPELLER  135 

failing  to  discriminate  between  the  substanoe  of  the  water  and  its 
contained  energy  or  relative  inertia. 

The  theory  that  *'  The  action  of  the  propeller  on  the  water  is 
principally  to  accumulate  pressure,  which  has  the  effect  of 
increasing  the  velocity  of  the  race  after  contact  with  the  blade 
surfaces  has  ceased,"  is  rejected  for  the  following  reasons,  which 
to  this  audience  will  be  merely  mentioned,  not  elaborated : — 

j  1st.  Ten  atmospheres  on  the  volume  of  a  steam  boiler  under 

I  test  fails   when   released   to   spill  the   volume  of   a 

!  pint  measure.      Therefore,  in  free  water,  movement 

I  must  be  simultaneous  with  pressure. 


2nd.  Although  the  apparent  movement  of  a  body  of  water  is 
relatively  slow,  the  transmission  of  energy  by  impact, 
through  water,  may  be  instantaneous.  Such  impact 
is  probably  conveyed  to  the  nearest  free  surface,  and 
there  dissipated  in  vibratory  or  undulating  motion,  and 
partly  in  the  production  of  heat,  e.g,y  the  difiference 
between  the  air  on  the  pressure  side  and  on  the  suction 
side  of  centrifugal  fans  is  measurable  by  an  ordinary 
thermometer. 

In  a  tank  of  still  water,  having  a  pipe  from  a  force  pump  some 
distance  under  and  directed  towards  the  surface,  the  surge  due  to 
a  stroke  of  the  pump  piston,  however  sharp,  will  not  disturb  the 
surface  for  a  measurable  time,  but  tap  the  outside  of  the  tank 
with  a  hammer,  and  instantly,  in  places  over  the  whole  surface 
the  light  will  be  seen  to  shimmer. 

The  Helical  Screw  Propeller. 

The  last-named  fact  indicates  a  thin  and  sharp-edged  blade  to 
avoid  loss  by  percussion,  as  the  angular  velocity  of  tip  is  frequently 
about  100  feet  per  second.  Given  a  blade  of  proper  form,  ihe 
water  would  never  be  called  upon  to  follow  up  that  angular 
Telocity,  but  only  the  axial  velocity  of  acceleration  of  the  stream. 


186  AN   INQUIRY   REGARDING    THE   MARINE    PROPELLER 

which  velocity  seldom  exceeds  6  feet  per  second*  ;  so  that  unless 
a  powerful  centrifugal-pump  action  exists  no  cavitation  should 
occur  in  practice. 

No  propulsive  power  can  be  expended  on  the  so-called  "race," 
forward  of  the  propeller,  as  water  is  supplied  in  full  measure,  and 
therefore  in  full  weight  by  gravitation,  and  the  instant  such  is 
not  supplied,  there  occurs  rupture  of  the  column.  In  this  respect, 
and  perhaps  in  this  only,  does  the  behaviour  of  water  in 
relation  to  a  propeller  differ  from  air,  which,  within  a  suction  pipe, 
rarifies  as  it  approaches — the  speed  gradually  increasing  to  carry 
the  same  mass  within  the  time.  The  whole  mass  of  water  con- 
tained in  a  pipe  of  given  section  must  take  simultaneous  acceleration, 
and  to  depict  the  natural  movement  the  area  of  the  cylinder, 
F^  Fig.  1,  afterwards  described,  would  be  constricted  slightly  just 
above  the  propeller. 

Let  a  piston.  Fig.  1,  lift  water  from  P  to  Q,  it  is  evident 
that  the  whole  work  is  represented  by  the  weight  of  the  column 
P  Q,  expressed  in  terms  of  speed.  There  is  no  work  done  by 
the  piston  upon  the  feed  column  F,  whose  pressure  upon  the 
under  side  of  the  piston  is  not  less,  and  is  opposite  to,  the  atmos- 
pheric pressure  upon  the  surface  within  the  cylinder  at  Q.  In 
event  of  the  pipe  F  being  obstructed,  and  failing  to  supply  a 
column  of  sufficient  speed  or  height,  then  will  the  work  of  the 
piston  be  instantly  increased  by  the  whole  atmospheric  pressure 
acting  on  Q,  and  uncompensated  at  F  save  by  the  elastic  pressure 
of  the  vapour  of  water  at  the  given  temperature.  This  is  the  case 
of  cavitation. 

Since  this  paper  was  handed  to  the  Secretary,  the  writer  has 
seen,  by  courtesy  of  the  latter,  an  article  published  in  "  Traction 
and  Transmission,"  part  30,  which  explains  the  manner  of 
producing  the  very  interesting  and  beautiful  photographs  and  the 
cavitation  effects  therein  depicted,  which   illustrations  were  first 

♦  30  knots  =  66  feet  per  second,  of  which  about  10  per  cent,  is 
momentarily  oontribnted  by  the  screw,  viz.,  what  is  called  slip. 


AN    INQUIRY   REGARDING   THE    MARINE    PROPEI.LER  137 

published  in  the  Transactions  of  this  Institution  three  years 
^g'o  (Vol.  44,  Plate  4)  in  connection  with  Hon.  C.  A.  Parson*s 
paper  on  the  steam  turbine.  These  explanations  go  to  show  that 
these  photographs  depict  what  does  not  occur  in  marine  practice. 

Mr  Dunell,  the  writer  of  that  article,  says : — **  Mr  Parsons,  in 
order  to  get  certain  data  on  the  subject,  made  some  very  interesting 
and  ingenious  experiments.  Model  screws,  which  were  made  to 
revolve  with  great  rapidity,  were  placed  in  a  bath  of  water  brought 
to  a  temperature  just  short  of  *lx)iling  point.  The  immersion  of 
the  screw  was  proportionate  to  that  of  an  actual  working  screw 
propeller.  The  ratio  of  depth  beneath  the  surface  of  the  water 
was  a  necessary  factor  in  the  experiment.  ...  A  close 
resemblance  in  these  respects  to  the  actual  working  conditions  of 
the  screw  being  thus  obtained,  Mr  Parsons  proceeded  to  show  the 
phenomenon  that  occurred.** 

Eegarding  this  revelation,  three  observations  may  be  made  : — 
Ist.  Although  a  propeller  is  occasionally  required  to  start  from 
rest,  its  real  work  cannot  be  imitated  by  creating  a  current  in  still 
water.  2nd.  The  true  hydraulic  effect  could  not  be  studied  with 
a  ratio  of  depth  beneath  the  surface  unless  the  factor  taken  were 
the  angular  velocity.  It  is  improbable  that  this  is  the  ratio  meant, 
and  the  point  ceases  to  be  of  any  real  consequence  in  view  of  the 
fact : — 3rd.  That  the  experiments  were  made  at  such  a  tempera- 
ture that  the  elastic  pressure  of  the  water  vapour  entirely 
neutralised  the  atmospheric  pressure  equivalent  to  30  feet 
immersion. 

It  may  be  assumed  that  all  attempts  had  failed  to  produce 
cavitation  of  that  kind  in  cold  water. 

A  high  authority  on  the  marine  propeller  has  said,  in  discussing 
the  value  of  blades  having  gaining  pitch  :— ''It  is  probable  that 
the  water  will  look  after  this  for  itself,  and  will  refuse  to  be  ac- 
celerated suddenly;  and  all  that  is  required  of  the  screw  is  that 
its  surface  shall  accommodate  itself  to  the  rate  of  the  flow  through 
U,  tohiek  rate  is  determined  by  the  mean  pitch  of  the  screw  surface. 
What  the  variation  on  each  side  of  the  mean  should  be  is  very 


138  AN    INQUIRY    REGARDING    THE    MARINE   PROPELLER 

difficult  to  say,  as  it  has  not  yet  been  determined  at  what  distance 
ahead  of  the  screw  acceleration  of  the  water  commences,  or  at 
what  distance  astern  it  is  completed,  and  the  full  velocity  of  the 
race  attained/' 

The  above  rather  confusing  quotation — part  of  which  has  been 
italicised  by  the  present  writer — clearly  indicates  the  difficulty  of 
lucid  reasoning  upon  the  screw  propeller.  It  is  not  an  instrument 
of  precision  but  only  of  approximations. 

The  italicised  dictum  might  read:  **The  water  is  compelled  to 
look  after  this  for  itself  in  refusing  to  be  accelerated  suddenly,  for 
all  that  the  helical  screw  is  capable  of  is  that  its  surface  shall 
approximate  to  the  mean  rate  of  the  flow,  etc." 

These  approximations  will  be  more  fully  referred  to  later. 

The  usually  accepted  diagram  of  the  vefia  covtrada  type  of  race. 
Fig.  2 — which  is  taken  from  a  standard  work-  is  much  exag- 
gerated, for  the  difference  between  the  feed  and  the  effluent  cannot 
exceed  the  proportion  of  a  10-inch  to  a  9-inch  pipe.  What  is  of 
more  importance  is  that  it  appears  to  be  quite  wrong  in  indicating 
a  definite  axial  acceleration  of  the  race  forward  of  the  propeller. 
Hydraulic  pressure  bears  equally  in  every  direction,  and  therefore 
thejentire  forward  hemisphere  is  moved  to  contribute  to  the  zone 
of  reduced  pressure,  as  shown  in  Fig.  3  ;  and — taking  the  converse 
analogy  of  the  action  of  a  mushroom  valve  in  which  the  area  of  a 
pipe  is  vented  by^a.  peripheral  opening  one- fourth  of  its  diameter — 
the  bulk  of  the  extra  water  required  would  naturally  be  supplied 
by  inflow  on  the  plane  of  the  disc.  A  flame  test  with  the  model 
on  the  table  illustrates  this  movement  very  clearly — this  pro- 
peller creating  no  radial  dispersion — radial  dispersion  might  be 
expected  to  counteract  this  movement,  and  ultimately  cause 
cavitation  by  restricting  the  natural  supply,  but  such  cavitation 
would  not  start  at  the  tips,  as  indicated  by  Mr  Parson's  photo- 
graphs. 

A  screw  rotating  in  running  water  without  gripping  it,  is 
analagous  to  a  disc  rotating  in  still  water,  or  to  our  piston  in  Fig.  1 
standing  idle. 


AN  INQUIRY   REGARDING   THE   MARINE   PROPELLER  139 

If  the  evolution  be  followed,  then  the  piston  might  be  raised  and 
its  work  accomplished  by  making  a  screw  thread  on  the  piston  rod 
and  rotating  it  in  a  fixed  nut,  and  similarly  the  same  work  might 
be  done  by  modifying  the  piston  itself  into  a  screw.  The  latter 
form  would  be  appropriate  in  the  case  illustrated  to  the  right  of  the 
figure,  where  it  is  required,  not  to  raise  still  water,  but  to  accelerate 

p 
a  stream.      Let  p^  have  head  sufficient  to  yield  100  gallons  per 

minute  by  gravitation,  the  screw  piston  being  independently  rotated 
at  100  revolutions  per  minute  without  '*grip"  neither  impelling  nor 
retarding.  If  mcrease  in  delivery  be  required,  then  a  screw  of  10 
per  cent,  coarser  pitch  might  be  chosen,  with  109  gallons  as  the 
result,  1  gallon  being  lost  by  leakage  or  true  slip  of  the  water. 
The  10  per  cent,  extra  pitch — not  the  full  pitch  of  the  screw — is 
thus  seen  to  represent  the  stroke  of  our  typical  piston,  and  it 
includes  a  variable  allowance  for  slip.  Again,  if  it  is  required 
instead  of  increasing  the  quantity,  to  raise  100  gallons  of  water  to 
a  level  10  units  higher,  Q^  the  first  propeller  might  now  be  appro- 
priate with  101  revolutions  per^minute,  the  reduction  of  the  head 
and  the  extra  revolution  providing  the  necessary  angle  of 
incidence  to  perform  the  work,  P^  Q^,  as  before.  The  screw  is  there- 
fore a  piston,  whose  stroke  or  lift  is  not  described  by  its  "  pitch,"  P, 
but  by  the  subtense  of  the  angle  PO  Q,  its  angle  of  incidence  in  Fig. 
4.  As  already  noted,  there  is  leakage  or  slip  of  the  water  escaping 
between  the  blades  and  otherwise,  the  screw  being  like  the  piston, 
really  intermittent  in  action  blade  by  blade.  The  analogous  losses 
in  the  case  of  the  piston  are  in  two  directions — the  loss  on  the 
return  stroke  and  that  due  to  leakage  through  the  piston  rings. 
"Grip,"  therefore,  cannot  be  wholly  dissociated  in  fact  from  its 
attendant  slip,  but  the  distinction  between  grip  and  slip  should 
never  be  lost  sight  of  mentally. 

The  problem  of  the  propeller  to  the  marine  engineer  is — having 
fixed  a  type — to  determine  in  each  case  a  relationship  of  speed, 
diameter,  pitch,  and  surface  best  suited  to  minimise  leakage 
through  and  around  the  propeller. 


140  AN   INQUIRY   REGARDING   THE   MARINE   PROPELLER 

The  primary  aim  of  the  present  paper  is  to  inquire  whether  the 
existing  type  is  well  calculated  to  make  this  problem  easy,  or  this 
•object  attainable,  and  to  propose  an  improved  type,  for  reasons 
given  in  the  text. 

Applied  to  a  ship,  the  difference  between  the  travel  of  the  screw 
in  relation  to  the  wake  in  which  the  propeller  is  found  and  the 
speed  of  the  ship,  provides  the  angle  of  incidence,  P  O  Q,  Fig.  4, 
without  which  no  energy  would  be  usefully  employed.  Let  a  ship 
be  towed  at  a  uniform  speed,  having  her  screw  rotated — without 
gripping  the  water  either  to  propel  or  retard— by  a  motor  designed 
for  constant  speed  at  any  power.  If  the  tow-rope  be  cast  off,  her  speed 
will  fall  away  until  the  angle  of  incidence  on  the  propeller  blades 
•develops  just  enough  resistance  to  drive  her  at  a  uniform  speed 
somewhat  less  than  the  first.  The  term  slip,  applied  to  the 
quantity  so  defined,  tends  to  mislead.  That  quantity  might  more 
aptly  be  called  **grip/*  which  includes,  as  we  have  seen,  a  percent- 
:age  of  leakage.  When  a  ship  is  retarded  by  head  winds  this  angle 
may  become  excessive,  with  leakage  to  correspond,  and  to  run  the 
propeller  more  slowly  would  actually  increase  its  efficiency. 
There  is  to  be  determined  then  for  every  screw  a  highest 
efficiency  angle  of  mean  incidence,  irrespective  of  its  gross 
pitch,  and  experimental  research  devoted  to  this  narrow 
field  would  yield  valuable  results.  In  the  helical  screw 
the  whole  "  grip "  is  taken  immediately  by  the  leading 
•edge,  where  the  particles  in  proximity  to  the  face  are  retarded  and 
robbed  of  all  relative  kinetic  energy  before  being  shed  from  the 
following  edge.  In  his  paper  on  ship  resistance  Mr  R.  E.  Froude 
has  described  this  action,  although  not  in  the  same  connection. 
This  inert  fluid — ^accumulating  to  some  extent  -would  give  the 
•effect  of  a  coarser  pitch  to  the  active  stream,  by  producing 
practically  a  false  reactive  surface.  If  this  be  so  it  would  account 
for  so-called  negative  slip.  Observation  of  the  behaviour  of  water 
towards  a  boulder  in  mid-stream  will  show  that  the  actual  work 
of  getting  past  the  obstruction  is  at  a  definite  small  distance  from 
the   stone.       A  small  pebble   seems  to   make  a  bigger  relative 


AN    INQUIRY   REGARDING    THE   MARINE   PROPELLER  HI. 

disturbance  than  a  larger  one.  The  absolute  thickness  of  inert  fluid 
does  not  vary  much,  and — by  inference — any  variation  in  pitch  so 
caused  would  be  more  pronounced  on  a  model,  or  near  the  tips,  or- 
over  a  finely  pitched  propeller. 

Having  noted  some  of  the  physical  features  involved,  the* 
geometry  of  the  screw  propeller  in  relation  thereto,  may  now 
be  considered. 

A  particle  or  mass  escaping  from  the  impact  of  a  narrow  inclined 
vane — moving  uniformly  in  a  straight  line  at  right  angles  to  its- 
length — will  take,  according  to  Newton's  second  law,  a  straight- 
line  with  a  direction  due  to  the  angle  of  incidence  in  relation  to* 
its  movement  before  contact,  the  change  indicating  the  resultant 
direction  of  the  oblique  force     The  change  is  opposed  by  resist- 
ances which  may  be  resolved  into  two  component  forces,  A,  Fig.  4,. 
at  right  angles  to  the  path  of  the  vane,  represented  in  reaction 
by  deflection  (or  effective   work  for  our  present  purpose)  and  B- 
parallel   to  the   path  represented  by  inertia,  or  what   has   been* 
erroneously  called  useless  resistance.     By  taking  account  of  the- 
length  of  the  vane  a  conception  might  be  formed  of  two  planes  of 
force  characterised  as  above,  constant  in  magnitude  and  direction. 
Fig.  5  is  an  attempt  at  a  delineation  of  this  extended  figure  of 
forces  in  perspective,  the  tip  of  the  vane  being  depicted  as  receding 
at  an  angle  of  45"  from  the  plane  of  the  paper.      This  is  merely  to 
connect  the  idea  to  Fig.  6,  where  the  vane  is  shown  inclined  edge- 
wise at  45*^.     Let  the  vane  be  pivoted  on  one  end  and  the  free  end 
moved  through  an  arc,  the  component  plane  A  now  lies  parallel  to- 
the  axis  of  rotation  and  perpendicular  to  the  plane  of  the  diagram, 
and  the  component  B  now  becomes  a  system  of  tangential  forces- 
of  magnitude,  falling  to  nil  at  the  axis.     The  simple  system  of 
A  and  B  resistances  fails  to  satisfy  the  conditions,  and  a  new 
component,  D,  Fig.  7,  in  the  same  plane  as  B,  is  introduced,  for,  to- 
compel  a  mass  to  describe  a  curved  path,  C,  it  must  be  acted  on 
by  a  force  directed  towards  the  centre  of  the  curvature.     If  this- 
resistance,   D,    is    supplied   by   matter    outside    the    system    as 
defined,    then    is  energy   being  expended   beyond    the    reactive- 


142  AN   INQUIRY   REGARDING   THE   MARINE   PROPELLER 

column,  and  therefore  wasted  so  far  as  propulsion  is  concerned, 
"whereas  no  power  would  be  absorbed  by  this  necessary  centri- 
petal component  were  it  contained  within  the  system — if,  in  other 
words,  the  form  of  the  propeller  itself  supplied  it.  Such  a  vane, 
however,  does  not  form  a  segment  of  a  screw ;  to  make  it  so  it 
must  be  twisted.  Fig.  7,  in  such  a  manner  that  every  angle  of 
incidence  from  root  to  tip  shall  be  so  co-related  to  its  radius  as 
to  form  a  consistent  pitch.  This  twisting  further  modifies  the 
diagram  of  forces,  and  increases  the  magnitude  of  the  com- 
ponent D,  because  every  arc  traversing  the  surface  of  the 
vane  is  now  bounded  by  an  arc  of  lesser  gradient,  offering  a  path 
of  reduced  resistance.  The  effect  will  be  graphically  shown  by  Figs. 
8  and  9.  Fig.  8  is  the  contour  of  an  ordinary  propeller  blade  upon  a 
helix  of  uniform  pitch,  and  Fig.  9  is  a  projected  view  of  the  same. 
Let  stream  K  take  a  tangential  path  across  the  blade,  then  it  is  to 
be  proved  that  the  gradient  is  no  longer  a  straight  line,  but  a 
convex  mound  of  rapidly  losing  pitch.  In  Fig.  10  the  horizontal 
base  of  each  rectangle  is  the  developed  length  of  an  arc  of  15°,  and 
the  vertical  spaces  are  the  axial  travel  or  pitch  advance  within 
the  same  angles  of  rotation,  then  the  pitch  angle  of  the  blade,  or 
the  gradient  the  water  has  to  climb,  is  indicated  by  the  hypo- 
thenuse — a  diagonal  straight  line  passing  through  their  inter- 
sections ;  but  a  tangent  struck  from  the  first  radial  in  Fig.  9  and 
subtending  the  same  angle  is  longer  than  the  corresponding  arc. 
The  dotted  verticals  denote  the  augmented  base,  and  their  inter- 
sections with  the  pitch  lines  define  the  dotted  convex  curve  T, 
which  graphically  expresses  the  loss  of.  resistance  at  once  resulting 
from  and  inviting  radial  dispersion. 

Mr  S.  W.  Bamaby  points  out  that  no  dispersal  of  water  is  visible 
in  phosphorescent  seas,  but,  as  has  been  already  stated,  energy  is 
transmitted  by  concussion  as  surely  as  by  translation,  and  the 
phosphorescent  visibility  may  be  limited  to  the  latter  disturbance. 
Although  the  substance  of  the  water  of  the  race  may  not  disperse 
much,  because  there  is  nothing  to  take  its  place,  an  instantaneous 
deflection  or  tendency  to  deflect  is  all  that  must  be  shown  to  prove 


AN   INQUIRY   REGARDING   THE   MARINE   PROPELLER  l;t3 

loss  of  energy,  for  propulsive  thrust  is  upon  the  propeller  face  aaid 
nowhere  else,  and  the  direction  of  the  resistances  hearing  thereon 
is  of  primary  importance.  The  behaviour  of  the  water  afterwards 
is  notable  only  as  indicating  work  already  done,  and  the  turbulent 
wake  is  an  evidence  of  misdirected  energy. 

In  the  discussion  of  one  of  this  year's  papers,  read  by  Mr  Yarrow 
before  the  Institution  of  Naval  Architects,  the  following  observa* 
tions  were  made  by  Mr  Rigg : — **  A  curved  propeller  looks  very 
well  theoretically,  but  is  wrong  in  practice ;  a  flat  blade  gives  the 
better  result  of  the  two ;  the  movement  of  a  stream  of  water  on 
the  blade  of  a  screw  propeller  is  not  a  sliding  action,  but  like  that 
of  a  billiard  ball  against  the  cushion.  It  is  a  reflected  action,  and 
the  efliect  of  it  is  that  the  resultant  pressure  is  always  perpendicular 
to  the  surface  of  the  blade." 

The  above  has  already  been  answered  by  anticipation.  Kecalling 
the  distinction  between  substance  and  quality,  the  duty  of  the 
propeller  is  to  abstract  the  energy  and  to  get  rid  of  the  water.  Did 
water  condense,  as  steam  does  in  the  act  of  delivering  up  its  energy 
to  the  De  Laval  turbine,  the  problem  would  be  different,  but  it 
subsists  and  has  to  be  disposed  of,  and  this  disposal  may  be 
accomplished  economically  or  the  reverse.  This  depends  on  the 
shape  of  the  propeller  blade — the  shape  not  of  its  outline,  but  of 
its  surface.  In  other  words,  the  treatment  of  the  water  by  the 
propeller  should  not  presuppose  instant  deflection  like  a  billiard 
bally  but  a  gradual  though  rapid  change  of  momentum  and  direction, 
and  an  ideal  blade  must  in  its  form  follow  the  change  and  bear 
with  constant  and  equal  pressure  upon  the  fleeting  fluid  in  transit 
over  its  surface. 

When  waves  roll  on  sand  or  shelving  rocks  at  low  angles,  they 
immediately  break  in  impotent  foam,  but  on  several  places  on  our 
coasts,  owing  to  a  different  formation  of  rock,  the  water  with 
similar  impulse  is  deflected  in  an  almost  unbroken  column  high 
mto  the  air  at  right  angles  to  the  impulse. 

A  little  consideration  leads  us  to  deduce  that  the  form  of 
surface  most  favourable  to  the  latter  result  is  a  curve.  Fig.  11, 


144  AN   INQUIRY   REGARDING   THE   MARINE    PROPELLER 

whose  lower  tangent  is  parallel  to  the  attack^  rising  on 
vertical  equidistant  ordinates,  whose  successive  lengths  are  as  the 
squares  of  the  abscissae  values,  giving,  in  fact,  equal  accelera- 
tion, at  right  angles  to  the  force,  in  unit  of  time. 

Attempts  to  adopt  gaining  pitches  have  not  been  successful,  prob- 
ably because  the  radial  component  D,  Fig.  7.  is  thereby  further 
Increased,  and  also  because  an  acceleration,  uniform  from  tip  to 
boss,  is  not  possible  in  the  helical  vane,  in  which  by  construction 
the  tip  subtends  a  much  smaller  angle  of  rotation  than  the  root. 

This  will  readily  be  seen  with  reference  to  Figs.  8  and  9,  in 
which  the  radii  divide  the  screw  ribband  or  path  into  spaces,  each 
representing  16°  of  rotation.  Now,  in  a  propeller  of  gaining 
pitch,  each  of  these  equal  spaces  would  contain  an  equal  amount 
of  gain,  say  6  inches.  If  10  feet  mean  pitch  were  required,  let 
the  blade  have  a  pitch  of  10  feet  on  its  medial  line  marked  150* 
on  the  diagram.  It  would  then  be  10  feet  6  inches  pitch  at  ISd"*^ 
and  9  feet  6  inches  pitch  at  IGS"".  Then,  by  construction,  th& 
stream  line  K,  which  comes  into  contact  with  the  blade  at  175'' 
and  leaves  about  125°,  is  accelerated  from  9  feet  2  inches  pitch  on 
entering,  to  10  feet  10  inches  pitch  on  leaving,  viz.,  20  inches 
gain  of  pitch  ;  while  stream  N  would  escape  with  but  half  that 
gain,  viz.,  10  inches,  as  it  only  gets  contact  at  162*",  and  is 
discharged  at  138*.  Now,  a  chief  object  aimed  at  is  to  enter  the 
water  without  shock,  and  we  can  get  an  approximation  only  to 
that  ideal  here  also  if,  choosing  an  intermediate  stream,  M  is  to 
enter  the  water  with  precision,  Fig.  12,  then  the  tip  would  not 
enter  without  shock,  and,  on  the  other  hand,  near  the  root,  the 
blade  would  offer  a  positive  obstruction  to  the  water  passing  through 
the  propeller  where  the  angle  of  incidence  would  actually  fall  on  the 
reverse  side  of  the  leading  edge.  It  is  not  surprising,  therefore, 
that  the  consensus  of  opinion  among  practical  men  is  that  a  flat 
blade  gives  better  results. 

It  may  now  be  taken  as  demonstrated,  geometrically  and 
physically,  that  non-gaining  pitch  is  an  essential  feature  of  the 
helical  screw. 


AN  iNQtnftV   ftE6AftDlK6   THE   UAkWE   PROPELLER  145 

The  Comic  Pbopellbb. 

Lei  an  immersed  hollow  cone,  Fig.  IS,  be  rotated  on  its  own  axis . 
It  IS  obvious  that  no  energy  will  be  expended  beyond  overcoming  skin 
friction.  It  is  an  idle  piston.  But  let  the  cone  be  divided,  and  on 
tlie  plane  of  division  let  the  axis  of  rotation  be  inclined  to  the  cone 
axis,  crossing  it  at  the  apex ;  let  the  apogee  be  the  leading  edge, 
and  a  reactive  surface  will  emerge  having  several  remarkable 
features.  The  potential  pitch  ratio  increases  as  the  angle  of 
mclination  imtil  the  perigee  edge  approaches  the  shaft  axis; 
yet  the  apogee  or  leading  edge  remains  through  every  "  phase  " 
nil  pitch,  having  a  tangent  which  is  common  to  an  arc  of  gyration. 

By  paring  away  the  apogee  edge,  any  required  pitch  of  leading 
edge  or  of  angle  of  incidence  may  be  found,  and  measuring  along 
any  generating  line  of  the  cone  the  magnitude  of  the  pitch  is 
proportional  to  the  distance  from  the  apex. 

¥^8.  19  and  14  are  side  and  end  elevations  of  such  a 
half-cone  with  the  locus  of  a  possible  working  propeller  blade, 
indieated  in  black.  Fig,  14  has  on  the  right-hand  side  the 
haif«oone  repeated  in  its  elliptic  aspect  only  for  clearness, 
and  to  assist  a  demonstration  which  shall  follow.  Fig. 
16  is  the  same  conic  surface  developed;  and  Fig.  15  is  the 
**  pitch  "  angle  diagram  for  the  same  figure,  the  construction  of 
which  does  not  differ  materially  from  that  of  a  helical  screw.  The 
pitch  angle  diagram  of  a  helical  screw  is  usually  defined  as  the 
hypothenuse  of  a  right  angled  triangle,  whose  sides  are  respectively 
the  length  of  the  pitch  of  the  screw,  and  2  ir  r.  It  can  also  be 
described  as  the  development  of  a  hollow  cylinder  of  the  given 
diameter,  where  it  is  intersected  by  the  screw  thread,  and  it  is  a 
straight  line,  Fig.  10.  Fig.  15  shows,  in  contrast,  the  peculiar 
curve  which  characterises  the  conic  pitch-angle  line.  Each  of 
these  curves  is,  similarly,  the  intersection  of  a  concentric  cylinder 
with  the  surface  of  an  inclined  cone,  and  they  appear 
J.K.L.,  &c.,  in  all  the  Figures.  They  denote  the  path  of  a  fluid 
particle  in  transit  from  apogee  to  perigee  upon  any  vane  of  this 
geometric  form,  and  it  is  to  be  proved  that  such  is  the  path  and  no 

14 


146  AN   INQUIRY   REGARDING   THE   MARINE   PROPELLER 

other.     If  the  inevitable  path  of  the  fluid  is  properly  so  defined, 
then  will  the  thrust  be  wholly  and  purely  parallel  to  the  axis. 

Stream  J  shows  a  complete  cycle  from  apogee  ISO""  to  perigee 
0°,  and  is  seen  to  be  a  symmetrical  curve  reaching  a  maximum 
potential  near  the  perigee,  where  it  reverts  and  falls  back  to  zero. 
The  locus  of  the  maximum  potential  pitch,  which  falls  about  the 
45*^  generating  line  on  this  phase,  is  common  to  every  stream,  and 
will  form  the  nominal  root  of  every  blade.  Any  propeller  boss 
must,  therefore,  reach  it  or  enclose  it. 

Stream  E  on  the  same  Figure,  which  is  shown  from  apogee  to 
this  point  or  line  of  osculation  and  no  further,  will  be  found 
to  correspond  closely  with  Fig.  LI,  the  ideal  curve  already 
described  giving  equal  acceleration  per  angle  of  rotation,  or,  what 
is  the  same  thing,  equal  acceleration  per  unit  of  time.  As  every 
pitch  curve  is  identical  in  form,  differing  only  in  scale  of  magni- 
tude, a  fluid  moved  by  a  vane  of  this  form  is  homogeneous  in 
direction,  and  equal  in  pressure  over  the  whole  surface  in  contact. 

The  most  remarkable  feature,  however,  of  the  relationship  of 
these  respective  pitch  curves  is  that  every  arc  is  bounded  on  its 
outer  edge  by  an  arc,  whose  gradient  or  angle  of  incidence  is  much 
higher,  so  that  the  path  of  least  resistance  to  a  fluid  escaping  from 
the  impact  of  this  vane  is  not  tangential  as  in  the  screw,  but 
strongly  centripetal. 

In  Fig.  13,  three  equidistant  planes,  alpha,  beta,  and  gamma,  are 
represented  by  cutting  the  figure  at  right  angles  to  the  axis  of 
rotation.  On  the  right  of  Fig.  14  the  intersections  of  these  planes, 
with  the  cone,  are  plotted  as  ellipses.  Let  the  spaces  between 
these  planes  represent  units  of  work,  viz. — in  the  concrete,  to  carry 
a  volume  axially  from  alpha  to  beta,  or  the  same  volume  from  beta 
to  gamma  in  imit  of  time,  or,  what  in  this  case  is  the  same  thing, 
in  unit  of  angular  movement. 

From  the  axis  in  Fig.  14,  produce  two  radials,  the  first  B 
to  the  intersection  of  the  stream  L  with  alpha,  and  the  second  r 
to  its  intersection  with  beta  ;  the  angle  formed  is  the  time  unit. 
Now,  to  describe  the  pitch  angle  as  before,  let  the  length  of  the  arc 


AN   INQUIRY   REGARDING   THE   MARINE   PROPELLER  147 

be  the  base  of  a  right  angle,  the  pitch  advanoe,  cUpha-beta,  be  the 
height,  and  the  reactive  surface  along  the  stream-line  will 
represent  the  hypothenuse  or  gradient  to  be  scaled.  Now, 
assume  a  tangential  escape  from  the  point  B.  The  line  T  is  seen  to 
diverge,  and  long  before  it  subtends  the  same  angle  it  approaches 
and  passes  the  plane  btta^  thus  completing  its  first  unit  of  work, 
and  invades  the  plane  gamma. 

The  increase  of  gradient  thus  demanded  by  a  tangential  escape 
in  the  cone  and  phase  depicted  is,  in  fact,  about  15  per  cent.  If 
the  pitch  angle  at  a  given  diameter  were  1  in  10,  the  path  of  a 
tangential  escape  across  a  blade  would  be  about  1  in  8*5.  In  fact, 
tangential  escape  at  any  practical  angular  velocity  is  impossible. 
This  empirical  tangent  is  also  plotted  in  relation  to  the  same 
stream  L  in  Fig.  13,  and  for  a  more  graphic  comparison  is  developed 
in  Fig.  15,  L,  where  the  magnitude  of  the  increase  of  gradient 
implied  by  a  tangential  escape  is  made  manifest,  L  being  the  pitch 
curve  for  the  arc,  and  T  for  the  tangent. 

Every  one,  of  course^  has  observed  the  curious  irruptions  at 
the  surface  of  the  water  in  the  wake  of  a  screw  propeller, 
as  if  rotating  eddies  of  water  were  being  constantly  made 
and  spurned  from  the  blades,  these  vortices,  of  course, 
are  being  thrown  o&  on  all  sides,  downwards  and  sideways 
as  well  as  upwards,  presumably  in  the  general  form  of 
an  expanding  cone  or  the  unwinding  of  a  spiral  from  the  reced- 
ing propeller.  It  is  here  contended  that  this  phenomenon  is  due 
to  the  radial  component  of  every  angle  of  incidence  of  the  screw 
surface  already  geometrically  demonstrated.  It  was  to  be  expected 
therefore  that  the  centripetal  component  of  the  conic  vane  which 
replaces  it  would  extirpate  the  turbulent  wake,  and  this  is  in  fact  the 
case.  On ^  two  trials  of  the  steam  yacht  *' Greta"  with  conic 
propellers  carried  out  by  the  courtesy  of  the  late  Col.  John  Scott, 
C.B.,  of  Halkshill,  this  expectation  was  realised.  The  vessel's 
wake  was  quite  like  that  of  a  ship  under  sail. 

Experiments  with  air  currents  indicate  the  same  effect,  and 
demonstrate  particularly  that  the  induction  is  equally  strong  near 


148  AN  INQUIRY   REGARDING   THE   MARINE   PROPELLER 

the  tips,  and  that  there  are  praotically  no  reverse  currents  or  short- 
circuiting.  The  approaching  converging  currents  flow  apparently 
equally  through  the  disc,  and  recede  as  a  very  slightly  attenuated 
and  vortex-like  column. 

The  only  real  analogy  in  nature  to  the  marine  propeller  is  the 
bird's  wing  when  the  quills  are  closed  on  the  downward  stroke, 
and  it  appears  to  have  been  designed  on  a  conoidal  basis.  So  far 
as  a  limited  observation  goes,  a  cone  with  much  more  obtuse 
generating  angle  is  used,  and  the  ''  phase  "  is  probably  variable* 
but  the  inclined  cone  and  the  position  of  the  wing  in  relation  to 
the  apogee  edge  are  similar  to  that  shown  in  the  figures. 

On  Fig.  15  in  M  is  plotted  the  curve  from  apogee  to  the  locus 
of  a  vane  or  blade  proportional  to  the  cone  illustrated,  and  the 
proposed  section  of  a  blade  is  attached.  The  reverse  is  shown 
parallel  to  the  obverse,  but  washed  away  to  a  fine  leading  edge 
from  the  reverse,  and  to  a  following  edge  on  the  obverse. 

Such  a  blade  must  be  narrow  owing  to  its  rapid  acceleration, 
and  the  leading  edge  should  be  at  or  under  the  apparent  pitch  of 
the  entering  water.  The  forward  body  is  filled  with  water  at  high 
relative  velocity  to  be  retarded  and  yield  its  energy  toward  and 
upon  the  following  edge,  becoming  inert  and  leaving  the  blade 
with  minimum  momentum  in  relation  to  still  water. 

To  sum  up — A  conic  vane  seems  to  possess  as  distinctive  and 
native  features,  several  advantages  separately  aimed  at  in  various 
modifications  and  distortions  of  the  helix,  viz — 

Ist  A  gaining  pitch  yielding  equal  acceleration  in  unit  of  time. 

2nd  Equal  acceleration  between  nearly  parallel  edges  giving 
constant  width  from  root  to  tip. 

Srd  A  constant  centripetal  component  on  every  angle  of 
incidence  from  tip  to  root. 

4th  Great  flexibility  of  design  without  deviation  from  type, 
the  generating  angle  as  well  as  the  phase  of  inclination 
from  the  axis  of  rotation  being  variable,  and 


AN   INQUIRY   REGARDING   THE   MARINE   PROPELLER.  149 

MrJohnBleUe. 

5th  Those  elements  once  determined  and  tabulated— -a  great 
simplicity  of  all  other  calculations,  owing  to  the  geome- 
trical purity  of  the  figure  and  that  its  surface  is 
developable. 

The  curves  in  Fig.  15,  were  determined  by  projecting  the  actual 
sections  on  the  paper  and  finding  the  pitch  of  the  tangents  with  an 
ordinary  pitch  scale. 

Mr  B.  E.  Froude  kindly  pointed  out  a  more  elegant  mode  for 
the  "  Determination  of  pitch  on  the  proposition  that  the  generating 
lines  of  the  cone  must  be  loci  of  uniform  pitch  ratio — The  pitch 
ratio  for  each  generating  angle  can  be  expressed  algebraically  in  terms 
of  the  angle  of  cone,  angle  of  inclination  of  cone  to  shaft  axis,  and 
angle  of  generation.  The  distances  along  the  generating  lines  from 
the  apex  to  points  of  given  radial  distance  from  the  shaft,  are  also 
expressible  mathematically  in  similar  terms  and  then  the  pitch  is 
given  by  the  pitch  ratio  into  the  radius.'' 

This  done,  for  any  cone  and  phase,  the  results  can  be  tabulated  for 
easy  reference.  Foundry  work  need  not  differ  much  from  ordinary 
practice.  To  mould  a  ship  propeller  in  loam,  the  mould  may  be 
swept  up  by  a  rod  guided  over  the  corresponding  surface  of  a 
small  cone  fixed  in  position  at  the  apex,  and  shifted  round  into 
position  for  each  blade.  Where  patterns  must  be  used  these  may 
be  accurately  and  cheaply  formed  by  cutting  a  thin  metal  sheet  or 
sheets  to  the  proper  shape  for  one  or  both  faces,  curving  them  to 
position  upon  a  rigid  cone  and  using  it  or  them  for  facing,  filling 
up  thereupon  the  required  thickness  with  any  plastic  material. 

Discusbion, 

Mr  John  Sibsib  (Member)  remarked  that  the  author  stated  in 
the  opening  sentence  of  his  paper  that  an  endeavour  was  made  to 
concentrate  attention  on  the  propeller  and  fluid  which  passed 
through  it.  He  was  of  opinion  that  the  great  waste  in  power  in 
marine  engines  was  entirely  due  to  the  designing  of  propellers  so 
that  the  water  might  pass  freely  through  the  bli^es.     The  c^uthQi: 


150  AN  INQUIRY   REGARDING  THE  MARINE   PROPELLER 

Mr  John  Biekfe. 

also  referred  to  the  manufaoture  of  a  hempen  cable  and  a  wire 
rope  where  the  block  and  machine  were  fixed.  It  was  only 
necessary  to  assume  a  case  where  the  block  and  machine  with 
spool  could  be  made  to  partly  recede  from  the  cable  and  the  wire 
rope  while  undergoing  manufacture,  to  illustrate  the  waste  of 
power  in  steamship  propulsion.  The  experiment,  carried  out  at 
the  previous  meeting,  with  a  small  propeller  appeared  to  him  to 
clearly  demonstrate  that  this  waste  was  entirely  due  to  centripetal 
action,  and  pointed  to  the  necessity  of  dividing  the  propellers  into 
two  classes,  namely,  one  where  the  air  or  fluid  was  forced  away 
from  the  propeller,  and  the  other  where  the  propeller  was  forced 
through  the  fluid.  Centripetal  action  was  desirable  in  a  fan,  but 
for  a  marinejpropeller  it  was  the  very  reverse  of  what  was  wanted. 
Every  endeavour  should  be  made  in  a  marine  propeller  to  get  the 
blade  to  grip  the  water,  and  so  allow  a  minimum  flow  of  water  to 
pass  through  it.  In  fact,  water  should  take  the  place  of  the  block 
and  machine  with  spool,  so  that  the  maximum  of  efficiency  could 
be  had  from  the  marine  engine.  Not  only  did  centripetal  action 
in  a  marine  propeller  convert  it  into  an  efficient  force  pump,  to 
force  the  water  away  from  the  stem  of  the  vessel,  and  so  do 
wasteful  work  whilst  putting  it  in  motion,  but  it  was  the  sole 
cause  of  cavitation,  which  was  so  detrimental  to  high  speed  after 
the  vessel  had  got  into  motion.  Centripetal  action  and  its  con- 
comitant evil,  cavitation,  appeared  to  him  to  be  entirely  due  to 
placing  the  propeller  blades  in  the  same  plane.  The  obvious 
remedy,  therefore,  would  be  to  place  each  blade  in  a  separate 
plane.  This  arrangement,  if  adopted,  would  be  following  in 
the  footsteps  of  Nature,  which  provided  fish  with  only  one 
tail  to  work  in  undisturbed  water  at  all  speeds.  There 
was  a  point  in  connection  with  the  propeller  which  he  failed 
to  understand,  and  that  was  the  necessity  of  providing  a 
variable  pitch.  So  far  as  he  could  understand  there  should  be 
only  one  standard  pitch,  and  that  the  coarsest  possible  at  all  times. 
If  the  blades  were  placed  at  90  degrees  to  the  line  of  shafting  they 
would  act  as  a  disc  and  have  no  resistance  to  force  the  vessel 


AN  iNQUUtY  REGARDING  tH£   MARINE   PROt>£LLER  l51 

Mr  B.  T.Napier. 

ahead.  On  the  other  hand  when  placed  at  180  degrees  there 
would  again  be  no  tendency  to  produce  forward  motion.  The 
mean  of  these  should  therefore  be  the  correct  pitch,  and  anything 
less  would  reduce  the  propulsive  effect. 

Mr  B.  T.  Napier  (Member)  said  that  the  main  object  of  the  screw 
propeller  proposed  by  the  author  was  to  direct  the  whole  column 
of  water  right  aft.  The  patent  records  abounded  with  specifications 
of  propellers  designed  to  this  same  end,  and  it  was  strange  if  the 
simple  geometric  surface  now  proposed  had  not  already  been  tried. 
There  was,  some  thirty  years  ago,  a  fancy  for  propellers  of  this 
nature,  but,  so  far  as  he  was  aware,  few  with  driving  faces  other 
than  helical  were  now  made.  "  Expanding  pitch  '*  was  quite  a 
seperate  matter  and  could  be  got  quite  easily  with  a  helical  sur- 
face. A.  propeller  with  the  blades  curving  aft,  whatever  might  be 
claimed  for  it  for  driving  the  ship  ahead,  was  a  bad  propeller  for 
going  astern;  a  fact  which,  no  doubt  accounted  partly  for  the 
existing  preference  for  radial  blades. 

Mr  Ebemezeb  Hall-Bbown  (Vice-President),  desired  to 
thank  Mi  Adam  for  his  paper,  to  which  he  had  listened  with  very 
great  pleasure.  He  also  wished  to  express  his  admiration  for  the 
novel  manner  in  which  Mr  Adam  had  designed  a  propeller  of 
increasing  pitch.  The  question  of  screw  propellers  had  always 
been  and  would  always  continue  to  be  a  very  fascinating  one. 
Although  previous  attempts  to  produce  a  propeller  with  axially 
increasing  pitch  had  not  proved  very  successful,  he  hardly  thought 
that  was  a  sufficient  reason  for  dismissing  any  proposal  without 
careful  consideration,  more  especially  when  the  proposal  took  such 
a  novel  form  as  Mr  Adam's,  and  evinced  an  amount  of  study  and 
forethought  as  this  one  did.  While  he  had  thought  very  highly 
of  the  matter  in  the  paper,  he  had  found  considerable  difficulty  in 
following  Mr  Adam's  language.  That  might  be,  and  no  doubt 
was,  due  to  the  fact  that  Mr  Adam  was  so  familiar  with  his  subject 
that  he  went  on  instinctively  from  beginning  to  end  without 
taking  the  intermediate  steps,  and  consequently  when  anyone 
endeavoured  to  follow  him  at  a  fair  distance  the  difficulties  were 


152  AN  INQUIRY  REGARDING   tH£  ACARINE   PROPELLER 

Mr  E.  HaU-Brown. 

somewhat  great.  If  Mr  Adam  again  favoured  the  Institution 
with  a  paper,  he  would  ask  him  not  to  put  forward  such  posers  as 
the  term  *'  dynamic  grasp"  and  that  terrible  flight  of  jumps  on 
page  136  where  he  said  "the  whole  work  is  represented  by  the 
weight  of  the  column  P  Q,  expressed  in  terms  of  speed."  He  had 
no  doubt  that  Mr  Adam's  ideas  were  absolutely  dear,  but  these 
phrases  conveyed  nothing  whatever  to  him.  Dealing  with  the  sub- 
ject matter  of  the  paper  he  differed  from  the  writer  at  the  start,  and 
consequently  all  through.  He  felt  that  the  whole  paper  was  based 
on  Fig.  1 ,  which,  for  the  purpose  of  studying  the  action  of  a  screw 
propeller  was,  he  thought,  a  most  unhappy  one.  As  far  as  he  could 
understand,  Mr  Adam  seemed  to  think  that  the  whole  of  the 
work  done  by  the  piston  in  the  cylinder  F,  in  a  given  time,  might 
be  measured  by  the  weight  of  the  column  P  Q,  multiplied  into  the 
distance  through  which  the  piston  moved  in  that  time.  He 
wished  to  emphasise  the  fact  that  that  was  only  part  of  the  work 
which  was  being  done,  and  it  was  the  part  which  did  not  in 
the  slightest  degree  resemble  the  work  done  by  a  screw  propeller. 
Mr  Adam  had  neglected  to  consider  the  work  required  to  cause 
the  water  to  enter  the  cylinder  at  F.  In  other  words  the  water 
had  no  tendency  to  move  there,  and  would  not  move  but  for  the 
fact  that  the  piston  was  moving,  and  if  the  piston  was  in  a  state 
of  uniform  motion,  then  the  water  from  the  main  vessel  was 
being  accelerated  through  the  opening  at  F.  That  acceleration 
was  not  caused  by  gravity.  Gravity  did  nothing  for  nothing. 
The  acceleration  was  caused  by  the  motion  of  the  piston,  and  a 
corresponding  pressure  must  be  exerted  on  the  piston  to  produce 
the  acceleration,  this  was  in  addition  to  the  pressure  due  to 
the  head  P  Q.  This  might  be  more  clearly  seen  if,  first  of  all, 
the  piston  was  considered  to  be  at  rest ;  the  pressure  on  its  upper 
side  would  then  exactly  balance  that  on  the  under  side.  When 
however,  the  piston  moved,  the  pressure  on  the  under  side  must 
be  reduced,  otherwise  the  state  of  equilibrium  which  previously 
existed  would  not  be  disturbed,  and  no  flow  of  water  would  take 
place.    The  reduction  of  pressure  on  the  under  side  was  of  course 


AN  INQUIRY  REGARDING  THE  MARINE  PROPELLER  153 

]CrS.Ha]l-BK>wii. 

equivalent  to  added  pressure  on  the  upper  side.  This  additional 
pressure  required  to  accelerate  the  water  entering  a  pump,  was 
usually  a  small  matter  in  oomparison  to  the  work  done  in  the 
actual  lifting  of  the  water,  and  was  therefore  usually  neglected. 
The  evidence  of  the  work  done  was  the  accumulated  energy 
in  the  moving  water.  This  became  proportionately  greater  when 
the  speed  of  discharge  was  great  relatively  to  the  height  of 
lift;  and  in  the  case  ot  the  screw  propeller  where  there  was 
no  lift,  it  was  the  cause  of  the  whole  expenditure  of  energy, 
neglecting,  of  course,  friction.  This  would  be  seen  more  clearly 
bom  Mg.  17,  where  the  cylinder  Fi  Fs  was  shown  immersed  in  the 


Fig.  17. 

vessel  P,  the  latter  being  of  relatively,  large  size,  when  compared 
with  the  cylinder.  In  this  case  it  was  quite  clear  that  when  the 
piston  moved  with  uniform  velocity,  the  whole  of  the  water  in  the 
cylinder  was  also  caused  to  move  with  uniform  velocity,  con- 
sequently no  work  was  done  upon  the  water  while  in  the  cylinder, 
the  whole  of  the  work  accumulated  in  the  water  in  the  cylinder 
FxFs,  was  imparted  to  it  before  it  entered  at  Fi.  In  other 
words,  the  water  was  accelerated  before  it  entered  at  Fi,  that  was, 
before  it  touched  the  piston  X.  It  would  also  be  the  case  if  the 
piston  X  were  replaced  by  a  screw  propeller  revolving  at  a 
uniform  velocity.  *The  water  would  still  pass  through  the 
cylinder  with  imiform  velocity,  the  whole  of  which  had  been 
imparted  to  it  before  it  touched  the  propeller,  the  action  of  the 

15 


154  AN  INQUIRY   REGARDING   THX   MARINE   PROPELLER 

Mr  B.  Han-Brown. 

propeller  being  simply  to  drive  the  water  through  the  tube  at 
a  uniform  rate.  This  would  be  true  however  short  the  tube  was, 
and  consequently  when  the  tube  was  infinitely  short,  the  action 
would  be  precisely  the  same.  His  contention  then  was  that  the 
propeller  should  be  capable  of  dealing  with  water  in  uniform 
motion,  water  which  had  been  accelerated  from  a  zero  speed 
to  practically  the  speed  of  the  propeller  before  it  came  into 
contact  with  the  propeller,  and  that  only  a  screw  of  uniform 
or  true  helical  pitch  could  deal  with  such  a  stream  with  maximum 
efficiency.  This  was  a  point  upon  which  Mr  Adam  and  he 
would  not  agree.  He  understood  Mr  Adam's  contention  to  be 
that  the  leading  edge  of  the  propeller  blades  should  have  a  pitch 
corresponding  to  "  no  slip,"  while  the  pitch  of  the  following  edge 
should  be  increased  by  an  amount  corresponding  to  the  real  slip 
of  the  propeller.  In  other  words,  that  the  speed  of  the  water 
passing  through  the  propeller  should  be  increased  while  in  contact 
with  the  propeller,  by  the  amount  of  real  slip.  He  would  en- 
deavour to  show  that  that  was  impossible.  In  this  connection  he 
had  to  point  out  that  Mr  Adam's  statement,  that  the  slip  seldom 
exceeded  6  feet  per  second  was  an  under-estimate,  and  seemed  to 
refer  to  apparent  slip  only.  The  real  shp  might,  and  often  would 
be  much  greater  than  that,  and  would  very  seldom  be  less  than 
20  per  cent,  of  the  speed  of  the  propeller,  indeed  it  might  easily 
amount  to  30  per  cent,  or  40  per  cent.  Assuming  an  apparent  slip 
of  propeller  of  10  per  cent,  with  a  real  slip  of  20  per  cent, 
in  a  vessel  of  20  knots  speed.  That  would  be  a  very  moderate 
allowance  for  slip,  and  at  the  speed  named  it  amounted  to  6*75 
feet  per  second.  Assuming  further  that  the  engine  made  80 
revolutions  per  minute,  and  the  arc  subtended  by  each  propeller 
blade  was  one  sixteenth  of  the  circumference,  then  the  time 
in  which  a  particle  of  water  would  cross  one  of  the  blades 
was  ^  of  {^  of  one  second,  or  ^\  of  one  second.  In  that  time  the 
water  had  imparted  to  it  a  real  slip  of  6*75.  feet  per  second. 
In  other  words,  an  additional  velocity  of  6*75  feet  per  second  was 
to  be  imparted  in  ^  of  a  second.    That  corresponded  to  an 


AN  INQinRY  REGARDING  TH£  MARINE  PROPELLER  155 

lir  B.  HaU-BrowB. 

aoceleraiion  of  144  feet  per  second,  an  acceleration  which  it  was 
impossible  to  imagine   the  entering  water  could   follow.      The 
result  would  be  the  formation  of  a  series  of  eddies.    In  other 
words,  the  water  flowing  through  the  propeller,  would  take  a 
mean  velocity  which  was  somewhat  greater  than  the  velocity 
of  the  entering  edge,  and  less  than  the  velocity  of  the  following 
edge.     The  velocity  of  the  water  passing  through  the  propeller 
would  be  the  mean  velocity  of  the  propeller,  and  the  leading  edge 
being  under  the  mean  pitch    would  be  a  positive  obstruction 
against  which  the  water  would  dash,  while  the  following   edge 
would  have  too  great  a  pitch  and  tend  to  cause  eddies  from  that 
cause.     As  only  part  of  the  water  passing  through  the  propeller 
actually  came  into  contact  with  the  blades,  it  was  evident  that 
imless  eddies  were  to  be  produced  the  propeller  must  have  a  pitch 
corresponding  to  the  mean  velocity  of  the  stream,  and  this  pitch 
must  be  uniform  or  very  nearly  sa     In  other  words  he  believed 
that  only  a  true  screw  could  give  maximum  efficiency  as  a  pro- 
peUer.     He  could  not  expect  that  Mr  Adam  would  agree  with  him, 
bnt  if  he  had  expressed  at  all  clearly  what  he  meant  to  say  the 
reasons  were  perfectly  convincing.      He  had  said  already  that  he 
considered  that  the  acceleration  of  the  race  must  take  place  before 
the  water  touched  the  propeller.     That  was  not  quite  right,  but  as 
the  length  of  propeller  was  short  in  relation  to  the  pitch,  it  was 
practically  so :  the  leading  edge  ought  to  have  a  slightly  lesser 
pitch  than  the  mean  pitch.      The  difference  would  probably  not 
exceed  one  per  cent.     With  regard  to  the  diagram  which  Mr 
Adam  considered  so  misleading,  Fig.  2,  he  also  felt  it  was  mis- 
leading because  the  stream  contracted  after  passing  through  the 
propeller.     There  could  be  no  contraction  of  the  stream  after  it 
had  passed  the  propeller.      There  could  be  no  further  work  done 
upon  it,  and  it  would  tend  to  diffuse  and  not  to  contract, 

Mr  John  G.  Johnstone,  B.Sc.  (Associate  Member),  said  the 
theory  of  propellers  could  be  classed  under  two  heads : — Firstly, 
treating  the  propeller  as  a  whole ;  and  Secondly,  treating  an 
elemental  part  of  the  face  of  the  blade  as  a  small  plane.     The 


166  AN   INQUIRY   REGARDING    THE   MARINE    PROPELLER 

Kr  John  O.  Jobnstone. 

efficiency  could  be  determined  according  to  either  of  these  two 
theories.  The  paper  took  up  the  theory  of  the  propeller  by 
treating  it  as  a  whole,  and  he  thought  the  illustration  of  the 
rope-making  machine  was  a  very  good  one,  inasmuch  as  the  cords 
or  strands  which  formed  the  rope,  roughly  represented  the  stream 
line  motion  in  the  region  of  the  propeller.  The  theory  on  page  135 
was,  he  thought,  similar  to  Bankings  theory.  The  author  rejected 
that  theory  for  two  reasons,  but  these  reasons  were  insufficient 
It  was  generally  acknowledged  that  Bankings  theory  was  im- 
perfect, because  of  the  assumption  that  had  to  be  made 
regarding  the  race.  The  imperfection  lay  in  the  assumption  that 
the  velocity  of  the  race  was  equal  to  the  velocity  of  slip.  An 
interesting  point  was  raised  on  page  140,  when  the  author  said 
''There  is  to  be  determined  then  for  every  screw,  a  highest 
efficiency  angle  of  mean  incidence,  irrespective  of  its  gross  pitch, 
and  experimental  research  devpted  to  this  narrow  field  would  yield 
valuable  results."  A  similar  conclusion  to  that  was  arrived  at  by 
the  late  Mr  Froude,  in  a  paper  read  before  the  Institution  of 
Naval  Architects  on  *'  The  relation  between  slip,  pitch,  and 
propulsive  efficiency."  In  that  paper  an  important  deduction 
was  made,  namely,  that  for  maximum  efficiency  the  pitch  angle 
should  be  45*^  with  the  line  of  ship's  motion ;  and  that,  ''  If  the 
slip  angle  exceeds  that  which  gives  the  maximum  efficiency,  the 
pitch  angle  must  also  be  increased :  if  the  excess  be  small,  the 
pitch  angle  must  be  increased  by  the  same  amount;  if  the  excess 
be  large,  the  increment  of  the  pitch  angle  must  be  still  greater." 
He  thought  that  Mr  Adam's  statement  was  contained  in  this 
deduction  of  Mr  Froude's.  He  was  not  quite  clear  as  to  the 
distinction  which  the  author  made  between  "  grip  "  and  <*  slip," 
and  he  would  like  to  ask  him  if  he  intended  leakage  to  mean 
slip.  He  understood  slip  merely  as  a  velocity  obtained  by  sub- 
tracting from  the  theoretical  velocity  of  the  propeller,  which  was 
the  pitch  multiplied  by  the  number  of  revolutions  per  minute, 
the  actual  speed  of  the  ship.  He  would  like  to  ask  Mr  Adam 
if   he    could   give   any  other   reason   than  that  stated   in    the 


AN  INQUIRY  REGARDING  THE  MARINE  PROPELLER  '16^ 

paper  for  negative  slip.  In  one  oi^  two'  passages  the'autl^o^ 
lidvooated  a  gaining  pitch,  which  appeared  to  be  the  6hief 
feature  of  the  new  propeller.  The  advantages  of  the  bonoidal 
jpropeller  could  probably  only  be  detertnined  by  exj>driment,'  and 
it  was  hardly  possible  to  treat  the  quesl^on  theoretically  so  as  to 
be  able  to  say  with  certainty  that  this  propeller  was  more  efficient 
than  a  propeller  with  the  ordinary  shape  of  blade,  or  a  propeller 
whose  surface  was  approximately  a  helix.  One  disadvantage  that 
occurred  to  him  was  that  the  conoidal  propeller  would  give,  in 
comparison  with  a  helical  propeller  of  the  same  projected  area, 
a  larger  developed  surface,  and  therefore  there  would  be  a  pro- 
portionately larger  edgewise  friction. 

Mr  Adam,  in  reply,  said  he  was  not  surprised  that  Mr  Napier 
should  think  it  strange  if  "the  simple  geometric  surface  now 
proposed  had  not  already  been  tried. '*  He  himself  deemed  it  almost 
incredible  until  the  German  and  United  States  letters  patent  were 
sealed*  It  seemed  that  it  had  not  before  occurred  to  any  one  to 
select  a  surface  by  measurement  of  its  pitch  ratios  from  a  simple 
half-cone  inclined  to  its  own  axis.  These  simple  circumstances 
formed  his  preliminary  claim  to  consideration  for  the  design, 
notwithstanding  all  that  had  been  done  during  the  last  thirty 
years  or  more.  It  was  true  that  ''  expanding  pitch  could  be  got 
quite  readily  by  distortion  of  a  helical  surface."  The  question  was 
that  it  was  admittedly  of  no  advantage.  Perhaps,  because  of  a 
certain  obscurity  in  the  language  of  the  paper  that  some  one  else 
referred  to — Mr  Napier  failed  to  note  that  one  section  of  the  paper, 
page  144,  was  devoted  to  showing  why  attempts  to  adopt  gaining 
pitches  had  been  unsuccessful  with  the  helical  screw,  because  of 
the  absence  of  properties  apparently  possessed  by  the  conical 
surface.  He  was  sorry  that  nobody  had  thought  it  worth  while 
to  take  up  any  of  these  alleged  demonstrations  of  his,  and  either 
eonfirm  or  confute  them  on  their  merits.  In  that  respect  he  was 
a  good  deal  disappointed,  and  it  was  more  difficult  to  answer  that 
which  was  implied  by  silence  than  anything  that  had  been  said. 
Of  the  speakers  in  the  discussion  on  the  paper,  Mr  Biekie,  who 


158  AN  INQUIRY  REGARDING  THK  MARINE  PROPELLER 

lirAdMa. 

did  him  the  honour  to  open  the  discussion,  did  not  attack  any  of 
his  propositions.  He,  however,  made  some  propositions  of  his 
own,  which  he  (Mr  Adam)  was  sorry  he  could  not  quite  compre- 
hend, perhaps  because  Mr  Biekie  did  not  have  time  to  fully 
develop  them.  After  all,  the  paper  was  only  a  condensation,  or 
rather,  a  somewhat  disconnected  precis  of  a  more  extended  argu- 
ment, which  he  was  now  precluded  from  expanding,  because  of 
the  inability  of  the  paper  to  command  a  critical  response  from  many 
members  interested  in  this  subject.  He  thanked  Mr  Hail-Brown, 
for  his  whole-hearted  and  vigorous  criticism,  and  he  would  almost 
require  to  take  the  black  board  to  reply  to  him.  Mr  Hall-Brown 
chose  for  his  battle  ground  Fig.  1,  and  although  he  would  have 
preferred  another,  he  accepted  that  with  pleasure,  but  would  first 
make  an  observation  with  regard  to  Fig.  17,  illustrating  Mr  Hall- 
Brown's  remarks.  He  assumed  uniform  motion  for  his  piston  X, 
and  the  whole  contents  of  the  cylinder,  and  deduced  that  the 
greater  part  of  the  work  of  the  piston  moving  in  the  direction 
of  the  arrow  was  expended  on  the  induction  side  F^  This 
would  be  true  of  a  pump-piston  raising  water  from  a  well.  The 
condition,  however,  of  the  piston  X  was,  that  it  was  subject  to 
hydraulic  pressure  on  both  sides  equal  and  opposite,  say  20  lbs. 
per  square  inch,  assuming  an  immersion  of  10  feet.  By  moving 
in  the  direction  of  the  arrow,  the  piston  yielded  to  the  pressure 
Fj,  and  opposed  the  pressure  F^.  It,  therefore,  did  mechanical 
work  upon  Fj,  but  no  work  upon  Fj,  for  if  there  were  no  water  in 
F^  the  energy  required  to  move  the  piston  would  be  greater. 
He  preferred,  however,  his  own  Fig,  1,  which  was  merely  a 
subsidiary  diagram  to  illustrate  a  point  of  view,  but,  being  of  an 
introductory  character,  it  had  apparently  attracted  more  attention 
than  the  proper  subject  matter  of  the  paper.  Supposing  one 
did  not  raise  the  piston,  but  drained  off  the  water  ''  Q  "  above 
the  piston :  Did  Mr  Hall-Brown  contend  that  the  water  in 
F  would  not  tend  to  force  the  piston  up  toward  the  level  P? 
Instead  of  requiring  to  borrow  energy  from  the  piston,  it  im- 
parted energy  to  it.       But  this  was  very  elementary.      How 


AN.  INQUIRY  REGARDING  TH£  HCARINE  FROPSLLSR  159 

UxJkOaau 

did  it  affect  the  screw?  His  contention  was  that  the  pro- 
peller was  analagous  to  a  piston,  merely  modified  in  form  to 
enable  it  to  deal  uniformly  with  and  increase  the  speed  of  a  cmrrent, 
and  that  the  equivalent  of  the  piston  stroke  was  what  was  called 
the  true  slip,  or  what  he  had  called  the  angle  of  incidence  upon 
the  blade  surface,  P  O  Q,  Fig.  4.  The  original  current  was 
supplied  by  the  speed  of  the  ship,  or  more  correctly  by  the  speed 
of  the  wake,  relatively  to  the  ship.  The  energy  of  the  screw 
^vas  expended  on  imparting  an  increased  sternward  speed  on  that 
part  of  the  current  which  passed  through  the  cross  section  of  its 
disc,  namely,  F^  on  Fig.  1,  where  the  speed  of  the  wake  was 
assumed  to  be  100  gallons  per  minute,  due  to  the  head  P  P^, 
the  screw  being  rotated  without  assisting  or  retarding.  Let 
P  be  a  river  of  constant  level,  and  P^  a  tank  gradually  filling  up 
to  the  level  Q^ ;  then  to  maintain  a  constant  feed  of  100  gallons  at 
all  levels,  there  would  be  no  increase  of  speed  in  the  feed  F^  but 
aa  increase  of  resistance  and  of  energy  expended  by  the  screw. 
That  increased  energy  was  entirely  represented  by  the  increased 
head  Q^  P^,  and  no  part  of  it  upon  the  feed  F^ ;  and  this  case 
was  quite  analogous  to  the  case  given  on  page  140,  namely,  that  of  a 
propeller  gradually  accepting  the  increasing  burden  of  propelling 
a  ship  on  the  tow  rope  being  thrown  off.  Mr  Hall-Brown  further 
objected  that  an  almost  instantaneous  acceleration  which  would 
work  out  at  1 44  feet  per  second  if  continuous,  was  impossible.  What 
was  the  rate  of  acceleration  of  a  golf  ball  at  the  moment  of  impact? 
Md  further :  What  became  of  his  particle  of  water  if  it  were  not 
accelerated?  It  did  not  go  through  the  blade,  and  if  it  eddied 
round  to  the  back  its  linear  speed  must  be  greatly  increased. 
The  publication  of  such  diagrams  as  Fig.  2  led  to  misimderstand- 
ing  of  what  reaUy  happened.  An  important  aim  of  his  paper 
was  to  direct  attention  to  the  relative  movement  of  the  propeller 
parts,  and  the  water.  That  could  best  be  expressed  by  a  diagram, 
Fig.  18,  similar  to  the  plan  view  of  a  row  of  vanes  in  Parsons' 
steam  turbine  advancing  in  procession,  each  interblade  stream  being 
very  slightly  deflected,  so  that  from  this  point  of  view  the  linear 


160  AN  INQUIRY  REGARDING  THE  lilARINE  PROPELLER 


^    /    /    /    / 


Fig.  18, 

acceleration  of  the  whole  stream  was  incidental  to  a  slight  angulaf 
acceleration  of  each  interblade  stream. 

Mr  HAiiL-BBOWN  asked  if  Mr  Adam  disputed  the  actual  amount 
bf  acceleration  he  (Mr  Hall-Brown)  had  indicated*  His  difficulty 
Was  with  the  water  which  did  not  come  into  actual  contact  with 
the  working  face  of  the  propeller.  If  this  water  attained  the 
isame  velocity  in  the  same  time,  as  it  must  if  no  cavity  were 
formed,  and  there  was  no  previous  acceleration  of  the  water,  then 
it  also  must  have  an  acceleration  of  144  feet  per  second  per 
second  Such  an  acceleration  could  not,  so  far  as  he  knew,  be 
produced  by  gravity. 

Mr  Adam — Undoubtedly  his  contention  was  that  the  force  of 
gravity  performed  the  work  on  that  side,  but  he  was  aware  of  no 
record  of  the  speed  at  which  gravity  would  accelerate  free  water 
in  vacuo,  which  was  the  virtual  condition  here,  because  a  failure 
to  supply  would  create  a  vacuum.  The  value  of  surface 
tension  was  not  known,  nor  of  local  attraction  at  infinitely  small 
distances,  all  of  which  forces  came  into  play  in  the  case  under 
review.  The  suggestion  that  acceleration  took  place  at  some 
distance  away  did  not  explain  matters,  it  only  shifted  the  venue 
unless  elasticity  could  be  claimed  for  water.  There  was  no 
divorcing  volume  and  weight  in  water.  There  was  neither 
expansion  nor  contraction.  But  besides  these,  the  argument 
based  on  Fig.  3  was  being  forgotten.  On  page  138  it  was  stated 
that  "  Hydraulic  pressure  bears  equally  in  every  direction,  and 
therefore  the  entire  forward  hemisphere  is  moved  to  contribute 


AN  INQUIRY  REGARDING  THE  MARINE  PROPELLER  161 

VxAOmaL 

lo  the  zone  of  reduced  presstire."    How  did  this  affect  the  very 
nAtnral  difficulty  raised  by  Mr  Hall-Brown?    Assume  an  arc  of 

♦  o  ♦  *■  o  ♦ 


Fig.  19.  Fig.  20, 

vacuo  "O/'  Fig  19,  of  unit  volume,  within  a  closed  tube  containing 
water  and  immersed  in  water.  Let  the  tube  be  opened  at  one 
end  a,  and  the  arc  will  be  closed  in  unit  time  |  by  hydraulic 
force  acting  in  a  linear  direction  by  gravity,  and  this  was  Mr 
Hall-Brown's  assumption.  If  the  tube  be  opened  at  both 
ends,  the  same  force  acting  in  two  linear  directions  would 
close  the  arc  in  half  the  tima  If  opened  to  a  full 
hemisphere  of  fluid :  In  what  time  would  it  close  ?  This 
also  might  be  calculable.  Fluid  filaments  converging  on  a 
vanishing  point,  Fig.  20,  were  conical,  not  cyhndrical,  as  in  the 
first  assumption,  and  the  cubic  capacity  of  a  cone  being  but  one- 
third  that  of  a  cylinder  of  equal  base  and  height,  the  feed  at  the 
base  of  any  cone  required  to  fill  it  in  unit  time,  would  be  one-third 
the  velocity  required  to  fill  a  corresponding  cylinder ;  but  oppos- 
ing cylinders  by  contributing  their  quota  in  two  directions  reduced 
the  feed  velocity  of  each  to  half  the  apparent  linear  escape. 
Similarly  conical  filaments  converging  in  every  direction  must 
effect  a  similar  reduction.  On  this  assumption  the  actual  velocity 
demanded  of  each  contributing  filament  around  the  hemisphere 
toward  "  O,*'  Fig.  20,  would  appear  to  be  ^  x  |  =  ^,  and  Mr  Hall- 
Brown's  144  feet  per  second  of  linear  escape  would  demand 

144 

-^  =  24  feet  per  second  of  feed,  varying  inversely  as  the  square 

of  the  distance,  for,  of  course,  the  water  must  approach  and  fill 
the^demand.     He  only  denied  that  it  approached  in  an  axial  or  any 


162  AN  INQUIRY  REGARDING  THE  UARINE  PROPELLER 

XrAdun. 

other  linear  direotion.  Now  factors  of  Mr  Hall-Brown's  figures 
were,  tip  speed  and  width  of  blade  at  tip,  whioh  latter  measure-' 
ment  was  not  very  generous,  namely,  ^^  of  the  ciroumferenoe 
of  the  diso,  and  could  well  be  increased,  if  necessary,  to 
avoid  cavitation.*  He  thanked  Mr  Johnstone  for  his  sym- 
pathetic remarks  and  criticism,  and  thought  a  study  of  Figs. 
10  and  15,  with  the  arguments  based  on  them,  would  remove 
the  fear  of  increased  friction  by  the  adoption  of  such  sur- 
faces. He  had  described  a  form  of  blade  whioh  would 
accomplish  the  required  deflection  with  the  least  sudden 
acceleration,  and  therefore  with  least  tendency  to  eddy-making, 
and  which,  placing  a  certain  centripetal  pressure  on  the  column, 
treated  the  whole  volume  from  root  to  tip  as  a  homogeneous 
current.  Some  such  form  only  needed  time  and  experience  to  be 
ultimately  adopted,  although  he  had  almost  given  up  thonght  of 
living  to  see  its  general  adoption. 

The  Chairman  (Prof.  J.  H.  Biles  LL.D.,  Vice-President)  said 
that  before  asking  the  Members  of  the  Institution  to  accord  a 
hearty  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr  Millen  Adam,  he  would  like  to  say 
that  there  were  many  of  them  who  had  a  great  interest  in  the 
propeller  question  and  it  surely  would  not  be  very  difficult  to  try  a 
propeller  of  Mr  Adam's  design  on  a  small  boat,  against  an  ordinary 
propeller,  with  a  view  to  obtaining  a  comparison.  He  was  sure  thai 
Mr  Adam  would  find  a  sympathetic  experimenter  from  some  one 
in  the  district  of  Glasgow.  He  did  not  happen  to  have  a  steam 
launch  at  present;  otherwise  he  would  have  been  delighted  to 
place  it  at  Mr  Adam's  disposal.  He  proposed  a  hearty  vote  of 
thanks  to  Mr  Adam  for  the  trouble  he  had  taken  in  putting  this 
paper  before  them. 

The  vote  of  thanks  was  carried  by  acclamation. 


LBCTUEE  ON  RADIUM  AND  ITS  PROPERTIES. 
By  Dr.  John  Magimttbe,  F.R.S.E. 


Bead  26th  January,  1904. 

Db  Maginttre  Baid  he  was  not  quite  prepared  for  the  nature  of 
the  meeting  or  the  large  audience  that  he  saw  before  him.  He 
had  determined  to  make  the  lecture  somewhat  popular,  and  if, 
therefore,  he  did  not  quite  please  the  more  scientific  section  of  the 
Members  present,  they  must  excuse  [him.  As  the  amount 
of  radium  was  limited,  he  was  not  prepared  to  show  large 
specimens  of  its  salts.  It  was  exceedingly  difficult  to  show 
specimens  even  to  a  'limited  number  of  people,  and  before 
such  a  large  audience  one  was  only  able  to  demonstrate  the  effects 
of  the  salts  of  radium  while  describing  the  properties  of  the  same. 
Mrst  of  all,  he  would  refer  to  the  state  of  science  at  the  time 
ladio-actiyity  was  discovered.  After  explaining  the  difference 
between  things  material  which  could  be  acted  upon  by  magnetio 
forces,  and  others,  such  as  light,  which  could  not  be  so  acted  upon, 
he  threw  a  series  of  diagrammatic  representations  of  varioua 
spectra  on  the  screen  showing  the  relationships  of  the  different 
rays  or  waves  from  electricity,  heat,  light,  and  on  in  succession 
to  the  Rontgen  rays.  Otapa  there  were  in  plenty  in  these  diagrams ; 
and  great  attempts  were  being  made  to  complete  the  series* 
During  the  past  year  Blondlot  had  described  the  order  of  waves 
known  as  the  N  rays,  which  would  probably  be  placed  in  the  gap 
occurring  between  the  electric  and  heat  waves,  and  since  hi& 
discovery  Professor  Charpentier  of  Nancy  had  stated  that  he  had 
found  emanations  of  rays  resembling  the  Blondlot  rays  which 
were  emitted  from  the  human  body.  Without  attempting  to 
confirm  these  statements,  Dr  Macintyre  simply  offered  them  a» 


164  LECTURE    ON   RADIUM   AND   ITS   PROPERTIES 

an  example  of  what  was  being  done  to  fill  in  the  gaps  in  the 
series  which  was  yet  far  from  complete.  Stokes,  by  his  great 
researches,  had,  previous  to  Bontgen's  day,  explained  the  meaning 
of  such  terms  as  phosphorescence,  and  in  1895  the  great  discovery 
of  the  X  rays  was  made.  No  sooner  was  this  done  than  men 
began  to  ask  if  similar  rays  did  not  exist  outside  the  Crookes' 
tube,  and  this  was  not  to  be  wondered  at,  because  Crookes  himself, 
in  his  early  experiments,  had  described  the  conditions  inside  the 
tube  as  being  matter  in  a  fourth  state,  and  a  world  which  we 
Wotild,  in  all  probability,  always  have  to  view  from  the  out- 
ride. This  was  not  now  the  case,  because  since  Becquerel's  dis- 
covery the  existence  had  been  made  known  of  emanations 
resembling  the  cathodal  stream  inside  the  tube  and  waves  com- 
parable in  every  way,  as  far  as  one  could  see,  with  the  X  rays. 
The  history  of  the  discovery  began  with  the  experiments  of 
Henri,  who  found  that  certain  rays  which  came  from  zinc  sul- 
phide could  pass  through  paper.  Becquerel  proved  that  similar 
rays  were  obtained  from  double  salts  of  uranium  and  potassium, 
and  that  these  rays  were  not  got  by  absorption  during  daylight ; 
therefore,  the  substances  were  radio-active.  He  found  that  they 
passed  through  wood  and  less  dense  metals,  and  discharged  an 
electric  condenser  with  ease.  Crookes  found  that  this  activity 
was  due  to  an  impurity,  not  to  uranium  itself.  Monsieur  and 
If  adame  Curie,  beginning  at  this  point,  took  pitch-blend,  which 
tontained  many  different  elements,  and  they  found  that  after 
Extracting  the  uranium,  something  even  more  active  than  uranium 
itself  was  left  behind,  which  gave  all  the  tests  of  penetration  and 
the  discharge  of  electric  condensers  above  referred  to.  By  a  long 
process  they  gradually  separated  out  other  substances  from  pitch- 
blend,  and  each  time  the  residue  was  more  radio-active  than 
anything  that  they  had  previously  extracted.  In  consequence, 
polonium  and  actinium  were  discovered,  and  lastly,  radium. 
'  Dr  Macintyre  then  showed  a  number  of  specimens  of  the  salts 
bf  radium  from  the  lowest  to  the  greatest  radio-activity  at  present 
known.    He  showed  screens  fluorescing  under  their  action,  and 


LECTURE   ON   KADIUM   AND  ITS   PROPERTIES  165 

the  passing  of  the  rays  through  such  substances  as  wo6d  and 
aluminium.  He  also  showed  the  discharge  of  an  electric  conr 
denser  in  air,  the  experiment  being  demonstrated  oti  the  screen 
by  means  of  the  magic  lantern.  He  next  described  one  of  th^ 
most  extraordinary  properties  yet  attributed  to  radium,  namely:, 
the  fact  that  it  was  constantly  giving  off  heat,  and  that  it  was 
claimed  for  it  that  it  was  able  to  maintain  itself  at  1*5  degrees  Centi- 
grade above  the  temperature  of  surrounding  objects.  So  far,  the 
lecturer  said,  he  had  only  shown  that  something  was  given  off 
radium,  and  now  came  the  question  :  What  was  that  something? 
To  begin  with,  there  were  certain  rays  called  the  alpha  rays,  which 
might  result  from  particles  of  helium,  weighing  probably  1  per  cent, 
of  the  radium  atom,  and  which  travelled  at  a  tremendous  velocity, 
probably  20  million  metres  per  second.  They  were  easily  stopped  by 
air  or  thin  paper,  and  could  discharge  an  electric  condenser.  They 
were  charged  positively,  a  fact  which  could  be  shown  by  means  of  a 
powerful  magnet  In  the  second  place,  it  had  been  shown  that  the 
bda  rays,  a  second  set,  were  given  off  by  radium.  These  rays,  which 
travelled  with  tremendous  velocity,  probably  100  million  metres 
per  second,  were  now  believed  to  be  the  electrons  which  constituted 
the  cathodal  stream  in  a  Crookes'  tube.  They  were  possessed  of 
great  penetration,  were  negatively  charged,  and  were  easily  deflected 
by  a  magnet.  They  also  made  air  a  conductor,  and  their  mass 
was  probably  one  thousandth  part  of  the  hydrogen  atom.  Dr 
Macintyre  here  paid  a  great  tribute  to  the  work  of  Larmor  and 
J.  J.  Thomson  to  whom  the  world  was  indebted  for  much  that  had 
lately  been  discovered.  In  the  third  place,  the  gamma  rays  were 
being  given  off.  Most  observers  described  them  as  resembling  X 
rays,  and  they  were  possibly  produced  by  the  beta  rays  striking  on 
parts  of  the  radium  itself  or  on  the  surrounding  objects.  They 
were  exceedingly  penetrating,  much  more  so  than  the  other  two 
and  were  not  deviable  by  a  magnet.  They  carried  no  electrical 
discharge.  The  beta  and  gamma  rays,  if  the  above  were  correct, 
had  been  known  before,  therefore,  the  alpha  rays  were  the  only 
new  ones. 


166  LXCTURX   ON   RADIUM   AND   ITS   PROPKRTIX8 

Butherford  and  Sody  found  that  radium  was  constantly  giving 
off  something  luminous,  and  that  that  something  could  be  condensed 
by  liquid  air.  Helium  had  been  discovered  by  means  of  the 
Bpectroscope  as  existing  in  stellar  bodies  before  it  was  found  on 
earth ;  and  Bamsay  found  it  in  pitch-blend.  Bamsay  and  Sody 
oollected  the  gases  which  came  from  radium,  and  it  was  to  be 
noted  at  this  stage  that  helium  was  not  one  of  them.  Oxygen  and 
hydrogen  were  removed  chemically,  and  the  carbon  was  frozen  out. 
After  watching  the  process  for  some  time  it  was  discovered  that 
the  gas  helium  made  its  appearance  when  examined  by  the 
spectroscope.  As  helium  existed  in  pitch-blend,  but  not  in  the 
radium  bromide  taken  from  it,  and  in  as  much  as  it  again  made  its 
appearance  some  time  afterwards,  it  led  to  the  conclusion  that  the 
radium  which  was  a  dense  element  (for  its  atomic  weight  was  esti- 
mated at  at  least  225)  was  splitting  up  into  simpler  elements ;  hence 
the  theory  of  disintegration.  Other  substances  had  since  been 
shown  to  be  undergoing  the  same  process — ^thorium,  for  example — 
and  it  was  not  impossible  that  everything  was  going  through  that 
same  process  of  disintegration.  The  tendency  would  thus  seem  to 
be  a  reversion  to  the  old  idea  of  unification  of  matter.  This  theory 
of  disintegration  had  led  to  all  the  nonsensical  and  exaggerated 
statements  about  transmutation  of  metals  which  had  appeared  in 
the  press  of  late,  and  the  realization  of  the  alchemist's  dream,  that 
the  baser  metals  could  now  be  changed  into  the  higher,  and  all  the 
lead  in  the  world  into  gold.  It  was  one  thing  to  show  that  dense 
elements  might  be  split  up  into  simpler  ones,  and  another  to 
reconstruct  or  change  one  thing  into  another. 

There  was  another  property,  or  set  of  properties,  of  radium  with 
which  he  had  not  yet  dealt,  namely,  the  action  on  living  tissues. 
It  possessed  the  power  of  stimulation  when  applied  carefully  in 
small  quantities  and  for  short  periods,  but  if  left  in  contact  with 
living  tissues  for  a  time  it  produced  death.  Ten  milligrammes  of 
one  of  the  salts  placed  on  the  arm,  with  a  layer  of  mica  interven- 
ing, had,  as  the  result  of  one  hour's  application,  resulted  in  one 
case  in  a  bum  which  lasted  for  four  months,  and  evidently  had 


LECTURE   ON   RADIUM   AND   ITS   PROPERTIES     .  167 

permanently  destroyed  the  superficial  epithelial  stmotnres.  Many 
sneh  bums  had  been  recorded.  It  oaased  an  excitement  in  the 
retina  when  brought  near  the  forehead,  and  experiments  on  small 
itnimals,  snoh  as  mice,  had  shown  that  it  conld  produce  death.  A 
large  quantity  of  radium  would  be  an  exceedingly  dangerous  thing 
to  approach,  and  even  a  comparatively  small  amount,  such  as  an 
ounce,  if  it  could  be  obtained,  not  to  speak  of  half-a-pound,  would 
be  a  very  dangerous  thing  to  work  with.  Of  course,  the  amount 
of  radium  was  exceedingly  small  at  present.  Experimenters 
differed  in  their  views  as  to  the  results  on  the  growth  of  plants, 
and  with  respect  to  the  effects  of  the  radium  rays  on  bacteria. 
This  brought  him  to  the  surgical  question,  but  on  that  point  he 
preferred  to  say  nothing.  Owing  to  the  exaggerated  statements  in 
the  papers,  too  much  had  been  anticipated  of  what  might  yet 
come,  and  consequently  much  suffering  had  been  caused  by  false 
expectations  having  been  raised  in  the  minds  of  those  afflicted 
with  serious  affections.  This  he  could  say,  however,  that  radium 
bromide  did  possess  a  therapeutic  value,  but  what  the  ultimate 
result  would  be  was  for  the  future. 

In  conclusion,  Dr.  Macintyre  said  that  he  wished  the  audience 
to  remember  that  much  of  what  he  had  been  dealing  with  that 
night  was  speculative.    The  very  statement  at  the  beginning  of 
the  lecture  about  the  difference  between  matter  and  force  might 
have  to  be  reconsidered  in  view  of  recent  discoveries,  because  now 
that  the  borderland  had  been  reached  where  matter  and  so-called 
force  seemed  to  merge  into  each  other,  it  was  difficult  to  say 
whether  a  thing  possessed  mass  or  not.    Further,  he  was  aware 
that  many  great  authorities  were  by  no  means  disposed  to  accept 
the  view  of  disintegration.     Nevertheless,  those  who  had  been 
experimenting  most  with    the    salts    in    question  believed  the 
reductions  referred  to,  to  be  fair  and  reasonable.    The  new  dis- 
coveries were  not  so  important  for  what  they  had  taught  yet  as  for 
the  possibilities  that  lay  in  the  future.    Many  things  might  have 
to  be  reconsidered,  such  as  the  age  of  the  sun,  the  age  of  the 
earth, and  other  questions  too  numerous'to  mention;  but  the  most 


168  LSCTUU  ON  RADIUM.  AND  ITS  PROPERTISS 

important  ohang^e  in  our  ideas  was  being  brought  aboat  by  this  new 
view  of  the  primal  elements.  Eyen  twenty-five  years  ago  Clerk- 
Maxwell  believed  that  the  chemist  might  change  a  oompomid  salt 
into  some  other  salt,  bnt  that  each  of  the  elements  was  a  some- 
thing definite,  fixed,  indestructible,  and  unwearable»  The  elements 
were,  indeed,  the  bricks  out  of  which  the  whole  universe  was  made. 
It  had  been  shown  that  atoms  were,  relatively  speaking,  very 
large  structures,  and  that  they  were  composed  of  much  smaller 
particles  which  most  observers,  like  J.  J.  Thomson,  Sir  Oliver 
Lodge,  and  others,  believed  to  be  the  electrons.  A  number  of 
these  occupied  the  space  of  the  atom,  and  by  rearranging  them 
and  increasing  the  numbers  different  elements  might  be  produced. 
In  other  words,  probably  there  was  only  one  kind  of  matter  which 
went  to  form  all  atoms.  Indeed,  it  was  doubtful,  as  he  had  said, 
if  it  was  matter  at  all.  The  idea  of  building  up  a  universe  by  a 
process  of  evolution  was  not  new  to  the  world.  Sir  Norman 
Lockyer  had  taught  this  as  the  result  of  his  observations  upon 
stellar  bodies  when  examining  the  spectrum  of  each.  To  a  large 
extent,  of  course,  this  was  merely  theoretical.  Everything  in  this 
world  pointed  to  a  beginning,  a  culmination,  and  then  decay,  and 
the  same  arrangement  seemed  to  be  present  everywhere  in  the 
universe.  The  story  of  radium  showed  that  it  was  not  impossible 
that  the  so-called  process  of  disintegration  was  what  corresponded 
to  the  period  of  decay.  Science  had  not  yet  shown  the  other 
side  of  the  question,  namely,  the  buUding  up.  It  was  reasonable 
enough  to  expect,  however,  that  some  day  this  knowledge  would 
be  obtained,  and  then  probably  it  would  be  seen  that  although  the 
building  up  of  a  star,  its  culminating  point,  and  process  of  decay 
might  take  millions  upon  millions  of  years,  yet,  that  nothing  was 
at  rest,  constant  change  was  everywhere  present,  and  finally  one 
might  obtain  a  glimpse  of  the  cycle  of  events  referred  to. 

The  GHAiBiiAN  (Mr  James  Gilchrist,  Vice-President)  said  he 
was  surprised  at  the  wonderful  story  which  Dr.  Macintyre  had 
unfolded,  and  he  felt  sure  that  those  present  had  been  deeply 
interested  in  the  experiments  and  explanations  which  they  had 


LECTURE   ON  RADIUM  AND   ITS  PROPERTIES  169 

seen  and  heard.  He  would  ask  them  to  award  Dr.  Maomtyre  a 
hearty  vote  of  thanks  for  so  kindly  consenting  to  give  this  lecture, 
and  he  hoped  that  Dr.  Macintyre  would  be  long  spared  to  carry 
out  his  researches  with  radium. 

The  vote  of  thanks  was  carried  by  acclamation. 

Dr.  Macinttbe,  in  reply,  said  he  was  grateful  to  the  audience 
for  listening  to  him  with  such  attention.  He  had  a  little  doubt  in 
his  mind  as  to  why  he  was  asked  to  come  and  address  a  body  of 
engineers  and  shipbuilders,  because,  although  he  knew  they  were 
sdentifio  men,  they  were  also  practical  men.  He  knew  that  they  were 
all  interested  in  this  new  source  of  energy,  and  it  would  be  impressed 
upon  them  when  he  stated  that  it  had  been  calculated  that  14  lbs. 
of  radium  would  keep  a  60,000  horse-power  engine  working  for  a 
year.  That  was  simply  a  theoretical  statement ;  but  as  at  present 
this  amount  of  radium  would  cost  about  £1,200,000,  and  would  be 
rather  a  dangerous  thing  to  have  in  a  ship,  he  thought  it  would 
be  better  for  engineers  to  continue  to  concentrate  their  thoughts 
on  the  economy  of  coal. 


16 


EXPERIMENTS  WITH  RAPID  CUTTING  STEEL  TOOLS. 
By  Mr  Chaklbb  Day  (Member). 


(B^E  plate  XII.) 


Bead  23rd  February,  1904. 


DuBiNQ  the  past  two  years  a  series  of  tests  of  tool  steels  has 
beeh  carried  out  in  Manchestei:  by  a  oommittee  appointed  jointly, 
by  the  Manchester  Association  of  Engineers  and  by  the  Man- 
chester City  OouncU,  and  as  these  tests  form  the  most  complete 
investigation  yet  made  into  the  speeds  practicable  with  the  new 
tool  steels,  and  were  made  by  a  quite  impartial  committee,  it 
is  of  the  first  importance  that  the  results  obtained,  and  the 
lessons  to  be  deduced  therefrom  should  be  widely  known 
amongst  engineers. 

A  report  giving  the  whole  of  the  figures  relating  to  the  tests 
has  been  published  by  the  Manchester  Association  of  Engineers, 
hence  it  is  hardly  necessary  to  give  here  every  detail,  but  an 
abstract  is  given  showing  some  of  the  principal  results  of  the 
tests. 

NATUBE   OF   TESTS. 

Very  careful  consideration  was  given  by  the  joint  committee 
just  mentioned  to  the  manner  of  carrying  the  tests  out,  and  to  the 
nature  of  the  tests  which  it  was  desirable  should  be  made ;  the 
primary  object  being  to  ascertain  what  results  could  be  obtained  on 
lathes  by  means  of  the  new  tool  steels  which  have  been  introduced 
during  the  past  few  years.  Bearing  in  mind  the  various  require- 
ments of  engineering  shops,  it  was  decided  to  make  trials  when 
taking  heavy  cuts,  also  when  taking  medium  and  light  cuts,  and 
these  trials  were  made  on  forged  steel,  and  on  cast  iron  of  various 
degrees  of  hardness* 


EXPERIMENTS   WITH   RAPID   CUTTING   STEEL   TOOLS  171 

MATEBIAIi  OPERATED   UPON. 

The  greatest  possible  care  was  taken  to  ensure  that  each  class 
of  material  operated  upon  was  uniform  in  hardness,  and  hardness 
tests  were  made  by  drilling ;  particulars  of  these  tests  are  given 
in  the  full  report.  It  can  be  accepted  that  the  material  for  each 
set  of  tests  was  of  practically  uniform  hardness. 

Three  grades  of  hardness  of  steel  and  of  cast  iron  were  tested : 
the  soft  steel  contained  0*2  per  cent,  of  carbon,  the  medium  steel 
contained  0*3  per  cent.,  and  the  hard  steel  contained  0*5  per  cent. 
The  cast  iron  was  similarly  classified  as  soft,  medium,  and  hard, 
and  the  medium  quality  may  be  taken  as  corresponding  to  average 
castings  of  medium  weight. 

SIZE   OF   CUTS. 

In  all  cases  a  cut  was  first  taken  over  the  surface  of  the 
material  to  remove  the  skin,  and  to  give  a  uniform  surface,  so  that 
the  depths  of  the  cuts  might  be  reliably  measured.  After  careful 
consideration  it  was  decided  to  make  tests  with  the  following 
depths  of  out  and  traverse  : — 

Depth  of  Cut      iXrayene. 

i8t r  V 

2na,      ^'  Y 

3rd ^'  ^' 

4th,        ...  ...  ...  YB  TO 

In  regard  to  the  dimensions  decided  upon  for  the  first  test,  it 
may  be  well  to  mention  here  that  a  greater  weight  of  material 
might  have  been  removed  per  minute  with  a  heavier  cut  than 
¥  ^  V*  b^^  ^^  0^^  ^&s  decided  upon  as  being  satisfactorily 
within  the  power  of  the  lathe,  and  as  being  more  likely  to  give 
information  which  could  frequently  be  utilized  in  ordinary  shops 
than  (if  a  heavier  cut  had  been  adopted.  The  other  tests  were 
selected  as  representing  conditions  often  appearing  in  engineering 
shops. 

Each  tool  steel  maker  was  invited  to  state  the  speeds  at  which 
his  steel  could  be  tested  under  the  various  conditions.     This  course 


172     BXPBRIMXNTS  WITH  RAPID  CUTTING  STEEL  TOOLS 

was  oonsidered  to  be  preferable  to  that  of  having  the  speeds  fixed 
by  the  oommittee,  as  by  adopting  it,  benefit  was  obtained  of  the 
tool  steel  makers'  experience. 

DURATION  OF  TBIAL8. 

The  duration  of  the  trials  was  as  follows : — 


n  of  trials  of  soft  steel, 

20  minutes. 

Do.             medium  steel,  ... 

30 

do. 

Do.             hard  steel, 

30 

do. 

Do.              soft  cast  iron,  ... 

30 

do. 

Do.             medium  oast  iron. 

30 

do. 

Do.             hard  cast  iron, ... 

60 

do.      for  A' xj*  cuts, 

Do.                        do. 

30 

do.     forallotherouts, 

DB8CBIPTI0N  OF  LATHB. 

The  lathe  on  whioh  all  the  tests  were  made  was  loaned  by 
Messrs  Armstrong,  Whitworth  &  Ca,  and  was  one  of  their  15^ 
centre  screw-cutting  lathes,  taking  in  9'  6'  between  the  centres, 
bat  for  these  experiments  1&'  headstocks  were  fitted.  The  fast 
headstock  had  both  double  and  treble  back  gears,  the  gear  ratios 
being  14*9  to  1  and  42*5  to  1.  The  headstock  was  specially 
fitted  with  a  3-step  cone  suitable  for  a  6"  belt.  The  lathe  was 
driven  by  a  direct  current  shunt- wound  motor  of  120  s.h.p.,  and 
a  large  air-cooled  rheostat  was  connected.  The  speed  of  the 
motor  could  be  varied  between  160  and  300  revolutions  per 
minute  at  no  load  on  the  lathe,  and  from  60  to  300  revolutions 
with  heavy  cuts,  by  means  of  the  rheostat.  The  lathe  was  driven 
by  two  intermediate  countershafts  having  10*  belts. 

CONDITION   OF  TOOLS. 

After  the  trials  the  condition  of  each  tool  was  carefully 
examined,  and  a  number  indicating  the  condition  was  assessed  to 
each  tool. 

RESULTS. 

The  full  report  gives  the  detailed  results  of  each  trial,  also 


EXPERIMENTS   WITH  RAPID   CUTTING   STEEL   TOOLS  173 

diagrams  are  given  showing  the  maximnm  cutting  speeds  sncoess- 
fnllj  used  in  each  trial,  and,  in  [addition,  curves  are  given  showing 
the  average  speeds  during  each  set  of  trials.  Believing,  however, 
that  it  would  be  better  to  take  the  average  of  those  tools  which 
finished  in  fair  condition  rather  than  the  average  of  all  the  tools,  the 
average  curves  have  been  re-drawn.  Figs.  1  and  2  show  the  average 
results  obtained  from  those  tools  which  finished  in  such  condition 
as  to  warrant  mark  4,  or  something  better,  whilst  the  dotted  lines 
in  the  figures  show  the  maximum  results  obtained  with  any  tool 
which  finished  in  a  satisfactory  condition. 

No  single  make  of  steel  proved  to  be  superior  to  all  others 
in  every  respect,  and  as  it  is  hardly  practicable  in  engineering 
shops  to  have  different  makes  of  steel  for  different  outs  and 
materials,  it  would  appear  that  the  average  curves  are  those  which 
can  safely  be  taken  as  standards  of  all  round  comparison  for  use 
in  our  shops.  From  the  trials,  formulsB  were  deduced  to  give 
approximately  the  cutting  speeds  which  may  be  adopted  for 
different  areas  of  out  and  different  materials  and  curves,  but  owing 
to  the  modifications  adopted  in  preparing  the  tables  and  curves  for 
this  paper,  the  writer  has  found  it  necessary  to  re-arrange  the 
formolsB.    The  following  are  now  suggested : — 


For  soft  steel         8  = ^^^^  +  12 

„  med.   „  ^=  ax  OO16  +    ° 

„  soft  cast  uron    8  = tt-tt^  +   20 

a  X  0*02 

II  Died.   „      „     S  = 


a  X  0-23 


174  EXPERIMENTS   WITH   RAPID   CUTTING   STEEL   TOOLS 

Where  S  =  Gutting  speed  in  feet  per  minute,  and 

a  =  Area  of  section  of  cut,  i.^.,  traverse  x  depth. 

Very  careful  records  were  taken  of  the  power  used  |  at  the 
various  cuts  and  speeds,  also  data  was  obtained  enabling  the  force 
brought  to  bear  on  the  tools  to  be  determined. 

Table  I.  gives  the  average  results  obtained  from  the  tools  which 
finished  in  a  condition  warranting  mark  4,  or  better.  The 
figures  given  for  horse  power  were  calculated  from  the  readings 
of  electrical  instruments  attached  to  the  motor ;  they,  therefore, 
include  the  motor  losses  and  countershaft  friction.  In  the  full 
report  the  figures  for  net  horse  power  required  to  overcome  the 
resistance  to  cutting  are  given,  but  as  these  are  mainly  required 
for  determining  the  cutting  force  on  the  tool  point,  they  have  not 
been  included  in  the  Tables  given  here. 

On  the  completion  of  the  main  series  of  trials  a  further  set  of 
experiments  was  carried  out  to  ascertain  whether  lengthened  runs 
could  be  made  with  the  new  steels  at  speeds  approaching  those 
adopted  with  the  shorter  runs.  The  tests  were  made  on  soft 
forged  steel  and  on  medium  cast  iron.  The  average  of  the  results 
obtained  from  those  trials,  which  maintained  their  average  cutting 
edge  in  fair  condition  for  60  minutes  or  longer,  is  given  in 
Table  II. 

For  the  purposes  of  comparing  results  which  may  be  obtained 
with  the  new  steels  against  those  obtainable  with  ordinary  Mushet 
steel  and  ordinary  water-hardened  steel,  tools  made  of  these 
materials  were  also  tested,  and  the  average  results  are  given  in  the 
Table.  It  will  be  noted  that  the  new  steels  give  decidedly 
improved  results,  and  that  with  them  the  cutting  speed  can  be 
about  twice  as  fast  as  with  ordinary  Mushet  steel,  and  three  or 
four  times  as  fast  as  with  ordinary  water-hardened  steel. 

An  item  of  interest  which  may  be  mentioned  here  is  that 
ordinary  Mushet  steel  can  be  very  greatly  improved  by  treating  it 
in  the  same  manner  as  the  new  steels  when  tempering ;  this  is  a 
point  of  value,  as  it  enables  greatly  improved  results  to  be  obtained 
from  existing  tools. 


KXPESIMENTS   WTTH   RAPID   CUTTING   STEEL   TOOLS 


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EXPERIMENTS   WITH   RAPID   CUTTING   STEEL  TOOLS  177 

A  point  very  clearly  seen  by  a  glanoe  at  Table  I.  is  that 
where  much  metal  has  to  be  removed  it  will  be  taken  off  not 
only  much  more  quickly,  but  also  with  a  less  expenditure  of 
power  per  lb.  of  material  removed,  if  a  heavy  cut  is  taken  at  a 
comparatively  low  speed  in  preference  to  a  lighter  one  at  a 
high  speed. 

The  figures  showing  the  cutting  force  on  tool  points  should 
prove  of  service  to  machine  tool  designers. 

The  information  regarding  horse  power  is  worthy  of  special 
attention,  for  it  is  the  power  element  which  perhaps  will  form  the 
greatest  difficulty  in  the  way  of  using  existing  lathes  efficiently 
with  the  new  high-speed  cutting  tools.  A  lathe  on  which  a  cut  of 
V  X  Y  can  be  taken  is  by  no  means  an  abnormal  one,  and  this 
duty  can  be  carried  out  on  most  good  lathes  of,  say,  12'"  centres ; 
but  the  driving  cones,  the  countershaft,  and  the  belts  connected 
with  few  such  lathes  would  be  suitable  for  24  h.p.  Further  than 
this,  the  line  shafts  in  most  engineering  shops  are  too  light  to 
drive  many  lathes  using  20  h.p.  each,  or  anything  approaching 
that  figure. 

The  writer  believes  that  the  problem  of  improving  the  output 
from  existing  lathes  will  in  many  cases  need  to  start  with  the 
engines,  main-shafting,  and  countershafts,  and  from  them  go  to 
the  cones  and  back  gear  of  the  lathes  themselves. 

Whilst  on  the  question  of  lathes,  one  point  of  importance  may 
be  noted  from  Table  II.,  viz.,  that  when  cutting  mild  steel  the 
force  on  the  tool  point  increases  as  the  cutting  speed  falls.  Hence, 
so  for  as  the  lathe  proper  is  concerned,  irrespective  of  its  driving 
gear,  it  would  appear  to  be  less  severely  tried  when  cutting  at  a 
high  speed  than  when  cutting  at  a  low  speed.  From  this  the 
deduction  naturally  follows  that,  lathes  satisfactory  for  the  old 
steels  will  be  equally  satisfactory  for  the  new  steels  if  the  gearing 
end  can  be  altered  to  meet  the  new  power  requirements. 

One  point  which  attention  to  cutting  speeds  has  forced  on  the 
writer,  is  that  the  speed  variation  for  most  lathes  moves  in  steps 
which  are  too  coarse,  often  causing  the  actual  cutting  speed  to  be 
much  below  the  speed  which  the  tool  can  stand. 


178     EXPERIMENTS  WITH  RAPID  CUTTING  STEEL  TOOLS 

With  many  lathes  the  rise  in  speed,  when  the  belt  is  moved  to 
the  next  smaller  cone,  is  aboat  40  per  cent. ;  thas,  with  a  job  on 
which  a  surface  speed  of  80  feet  can  be  cut,  and  one  cone  step 
gives,  say,  a  speed  of  85  feet  per  minute,  then  the  next  lower  step 
would  give  only  60  feet,  which  is  equivalent  to  a  30  per  cent  loss 
of  output,  as  the  belt  would  have  to  be  put  on  the  latter  step. 

The  new  requirement  of  powerful  drives  is  likely  to  exaggerate 
this  difficulty,  as  in  many  cases  it  is  likely  that  cones  having 
5  steps  will  be  replaced  by  cones  having  3  or  even  2  steps,  so  as  to 
permit  of  wider  belts.  The  remedy  is  to  drive  by  motors  having* 
considerable  speed  range,  or  to  drive  the  lathe  by  a  mechanical 
speed  device,  such  as  the  Beeves'  cone  arrangement.  The  next 
alternative  is  to  vary  the  traverse  or  the  cut,  so  as  to  give  an  area 
of  cut  which  suits  the  speed  obtainable  from  the  belt* 

The  Manchester  tests  form  a  valuable  record,  and  should  be 
widely  studied  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  they  will  be  carried  further, 
so  as  to  include  cutting  on  cast  steel  and  brass,  also  to  include 
tests  with  drills  and  milling  cutters. 

Discussion, 

Mr  E.  G.  CoNSTANTiNE  (Member)  said  be  had  had  no  oppor- 
tunity of  studying  Mr  Day's  paper,  but  he  would  just  make 
one  or  two  remarks,  and  then,  if  permitted,  he  would  be  pleased 
to  take  further  part  in  the  discussion  later  on.  Mr  Day,  with  hia 
usual  modesty,  had  omitted  to  state  what  his  connection  had  been 
with  these  tests,  but,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  he  was  the  one  who 
suggested  them  to  the  Council  of  the  Manchester  Association  of 
Engineers,  and  the  credit  of  the  tests  was  due  to  him  entirely. 
Another  point  which  he  would  desire  to  emphasize  was  the  im- 
partiality with  which  the  tests  were  conducted.  It  was  felt  when 
Mr  Day  made  his  suggestions  that  it  would  be  very  desirable  to 
dissociate  them  from  any  possible  contention  that  they  had  beei^ 
afflicted  by  any  personal  interest  whatever,  and  therefore  on 
approaching  the  Technical  Instruction  Committee  of  the  Manchester 
Corporation,  of  which  Mr  Day  was  a  member,  arrangements  wer^ 


EXPERIBCENTS   WITH   RAPID   CUTTING   STEEL   TOOLS  179 

McE.e.Ooiuteii.tliie. 

made  that  the  tests  shonld  be  carried  out  at  the  Municipal  School 
of  Technology,  under  the  personal  supervision  of  Dr.  Nioolson^ 
the  professor  of  engineering,  and  during  all  the  tests  one  of  the 
members  of  the  Manchester  Association  Committee,  appointed  for 
this  purpose,  was  invariably  present.  The  object  of  the  tests  was, 
as  Mr  Day  had  pointed  out,  not  to  ascertain  the  superiority  of  any 
particular  make  of  steel,  but  to  ascertain  what  could  be  done  with 
the  new  high  speed  steels,  so  that  engineers  would  be  able  to  com- 
pare the  results  they  were  getting  in  their  own  factories,  and  to 
see  at  a  glance  whether  they  were  getting  as  much  as  they  could 
reasonably  expect  from  the  tools  they  were  using.  In  addition  to 
the  chemical  analyses,  physical  tests  were  made  of  all  the  bars 
operated  upon,  and  full  results  of  these  were  contained  in  the 
report.  In  passing,  he  might  note  an  interesting  point.  There 
was  a  critical  speed  up  to  which  the  tools  would  go,  and  if  they 
exceeded  that,  only  to  the  slightest  extent^  almost  immediate 
failure  in  some  instances  occurred.  Then,  as  bearing  upon  Mr 
Day's  remark  regarding  the  speed  variation  moving  in  too  coarse 
grades,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  it  was  found  that  by  increasing  the 
speed  only  as  much  as  from  five  to  six  feet  per  minute,  or  even  less 
than  that,  a  tool  which  would  otherwise  run  without  apparent 
distress  at  the  lower  speed  failed  almost  instantly.  Another  rather 
peculiar  feature  was  that  the  tools  in  some  instances  appeared  tp 
fail  and  then  recover  themselves.  They  seemed  to  get  what  one 
might  term  their  ''second  wind"  and  another  cutting  edge,  and 
they  went  through  the  tests  without  failure.  The  curious  point 
which  Mr  Day  had  drawn  attention  to  was  somewhat  surprising, 
that  of  there  being  a  less  expenditure  of  power  with  a  heavy  cut  ab 
a  comparatively  low  speed  than  with  a  lighter  out  at  a  compara- 
tively high  speed,  and  it  was  somewhat  remarkable  that  in  many 
of  the  tests  the  pressure  on  the  tool  apparently  diminished,  or  aft 
all  events  the  horse  power  required  to  drive  the  lathe  was  less  i^ 
the  tool  had  been  working  for  some  time  than  immediately,  or 
shortly  after,  cutting  commenced.  He  did  not  quite  agree  wilih 
Mr  Day's  suggestion  that  strengthening  the  gearhead  of  the  Jathes 


180  EXPERIMENTS   WITH   RAPID   CUTTING   STEEL   TOOLS 

MrKe.OoMtMtiae. 

would  be  in  some  oases  sufficient  for  using  a  high-speed  steel  io 
obtain  the  maximum  results.  What  had  been  found  was  that,  in 
addition  to  requiring  a  very  strong  headstock,  a  heavy  saddle  was 
also  necessary,  otherwise  the  vibration  was  so  great  that  it  would 
be  impossible  to  take  any  considerable  depth  of  cut.  On  the  first 
lathe  tested  that  was  apparent,  and  a  stronger  saddle  was  fitted, 
so  that  the  conclusion  he  had  arrived  at  was  that,  unless  a  lathe 
had  a  very  strong  bed,  and  a  very  strong  saddle,  and  a  very  strong 
headstock,  the  maximum  results  could  not  be  obtained  with  a  high 
speed.  He  might  say  that  the  full  report  of  the  tests,  with  the 
discussion  on  it,  was  now  in  the  press,  and  when  any  further  dis- 
cussion took  place  on  Mr  Day's  contribution  he  hoped  to  have  an 
opportunity  of  presenting  a  copy  to  the  Institution. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Institution  held  on  22nd  March,  1904, 
Mr  Constantiue  remarked  that  he  did  not  propose  to  say  very 
much  more  on  this  subject,  because  he  had  with  him  his 
friend  Mr  Adamson,  who  was  the  Hon.  Secretary  of  the  Tool 
Steel  Committee  of  the  Manchester  Association  of  Engineers,  and 
who  had  done  more  than  any  other  person  towards  the  carrying 
out  of  the  tests  in  the  School  of  Technology  in  Manchester;  but 
there  were  one  or  two  points  which  he  might  allude  to  without 
taking  the  wind  out  of  Mr  Adamson's  sails,-— one  was  with  regard  to 
the  finish  which  was  obtainable  with  high  speed  cutting  steel  tools. 
Some  doubt  had  been  expressed  on  that  point,  which  was  one  not 
tested  in  the  experiments  carried  out  in  Manchester;  but  he  under- 
stood that,  from  experiments  which  had  since  been  made,  there  was 
no  doubt  that  an  equally  good  finish  could  be  obtained  with  high 
speed  cutting  steel  tools  as  with  ordinary  steel  tools.  Another 
^int,  was  the  lubrication  of  the  cutting  edge.  That  also  was  not 
tried ;  and  he  would  suggest  that  any  gentleman  who  was  interested 
in  the  subject  might  with  advantage  try  that  method  of  cutting  with 
high  speed  steels,  and  probably  find  some  advantage  from  it. 
With  regard  to  the  chatter  which  took  place  in  some  of  the  tests 
in  Manchester,  when  a  very  heavy  cut  was  being  taken,  that  was 
proved  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  Committee  to  be  due  to  the 


EXPERIMENTS   WITH  RAPID   CUTTING   STEEL  TOOLS  181 

lfrS.G.Coute&tiiiA. 

synohroiiisation  of  the  spring  of  the  lathe  with  the  speed  of  th^ 
gearing  of  the  headstock,  and  that  when  the  speed  was  varied 
slightly  chattering  ceased.  An  important  revelation  was  made 
with  the  excessive  vibration.  It  was  thought  that,  when  the 
biggest  oat,  namely,  fths  by  ^th  of  an  inch,  was  taken,  and  severe 
chattering  took  place,  the  cutting  edge  of  the  tool  would  be  damaged, 
but  nothing  of  the  kind  occurred,  and  when  the  vibration  ceased 
owing  to  an  alteration  in  speed,  the  cutting  was  quite  good  and  the 
edge  of  the  tool  was  not  at  all  injured.  Some  very  interesting  experi- 
ments were  being  carried  out  by  Dr  Nicolson  to  ascertain  the  best 
shape  and  angle  of  tools,  and  in  order  to  enable  him  to  do  this,'  he 
had  attached  no  less  than  four  dynamometers  to  the  lathe  saddle 
from  which  he  could  ascertain  the  pressure  forcing  the  tool  from 
the  work,  the  downward  pressure,  and  also  the  side  pressure;  and 
a  peculiarity  noticed  was  that  when  taking  a  light  cut,  namely,  yV^h 
by  -^th  of  an  inch,  the  tool  in  some  instances  overran  the  travelling 
screw,  the  pressure  on  the  side  of  the  tool  next  the  loose  head- 
stock  being  relieved  and  transferred  to  the  leading  side  of  the  tool; 
but  when  it  was  put  on  the  heavier  cut,  the  pressure  was  restored 
to  the  trailing  side  of  the  tool.  Another  feature  of  which  a 
further  investigation  was  required,  was,  as  to  the  cause  and 
failure  of  the  tools.  When  tools  reached  a  certain  temperature — 
which  was  particularly  noticeable  in  cutting  cast-iron — ^the  cutting 
edge  failed  almost  instantaneously,  and  the  cuttings  or  rubbings 
were  of  a  dull  red  heat.  Better  results  might  be  obtained  with 
larger  sections  of  tool  steels.  In  fact,  Mr  Wicksteed,  President  of  the 
Institution  of  Mechanical  Engineers^  who  had  been  carrying  out 
tests,  found  that  he  got  better  results  by  having  heavier  tools. 
He  (Mr  Constantine)  supposed  that  was  explainable  by*the  greater 
mass  of  metal  conveying  the  heat  away  from  the  cutting  edge. 
One  somewhat  curious  result  of  the  tests  which  had  been  con- 
ducted, was  the  improvement  that  had  taken  place  in  the  quality 
of  self-hardening  steels.  It  was  stated  that  self-hardening  steels 
were  now  made  of  such  a  quality  that  existing  lathes,  while  not  of 
sufficient  power  to  utilize  the  high  speed  steels,  could  be  speeded 


182  EXPERIMENTS   WITH   RAPID   CUTTING   STEEL   TOOLS 

2IrE.6.C(»fltaiitilie. 

tip  very  considerably,  and  improved  self-hardening  steels  used 
with  advantage.  Another  factor  which  had  resulted  from  the 
introduction  of  these  high  speed  steels  was  in  the  making  of  heavy 
forgings.  Everyone  knew  that  it  had  been  the  pride  of  those 
forge  masters  who  took  the  greatest  interest  in  their  work,  to  turn 
out  heavy  forgings,  such  as  crank  shafts,  with  a  '*  fancy  finish,"  so 
that  very  little  machining  was  required.  This  '  *  fancy  fi  nish ' '  natur- 
ally took  time  and  very  considerable  skill,  and  it  was  found  that  it 
was  cheaper  to  take  off  a  little  more  metal  in  the  lathe 
than  formerly,  and  save  the  time  of  the  forgers.  He  would  like 
to  draw  special  attention  to  the  cordial  co-operation  which  had 
existed  between  the  Municipal  Authorities  and  the  Manchester 
Association  of  Engineers,  in  the  conduct  of  these  tests,  and 
he  would  suggest  that  that  was  an  example  which  might  be 
followed  with  advantage  in  other  communities, — that  union  of 
Municipal  Authorities,  who  had  plenty  of  money  to  spend,  and 
facilities  at  their  disposal  for  carrying  out  experiments,  with 
Cotmcils  of  Institutions  sach  as  he  was  addressing,  from  which 
the  practical  experience  and  knowledge  essential  to  securing  the 
best  results  could  always  be  obtained. 

Mr  Daniel  Adamson  (Hyde),  after  expressing  the  pleasure  he  had 
felt  in  coming  to  the  Institution,  said  he  had  hoped  to  hear  some 
local  speakers  on  this  most  interesting  subject.  In  his  paper  Mr 
Day  had  given  a  diagram  of  the  average  results  of  the  various 
experiments,  including  practically  all  the  good  tools.  The 
corresponding  diagram  in  the  original  report  included  all  the 
tools — those  that  failed  as  well  as  those  that  had  succeeded.  Mr 
Day  had  left  out  those  that  failed,  the  speed  of  which  was  higher 
than  the  rest,  and  therefore  his  average  curve  was  lower,  and  he 
(Mr  Adamson)  was  of  opinion  that  it  was  too  low,  because  amongst 
those  that  succeeded  there  were  several  tools  which  had  been  run 
at  speeds  much  too  low.  For  the  purpose  of  the  investigation, 
however,  the  curve  showing  the  maximum  result  was  what  ought 
to  be  paid  attention  to,  because  the  curve  for  maximum  results 
included  tests  all  upon  the  same  basis — that  was,  each  test  was 


EXPERIMENTS   WITH   RAPID   CUTTING   STEEL  TOOLS  183 

Mr  Daniel  AcUnucnfe 

tiie  best  in  its  paxticular  class;  whereas,  if  results  were  oonsidered 
which  did  not  succeed  it  would  not  be  a  ^ood  relative  comparison. 
The  value  of  the  general  direction  of  the  curve  was  to  indicate  the 
change  in  speed  necessitated  by  a  change  in  the  cut  or  traverse. 
Mr  Day  had  taken  the  gross  horse  power  but  that  was  somewhat 
misleading,  as  there  were  more  shafts  and  belts  in  use  than  was 
generally  the  case  in  workshops.  It  would  have  been  better  to 
have  taken  the  nett  E.H.F.,  as  given  in  the  report.  Mr  Day  had 
remarked  on  the  condition  of  the  tools  at  the  end  of  the  experi- 
ments, but  perhaps  that  was  not  very  clear  to  the  Members.  The 
«even  or  eight  tools  which  had  been  tried  on  each  cut  were 
iucranged  in  what  was  considered  to  be  the  order  of  damage  done 
to  the  cutting  edge.  The  work  the  tools  had  done  was  fully 
described  in  the  report,  and  the  numbers  .given  indicated  the 
amount  of  harm  done  to  the  tool  while  doing  that  work ;  but  even 
this  required  some  modification,  because  in  a  few  instances  the 
tools  were  run  longer  than  would  be  done  in  ordinary  workshop 
practice,  in  order  to  fully  satisfy  the  tool  steel  representatives  that 
the  tool  was  really  done  up,  the  result  being  to  do  more  damage 
to  the  cutting  edge  than  was  comparable  with  the  result 
accomplished.  In  the  technical  papers  there  had  been  a  certain 
iunount  of  correspondence  and  criticism  to  the  effect  that  one  or 
two  firms  had  come  out  better  than  others,  and  some  were 
disappointed  because  they  were  not  invited  to  participate  in  the 
trials.  He  would  jdke  to  point  out  that  the  committee  had 
avoided  making  any  comparisons,  but  every  maker,  whose  tools 
were  tried,  was  r^presented  in  a  table  showing  the  best  results 
obtained.  If  one  maker  appeared  more  often  than  another  it  was 
mote  a  matter  of  good  luck  than  any  difference  in  the  quality  of 
the  steel.  One  interesting  point  in  the  complete  report  was  that, 
h  great  difference  was  shown  in  power  absorbed  if  one  make  of 
tool  was  compared  with  another  make  of  tool  in  removing  ascertain 
amount  of  material.  It  could  not  have  any  connection  with  the 
quality  of  the  steel,  bnt  showed  that  the  shape  of  the  tool  favoured 
by,  a  particular  maker ^hbd  advantages  over  other  shapes..     For 


184  EXPERIMENTS  WITH  RAPID  CUTTING   STEEL   TOOLS 

Mr  Duiiel  AduDMii. 

instance,  the  power  required  per  lb.  of  steel  removed  per  minute 
varied  from  2^  to  3  h.p.  and  from  1^  to  2^  h.p.  witH  cast-iron. 
That  showed  a  considerable  variation  on  the  same  material,  so  far 
as  the  average  results  were  a  guide,  and  it  showed  that  there  waa 
still  a  large  field  for  investigation  left  in  regard  to  the  best  shape 
of  took.  He  might  say  that  the  field  seemed  to  be  open  for  very 
many  further  investigations  based  upon  that  report  as  a  founda- 
tion. Dr  Nicolson  was  at  the  present  time  engaged  in  a  series 
of  investigations  in  this  line,  and  the  results  were  expected  to  be 
ready  for  the  Summer  Meeting  of  the  Institution  of  Mechanical 
Engineers.  Another  point  he  would  like  to  refer  to  was  that  he 
had  found  out  that  the  medium  cast  iron,  which  was  intended  to 
represent  the  average  quality  of  cast  iron  in  commercial  use,  was 
really  much  harder  than  that  usually  obtained  in  their  own  shops. 
For  example,  a  tool  which  failed  at  56  feet  per  minute,  but  ran 
satisfactorily  for  half-an-hour  at  48  feet  per  minute  in  the  speaker's 
own  works,  when  sent  down  to  the  Manchester  Technical  School 
and  tried  on  the  sample  bar  failed  at  this  speed  in  less  than 
one  minute.  In  making  comparisons  with  the  reports  given  in, 
some  people  had  been  disappointed  with  the  amount  of  material 
removed  per  minute  and  the  speed,  but  he  would  like  to  draw 
attention  to  the  length  of  the  runs  (from  twenty  minutes  to  two 
hours),  as  compared  with  those  of  only  a  few  minutes  duration 
which  was  usually  the  case  when  good  results  were  published, 
especially  of  unofScial  experiments.  Again,  the  cuttings  were 
weighed  as  they  left  the  lathe,  which  was  a  very  different  matter 
from  calculating  the  weight.  If  at  a  speed  of,  say,  50  feet  per 
minute  the  weight  being  removed  was  calculated,  one  need  not  be 
surprised  to  find  the  actual  weight  of  the  cuttings  to  be  only  about 
70  per  cent,  of  the  expected  weight,  due  apparently  to  the  spring  of 
the  lathe  or  slowing  down  of  speed.  The  complete  report  would 
be  ready  very  soon,  and  it  could  be  obtained  from  the  Secretary  of 
the  Manchester  Association  of  Engineers,  if  any  one  was  sufficiently 
interested  to  study  it.  One  very  interesting  feature,  he  con* 
sidered,  was  that  it  contained  sheets  of  diagrams  of  the  shapes  o£ 
all  the  tools  which  had  been  experimented  with. 


EXPERIMENTS    WITH    RAPID   CUTTING   STEEL   TOOLS  185 

Mr  F.  J.  Rowan. 

Correspandencfi. 
Mr  F.  J.  EowAN  (Member  of  Council)  considered  Mr  Day's  paper 
remarkable,  as  showing  how  much  interest  and  instruction  might  be 
yielded  by  systematic  observation  of  even  the  simplest  and  most 
ordinary  operations  in  engineering.  The  full  report  of  the  Man- 
chester experiments,  as  foreshadowed  by  Mr  Constantine,  would  be 
of  much  value  as  a  mine  of  information  on  this  subject.  Perhaps 
some  portions  of  that  report,  such  as  those  showing  the  effect  of 
different  forms  of  cutting  edge,  were  needed  to  explain  some 
apparent  discrepancies  in  Mr  Day's  Table  I.  between  some  of  the 
results  of  cutting,  and  also  the  **  curious  point "  referred  to  by  Mr 
Constantine.  In  Table  I.,  for  instance,  in  three  experiments, 
with  as  nearly  as  possible  the  same  actual  cutting  speed 
in  feet  per  minute,  namely  : — In  soft  steel,  45-6 ;  in  medium 
steel,  37*8 ;  and  in  soft  cast  iron,  51*1 ;  with  the  same  depth  and 
traverse  of  actual  cut,  and  practically  the  same  area  machined  in 
square  feet  per  minute,  and  pretty  nearly  the  same  weight  removed 
in  lbs.  per  minute,  the  horse  power  at  the  moter  varied  from 
24-68,  and  19-84  to  1275  (or  nearly  as  2  to  1  in  the  first  and  last 
<5ases),  and  the  cutting  force  on  the  point  of  the  tool  in  tons  per 
square  inch  varied  from  122  and  109  to  40.  Another  instance  of 
similar  discrepancy  was  shown  by  taking  the  first  experiment  in 
soft  steel,  actual  cutting  speed  128-4  feet  per  minute,  and  the 
first  in  soft  cast  iron,  speed  105*2  feet,  the  depth  and  traverse  of 
cut  and  the  area  machined  per  minute  being  practically  the  same 
in  both  instances,  as  well  as  the  weight  removed  per  minute  ;  but 
the  horse  power  at  the  motor  was  14-24  in  the  one  case,  and  only 
9-50  in  the  other,  while  the  cutting  force  on  the  point  of  the  tool 
was  108  tons  per  square  inch  in  the  first,  and  only  55  tons  per 
square  inch  in  the  second  case.  Similar  apparent  anomalies 
cropped  up  in  the  other  parts  of  the  Table  when  cutting  speed, 
horse  power  employed,  and  cutting  force  on  the  tool  were  compared ; 
but  it  was  not  unlikely  that  these  would  be  found  to  throw  some 
light   upon  the   suitability   of   form   of   cutting  edge  which    had 

been  used. 

17 


186  EXPERIMENTS    WITH    RAPID   CUTTING    STEEL    TOOLS 

Mr  Robert  Lang. 

Mr  BoBEBT  Lang  (Member)  had  pleasure  in  congratulating 
the  Institution  on  securing  such  valuable  data  so  carefully  pre- 
pared in  tables,  etc.,  by  the  committee  associated  with  Mr  Day  in 
these  experiments,  and  he  felt  sure  the  Members  of  the  Institution 
would  find  the  information  given  of  very  great  use  in  comparing  the 
results  with  those  obtained  in  the  various  works  with  which  they 
were  connected.  One  very  practical  and  important  point  brought 
out  by  these  experiments  was  that,  for  high  speed  cutting  the 
lathes  presently  in  use  were  not  sufficiently  powerful  in  gear  unless 
for  very  light  cuts.  Fortunately,  however,  in  the  majority  of 
engineering  works  high  speed  in  combination  with  heavy  cutting 
was  not  required  for  general  work,  otherwise  considerable  expense 
would  be  incurred  in  providing  new  and  suitable  lathes.  During 
the  last  two  or  three  years  in  which  the  evolution  of  the  high- 
speed tool  had  taken  place,  it  had  been  found  convenient  in  many 
workshops  to  increase  the  speed  of  countershafts  to  double,  and  in 
some  cases  to  treble  their  former  speed.  This  plan  was  adopted 
by  the  wi-iter's  firm  some  years  ago  with  excellent  results.  By 
adopting  this  system  the  output  of  each  lathe  was  considerably 
increased.  One  slight  disadvantage  occurred,  however,  owing  to 
the  lathes  so  treated  not  being  suitable  for  taking  finishing  cut& 
unless  when  working  with  small  diameters.  Naturally  this  draw- 
back did  not  affect  the  larger  firms  who  had  other  lathes  to  fall 
back  on  such  work.  One  feature  worthy  of  special  notice  in  Mr 
Day's  paper,  and  emphasized  by  him,  was  the  loss  sustained  by  the 
difference  of  speed  in  moving  the  belt  from  one  step  of  cone  to  the 
other.  In  ordinary  double-geared  lathes  the  average  variation  in 
changing  from  one  step  of  cone  to  the  next  one  was  about  50  per 
cent.  This  fault  was  accentuated  in  many  high  speed  lathes^ 
owing  to  the  wddth  of  belt  necessitating  fewer  steps  in  the 
cone.  Many  high  speed  lathes  were  now  made  in  which  the 
variation  of  speed  in  changing  from  one  step  of  cone  to  the  other 
amounted  to  68  per  cent.  The  difficulty  was  partly  overcome  by 
having  a  double-speed  countershaft  reducing  the  variation  to  34 
per  cent.     Realizing  the  great  loss  incurred  on  general  work  when 


EXPERIMENTS   WITH    RAPID    CUTTING    STEEL    TOOLS  187 

MrBobeitLang. 

using  the  double-geared  type  of  headstock  having  large  variation 
or  jump  at  each  change  of  step,  the  writer's  firm,  some  time  ago 
designed  a  special  headstock  for  use  with  high  speed  lathes.  In 
this  headstock  the  cone  was  made  of  extraordinary  large  size  as^ 
compared  with  height  of  centres,  the  cone  was  placed  on  the  side 
shaft  and  was  geared  to  the  spindle  at  a  ratio  of  six  to  one.  The 
variation  of  speed  in  changing  from  one  step  to  the  other  was  only 
30  per  cent.,  and  with  a  double-speed  countershaft  this  was 
reduced  to  15  per  cent.  Owing  to  the  large  diameter  of  cone,  a  high 
belt  velocity  was  obtained  without  unduly  increasing  the  speed  of 
the  countershaft.  Besides  the  six  to  one  ratio  of  gears  in  this 
headstock  a  further  reduction  was  added  at  three  to  one  ratio,  so 
that  the  headstock  could  be  used  with  a  6  to  1  or  18  to  1  reduction 
at  pleasure.  The  advantage  secured  by  this  design  was  that  two 
speeds  could  be  quickly  secured — one  for  high-speed  cutting  and 
the  other  for  finishing — ^without  changing  the  belt  on  the  cone  or 
countershaft.  For  example,  on  a  13-inch  centre  lathe  of  this, 
type,  a  medium  hard  steel  bar  6  inches  in  diameter  could  be  put 
between  the  centres,  and  a  cut  ^-inch  deep  with  ^-inch  advance 
could  be  taken  at  50  feet  per  minute  cutting  speed,  and  by  con- 
venient change  of  gear  the  speed  could  be  reduced  to  20  feet  per 
minute  for  finishing  without  interfering  with  any  belts  w^hatever. 
An  illustration  of  this  lathe  was  shown  in  Fig.  3.  In  discussing 
the  problem  of  what  a  lathe  should  be,  Mr.  Day  emphasized  the 
necessity  of  correct  speeds  for  all  diameters  to  be  obtained  either 
by  electrical  or  mechanical  means.  Probably  Mr.  Day  would  be 
interested  to  learn  that  he  (Mr.  Lang)  had  designed  a  mechanical 
arrangement  for  giving  a  correct  gradation  of  speeds  from  the 
highest  to  the  lowest  on  a  lathe  headstock,  the  arrangement  being 
such  that  no  countershaft  was  required,  Mr  Constantine,  in  his 
interesting  remarks,  mentioned,  amongst  other  things,  the  necessity 
of  a  very  heavy  saddle  for  high-speed  lathes,  and  instanced  the 
failure  of  the  first  saddle  in  the  lathe  used  for  the  Manchester 
experiments.  He  did  not  quite  agree  with  him  in  his  finding, 
however,  as  the  design  had  probably  a  good  deal  to  answer  for  in 


188  EXPERIlhiENTS   WITH    RAPID   CUTTING    STEEL    TOOLS 

lir  Bobert  Lang. 


^ 


EXPERIMENTS    WITH   RAPID   CUTTING    STEEL   TOOLS  189 

its  want  of  rigidity  and  weakness  in  the  saddle  referred  to.  In 
the  usual  standard  bed  and  saddle,  such  as  was  used  in  the  lathe 
on  which  the  experiments  were  made,  the  length  of  longitudinal 
guide  for  the  saddle  would  probably  be  not  more  than  twice  its 
width.  In  all  high-speed  cutting,  as  well  as  other  lathes,  it  had 
been  found  of  very  great  importance  to  use  a  type  of  bed  in  which 
the  longitudinal  guide  for  the  saddle  was  from  eight  to  twelve 
times  its  width.  This  system  ensured  much  greater  rigidity  as 
well  as  freedom  of  movement,  and  assisted  to  a  considerable  extent 
the  duration  or  life  of  the  tool. 

Mr  Day,  in  reply,  said  that  while  Mr  Constantine  had  mentioned 
that  a  good  finish  could  be  obtained  at  high  speeds  of  cutting,  his 
experience,  so  far,  was  that  a  good  finish  at  high  speeds  could  not 
be  obtained,  and  one  had  to  finish  with  ordinary  tools  at  quite  slow 
speeds.  It  would  be  a  great  point  for  the  Members  of  the 
Institution  to  know  the  particulars  regarding  finish  at  high-cutting 
speeds.  His  experience  was  that  it  was  better  to  lubricate  the 
tools  freely.  Mr  Constantine  said  that  at  Manchester,  it  was 
found  that  much  of  the  vibration  was  due  to  a  synchronisation 
of  the  movements  in  the  slide  rest  and  the  movements  tend- 
ing to  be  produced  by  the  gear.  Although  that  was  possible, 
it  somewhat  contradicted  the  statement  he,  Mr  Constantine,  made 
last  month  to  the  effect  that  in  order  to  remedy  this  defect, 
excessive  strength  was  necessary.  His  own  experience  was  that 
certainly  with  good  lathes,  even  if  some  years  old,  nothing  very 
special  was  necessary  to  obtain  results  nearly  equal  to  those  recorded 
at  Manchester,  and  much  better  than  were  usually  obtained. 
The  great  bogey  that  was  brought  before  most  people  in  connec- 
tion with  high  speed  steels,  was  that  if  good  results  were  to 
be  obtained,  then  new  machinery  would  be  required.  As  he  had 
said  before  he  did  not  believe  it,  and  if  the  paper  impressed 
the  fact  that  greatly  improved  results  could  be  obtained  from 
existing  tools,  it  would  have  done  one  service  he  intended  it  to  do. 
Mr  Adamson  had  criticised  the  basis  of  his  average  curves  and 
he  would  defend  them  a  little.      He  had  given  two  sets  of  curves 

18 


190  EXPERIMENTS    WITH    RAPID    CUTTING    STEEL    TOOLS 

Prof.  J-  H.  BOes. 

in  the  paper,  one  shovring  the  maximum  results  obtained  in  each 
series  of  tests,  and  in  every  day  work  maximum  results  ought  to 
be  aimed  at  as  the  ideal,  but  by  adopting  the  average  results  they 
would  be  able  to  say  to  their  foremen,  **  Here  is  a  series  of  curves 
shewing  cutting  speeds  which  I  know  can  be   got,"    and  then 
insist    on    getting    similar    results;    believing  it  was  better  to 
have  a  rule  that  could  be  generally  kept  than  to  lay  down  a  law 
which  would  frequently  be  broken.     He  had  given  the  gross  horse 
powers  rather  than  the  nett  powers  for  the  purpose  of  indicating 
the    power    that    was    necessarily  involved   in  driving  a  lathe. 
Mr  Adamson  had  made  a  correction  to  a  remark  in  the  paper  and  it 
was  well  to  remember  this  correction.      The  paper  stated  that  the 
medium  cast  iron  would  correspond  with  the  average  cast  iron 
used  in  works,  but  Mr  Adamson  pointed  out  that  the  medium  cast 
iron  used  in  the  trials  was  decidedly  harder  than  the  cast  iron 
usually   adopted  in   works,   consequently   the   speeds  given  for 
medium  cast  iron  should  be  easily  attained.     In  the  shops  he  was 
connected  with  he  found  that  with  cast  iron  the  results  shown  by 
the  curves  were  consistently  beaten,  which  confirmed  Mr  Adamson's 
remark.     It  was  most  important  to  remember  that  the  Manchester 
trials  were  not  show  trials,  but  were  of  a  very  practical  nature, 
and  gave  figures  which  should  be  made  use  of  and  put  into  service 
in  shops  generally.     In   answer  to  Mr  Bowan  he  thought  that, 
the  difference  in  horse  power  under  like  conditions  of  speed  and 
cut  would,  on  closer  examination  of  the  tables,  be  found  to  be 
mainly  due  to  the  description  of  the  material  being  cut  and  it 
\70uld  be  seen  that  less  power  was  required  to  cut  cast  iron  than 
steel.     He  was  pleased  to  find  that  Mr  Lang  endorsed  many  of 
the  points  mentioned  in  the  paper  in  regard  to  facilities  for  adjust* 
ment  of  speed.     He   (Mr  Day)   was  well   aware  of  Mr  Lang's 
arrangement  for  varying  the  speed  of  lathes,  but  did  not  refer 
specially  to  it  as  he  had  no  actual  experience  of  its  use. 

The  Ghaibman  (Prof.  J.  H.  Biles  LL.D.,  Vice-President)  observed 
that  this  was  a  subject  which  had  a  very  important  money-making 
bearing.     The  Institution  should  be  gratified  that  gentlemen  had 


EXPERIMENTS    WITH    RAPID    CUTTING    STEEL    TOOLS  191 

Prof.  J.  H.  Biles. 

come  from  Manchester  to  take  part  in  this  discussion.  It  showed 
that  the  subject  was  of  wide  interest,  and  it  showed  the  good 
feeling  that  existed  between  the  engineers  of  Manchester  and 
Glasgow.  He  asked  those  present  to  accord  a  hearty  vote  of 
thanks  to  Mr  Day  for  his  interesting  paper. 
The  vote  of  thanks  was  carried  by  acclamation. 


THE  HEWITT  MEECURY  VAPOUR  LAMP. 
By  Professor  Magnus  Maclean,  M.A.,  D.Sc.  (Member). 


(SBE   PLATE   XIII.) 


Read  22nd  MarcJi,  1904, 


INTRODUCTION. 

The  first  to  investigate  the  arc  between  mercury  electrodes  was 
Thomas  Way  who  performed  experiments  from  1857  to  1861  on  a 
mercury  arc  in  air  of  atmospheric  pressure.  These  were  described 
in  **Dingler*s  Polytechnic  Journal*'  for  1860  and  186 L  The 
next  important  advance  was  by  Rapiefifin  1879,  who  started  the  arc 
in  a  closed  vessel  by  bringing  the  two  electrodes  together  and 
then  separating  them.  He  noted  that  it  was  desirable  to  have  an 
exhausted  space,  and  had  a  chamber  in  which  to  condense  the 
vaporised  mercxiry.  But  the  most  exhaustive  study  of  the 
mercury  vapour  lamp  in  a  partial  vacuum  was  made  by  Arons,  in 
1892,  who  published  his  results  in  1892  and  1896.  The  difficulty 
was,  and  is,  to  get  the  arc  started,  because  the  resistance  of 
mercury  vapour  and  especially  the  resistance  between  the  cathode 
and  the  vapour,  was  very  considerable  even  at  moderate  tempera- 
tures. The  difficulty  was  overcome  by  Arons  in  two  ways,  and 
his  were  the  methods  also  used  by  P.  Cooper- Hewitt.  The  first 
consisted  in  bringing  the  electrodes  together,  and  then  separat- 
ing them;  and  the  second  in  using  a  very  high  inductive 
voltage  to  break  down  the  initial  resistance.  A  third  and 
ingenious  method  was  described  by  Dr  Weintraub  in  the  **  Philo- 
sophical Magazine"  for  Februarj'.  Indeed,  any  one  interested 
in  the  subject  of  arcs  in  metallic  vapours  in  an  exhausted  space, 
should  carefully  read  that  paper. 

description    of   HEWITT   LAMP. 

Cooper-Hewitt    first   brought   his   lamp   to   the   notice   of  the 
public  in  April,  1901,  nearly  three  years  ago.     The  extreme  length 


TH£   HEWITT    MERCURY    VAPOUA   LAMP  19S 

of  the  lamp  exhibited  was  25  inches  and  diameter  1  inch.  It 
was  a  50- volt  lamp,  took  from  3  to  3-5  amperes,  and  it  was  intended 
to  be  suspended  at  an  angle  of  30  degrees  from  the  horizontal, 
Fig.  1.  The  method  of  starting  it  was  by  tilting  it  so  as  to  cause 
a  stream  of  mercury  to  flow  in  the  tube.  This  connected  the  twd 
electrodes  metallically,  and  the  incandescent  lamps  in  parallel  were 
automatically  cut  out  6(  the  circuit,  Fig.  2.  The  voltage  had  to 
overcome  three  resistances  (1)  that  between  the  anode  and  the 
vapour  ;  (2)  that  of  the  column  of  vapour ;  and  (3)  that  between 
the  vapour  and  the  cathode.  This  last  was  high  before  the  lamp 
started,  and  the  main  cause  of  the  difSculty  in  starting  the 
lamp  was  due  to  it.  The  resistance  of  mercury  vapour  at  different 
pressures  and  at  different  current  densities  had  been  very  fully 
investigated  by  Hewitt.  He  found  that  for  a  pressure  of  2  mm. 
of  mercury,  there  was  a  fall  of  potential  of  '64  volt  per  cm.  in  a 
tube  of  38  cm.  diameter  with  a  current  of  3  amperes.  Fig.  3.  He 
also  found  that  the  resistance  of  the  mercury  vapour  varied  directly 
as  its  length  and  inversely  as  its  diameter.  Platinum  wires  were 
used  in  the  usual  way  for  leading  the  current  from  the  leads  into 
the  mercury  terminals  of  the  lamps.  Above  the  cathode  a  cooling 
chamber  for  condensing  the  vaporised  mercury  was  attached,  by 
means  of  which  the  pressure  of  the  mercury  vapour  inside  was 
controlled  while  the  lamp  was  burning.  This  pressure  was 
given  as  2  mm.  of  mercury,  and  if  there  were  no  residual  gases 
left,  the  temperature  of  mercury  vapour  would  be  about  200 
degrees  C,  according  to  the  experiments  of  Eamsay  and  Young. 
The  glass  got  somewhat  hotter  than  the  globes  of  ordinary  incan- 
descent carbon  lamps.  The  size  of  the  cooling  chamber  depended 
on  the  length  and  cross  section  of  the  lamp,  for  Hewitt  held  that 
he  had  experimentally  proved  that  the  highest  light  efficiency  was 
got  from  a  mercury  vapour  lamp  when  the  vapour  density  and 
.  the  current  had  a  definite  relation. 

CHABACTERISTIC   AND   EPPICIBNCY. 

The  characteristic  curve  of  the  lamp,  that  was  the  relation 


194  THE    HEWITT    liiERCURY   VAPOUR   LAMP 

between  volts  and  amperes,  was  shown  in  Fig.  4.  From  this 
figure  it  would  be  seen  that  within  the  limits  of  the  proper 
efficiency  of  the  lamp,  large  variations  in  current  showed  but 
small  variations  in  the  voltage  at  its  terminals.  But  when  it 
was  pushed  beyond  its  proper  limits  as  to  amperage,  the  volts  at  its 
terminals  rose  very  rapidly.  This  was  a  characteristic  of  almost  all 
arc  lamps.  As  to  its  efficiency,  it  was  claimed  that  at  the  best  part 
of  the  curve  it  gave  a  candle  power  per  0-4  watt.  The  writer  tested 
this  particular  lamp  in  his  own  laboratory  with  43  volts  and  3  5 
amperes,  and  the  mean  candle  power,  as  ascertained  by  himself  and 
four  of  his  senior  students,  in  a  horizontal  direction  from  its  middle, 
was  235.     This  gave  0*64  watt  per  candle  power, 

COLOUR. 

The  lamp  hsul  no  red  rays,  and  therefore  was  unsuitable  as  a 
source  of  light  where  colours  had  to  be  determined.  On  the 
other  hand  it  was  not  so  fatiguing  to  the  eyes  as  lights  which  were 
rich  iu  red  rays,  and  it  cast  no  sharp  shadows  on  account  of  the 
large  surface  of  illumination  it  had.  It  was  rich  in  chemical  rays, 
and  therefore  suitable  for  photographic  purposes. 

LIFE. 

Lamps  had  been  run  for  over  4000  hours,  but  1500  hours 
might  be  taken  as  an  average.  The  blackening  of  the  walls,  due 
perhaps  to  deterioration  of  the  vacuum,  was  probably  the  main 
cause  of  the  gradual  decrease  of  its  candle  power  and  inefficiency. 

The  Chairman  (Prof.  J.  H.  Biles,  LL.D.,  Vice-President) 
remarked  that  the  only  drawback  to  the  Cooper-Hewitt  lamp  was 
that  under  its  light  every  one  present  looked  so  much  changed, 
and  the  change  was  not  pleasant.  He  hswi  pleasure  in  moving  a 
vote  of  thanks  to  Dr  Maclean  for  his  interesting  paper. 

The  vote  of  thanks  was  carried  by  acclamation. 


THE  USES  OP  THE  INTEGRAPH  IN  SHIP 

CALCULATIONS. 

By  Mb  John  G.  Johnstone,  B.Sc.  (Associate  Member). 


(see  plates  XIV.,  XV.,  AND  XVI.) 


Held  as  read  22nd  March,  1904, 


Having  bad  some  experience  in  tbe  use  of  this  machine  in 
connection  with  some  special  calculation  work  recently  done  for 
the  Admiralty  Committee  on  Torpedo-boat  Destroyers,  I  have  had 
the  opportunity  of  judging  of  its  capabiliti'is  as  compared  with 
those  of  other  instruments — the  integrator  and  the  planimeter — 
which  are  ordinarily  used  in  ship  calculations. 

The  integraph  has  been  in  existence  for  about  twenty  years. 
A  special  form  of  it  for  calculation  work  in  connection  with  the 
strength  of  ships  was  made  by  M.  Coradi  for  the  Naval  Architec- 
ture class  of  Glasgow  University  about  ten  years  ago.  This  kind 
of  instrument  was  very  extensively  employed  in  the  work  for  the 
above-named  Committee  for  many  developments  of  the  ordinary 
strength  calculations,  but  it  has  not,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  been 
used  in  connection  with  calculations  relating  to  the  form  of  the 
vessel,  such  as  displacement,  centre  of  buoyancy,  stability,  &c. 

Professor  Biles  suggested  that  I  should  make  the  integraph  the 
subject  of  a  short  paper,  with  the  object  of  bringing  it  to  the 
notice  of  the  Members  of  this  Institution.  The  intention  of  writing 
the  paper  has  been  to  give  a  short  description  of  the  nature  of 
the  work  of  the  integraph,  and  how  it  can  be  applied  to  calcula- 
tions relating  to  a  vessel's  form. 

In  order  to  make  the  paper  more  complete,  a  short  description 
of  the  machine  and  the  properties  of  integral  curves  have  been 
added,  as  an  appendix. 


196  THE  USES  OF  THE  INTEGRAPH 

The  majority*  of  ship  calculations  are  in  the  nature  of  an 
integration.  The  integration  is  ordinarily  performed  hy  the  aid  of 
graphical  rules,  or  such  instruments  as  the  integrator  and  the 
planimeter.  These  instruments,  however,  only  give  a  definite 
integral  for  one  complete  operation.  For  instance,  the  planimeter 
or  the  integrator,  after  having  been  towed  round  the  boundary  of  a 
given  area,  records  only  one  result,  the  area,  moment,  or  moment 
of  inertia  of  the  whole  curve  which  has  been  traced  over.  The 
integraph,  on  the  other  hand,  traces  out  graphically  the  integral 
of  the  curve,  point  by  point,  from  the  beginning  to  the  end  of  the 
operation.  This  graphic  integral  curve  can  only  be  obtained  by 
a  series  of  operations  of  the  integrator  or  the  planimeter,  and 
setting  oflF  the  readings  obtained  at  the  end  of  each  operation,  as 
ordinates  to  form  the  curve. 

The  machine,  in  its  latest  type,  is  illustrated  in  simple  diagram- 
matic form  in  Fig.  1. 

This  type  will  integrate  in  one  operation  a  curve  whose  maxim 
ordinate  on  either  side  of  the  axis  does  not  exceed  10  inches,  and 
it  will  integrate  an  area  not  exceeding  120  square  inches. 

As  shown  in  Appendix  B,  the  first  integral  curve  gives  the  area 
of  the  given  curve  up  to  any  ordinate.  By  tracing  over  the  first 
integral  curve,  a  second  integral  or  moment  curve  is  obtained, 
which  gives  the  moment  of  the  area  of  the  given  curve,  and  by 
tracing  over  this  curve  the  third  integral  or  moment  of  inertia 
curve  is  obtained,  which  gives  the  moment  of  inertia  of  the  given 
curve  about  any  axis.  Fig.  2.  From  the  second  integral  curve  the 
position  of  the  C.G.  of  any  part  of  the  curve  may  also  be 
ascertained. 

APPLICATION   TO    SHIP   CALCULATIONS. 

The  ordinary  ship  calculations  of  displacement  and  position  of 
centre  of  buoyancy  are  much  simplified  by  majting  use  of 
Tchebycheflf's  rules  for  the  spacing  of  ordinates.  In  the  examples 
which  have  been  worked  out  in  connection  with  this  paper,  Pig.  3 
shows  a  body  plan  with  sections  spaced  to  the  rule  for  three 


IN    SHIP    CALCULATIONS  197 

ordinates ;  and  in  the  body  plan,  in  Fig.  9,  the  sections  are  spaced 
to  the  rule  for  two  ordinates. 

Curves  of  Integrated  Sections. — The  machine  is  set  so  that  it 
runs  along  the  vertical  middle  line  of  the  body  plan  as  axis.  The 
sections  are  then  separately  traced  over  with  the  pointer,  and 
corresponding  integrated  sections  are  thereby  quickly  and  con- 
veniently obtained,  Fig.  4. 

Comparing  the  body  plans  of  ordinary  and  integrated  sections, 
corresponding  points  are  at  the  same  height  above  the  base  line 
through  the  keel.  Any  ordinate  of  an  integrated  section  gives  the 
area  of  the  corresponding  section  up  to  that  ordinate.  Therefore, 
if  the  ordinates  of  the  integrated  sections  at  any  water-line  be 
added,  the  sum  is  a  function  of  the  displacement.  This  enables  a 
displacement  curve  to  be  set  ofif. 

Displacement  Curve, — There  is  a  quicker  method  than  that 
described  in  the  preceding  paragraph  for  obtaining  a  displacement 
curve.  If  the  ordinates  at  any  water-line  of  the  sections  in  the  body 
plan,  Fig.  3,  are  added,  the  sum  measures  the  area  of  the  water- 
plane.  It  is  easy  to  set  ofif  a  curve  of  **  areas  of  water-planes," 
and  this  when  integrated  gives  the  displacement  curve. 

In  Fig.  5,  K  A  is  a  curve  of  water-plane  areas,  and  K  D  is  the 
integral  curve  which  is  the  displacement  curve. 

Ctnire  of  Buuyancy  Curve, — The  displacement  curve,  when 
integrated,  gives  a  moment  of  displacement  curve.  (See  Pro- 
perties of  Integral  Curves).  The  ratio  of  the  corresponding 
ordinates  of  these  two  curves  fixes  the  position  of  the  centre  of 
buoyancy.  Thus,  in  Fig.  5,  K  M  is  the  moment  of  displacement 
curve,  the  displacement  curve  being  KD.  The  corresponding 
ordinates  at  the  7  feet  6  inches  water-line  are  v  m  and  v  d 
respectively.     The  distance  of  the  centre  of  buoyancy  t  for  the 

7  feet  6  inches  water-line  is  given  by  v  t"  =  ^^-^  x  6"  for  scale. 

V  d 

Similarly  at  draught  17  feet  6  inches,  the  centre  of  buoyancy,  T 
18  given  by  V  T"  =  y-j^  x  6". 


198  THE  USES  OF  THE  INTEGRAPH 

If,  then,  the  heights  Kt  and  KT  are  plotted^  in  terms  of  the 
draughts,  then  a  centre  of  buoyancy  curve  is  the  result,  which  in 
this  case  is  shown  by  K  6  B. 

Many  calculations  can  be  simplified  by  using  the  body  plan 
of  integrated  sections.  For  instance,  the  displacement  at  any 
given  trim  can  be  easily  obtained,  and,  therefore,  the  moment  to 
change  trim  one  inch  can  be  determined.  The  ordinates  at  any 
water-Hne  of  the  integrated  sections,  set  off  in  terms  of  the  length, 
give  a  curve  of  sectional  areas.  These  curves,  when  integrated 
twice  along  the  length,  will  give  the  longitudinal  positions  of  the 
centres  of  buoyancy  in  a  manner  similar  to  that  described  for 
obtaining  the  vertical  centre  of  buoyancy.  Areas  of  water- 
planes,  when  integrated  twice  along  the  length,  give  the  positions 
of  the  centres  of  gravity  of  water-planes. 

The  integrated  midship  section  is  a  curve  of  midship  areas,  and 
from  this  curve  and  the  displacement  curve  th^  prismatic  co- 
efficient curve  can  be  obtained. 

Longitudinal  metacentric  height  can  be  roughly  obtained  from 
the  moment  to  change  trim  one  inch. 

Moment  to  change  trim  one  inch  =  —^ =~ .     The  transverse 

12  X  L 

B  M  =  T=^.      The  value  of  I,  the  transverse  moment  of  inertia  of 

the  water-plane,  can  be  obtained  by  the  machine  in  three  opera- 
tions, but  the  water-plane  first  requires  to  be  plotted  to  a 
convenient  scale.  It  would  seem  that  the  ordinary  arithmetical 
method  of  calculating  I  is  slightly  quicker  in  this  special  case. 

The  following  curves  are  usually  obtained  by  the  methods 
framed  in  the  displacement  sheets.  They  can  be  readily  obtained 
by  using  the  integraph  as  already  described  : — 

Displacement  curve. 

Block  coefficient  curve, 

Water-line  areas  or  tons  per  inch. 

Vertical  centres  of  buoyancy, 

Longitudinal  centres  of  buoyancy. 


IN    SHIP    CALCULATIONS  199 

Locus  of  C.  G/s  of  water-planes, 
Moment  to  change  trim  one  inch, 
Midship  areas  and  coefficients, 
Prismatic  coefficient  curve, 
Longitudinal  metacentres ; 

and  for  Transverse  metacentres  the  calculation  is  simplified. 

The  scales  used  in  the  integrations  for  obtaining  the  above 
curves  are  fixed  by  the  scope  of  the  machine.  It  is  found  that  the 
curves  can  be  worked  very  conveniently  to  standardised  scales,  so 
that  the  results  can  be  traced  on  to  the  10-inch  standardised 
diagram.* 

Strength  Catctdaiions, — The  Figs.  6  to  12  illustrate  an  example 
of  the  ordinary  strength  calculation,  the  vessel  in  this  case  being 
a  torpedo-boat  destroyer,  supported  in  the  hollow  of  a  wave. 

In  a  strength  calculation  the  first  thing  to  do  is  to  set  up  a 
weight  curve  from  a  given  list  of  weights.  It  is  necessary  to 
determine  accurately  the  centre  of  gravity  of  this  curve,  and,  as 
the  area  of  a  weight  curve  is  not  usually  within  the  scope  of  an 
integrator  or  a  planimeter,  this  operation  is  rather  long  and 
troublesome.  The  centre  of  gravity  can  be  determined  by  the 
integraph  by  integrating  the  curve  twice,  and  drawing  the  tangent 
to  the  second  integral  curve  at  its  final  ordinate.  The  longitudinal 
position  of  the  centre  of  gravity  of  the  weight  curve  is  where  this 
tangent  cuts  the  base  line,  as  shown  in  Fig.  7.  This  tangent  can 
be  accurately  drawn  by  the  integraph.  The  final  ordinate  of  the 
first  integral  of  the  weight  curve  represents  the  total  weight. 
Suppose  the  buoyancy  curve  to  be  constructed,  then  it  satisfies  the 
following  two  conditions  : — 

(1)  The  area  of  buoyancy  curve  equals  the  area  of  the  weight 
curve. 

*  See  paper  on  "  Standardisation  of  Ship  Caleolations/'  by  Professor  J. 
H.  Biles,  read  before  the  Institution  of  Naval  Architects  in  1901. 


300  THE    USES    OF    THE   INTEGRAPH 

(2)  The  centre  of  gravity  of  the  buoyancy  curve  is  in  the 
same  longitudinal  position  as  the  centre  of  gravity  of 
the  weight  curve. 

Therefore,  on  Fig.  7 — 

(1)  The  final  ordinates  of  the  first  integrals  of  the  weight  and 

the  buoyancy  curves  are  equal. 

(2)  The  final  ordinates  of  the  second  integrals  are  equal,  and 

the  tangents  are  coincident. 

The  quickest  way  to  obtain  the  buoyancy  curve  is  to  draw  the 
integrated  sections  in  their  corresponding  position  on  a  profile  of 
the  vessel.  Then,  placing  the  water-line  over  this,  the  buoyancy 
per  foot  of  length  at  each  section  can  be  read  off,  Fig.  6.  This 
method  saves  the  necessity  of  transferring  the  vertical  heights  of 
the  intersections  of  the  wave-line  to  the  body  plan,  and  then  taking 
the  areas  of  the  submerged  parts  of  each  section.  It  is  also  easy 
by  this  method  to  get  the  correct  position  of  the  wave-line  rela- 
tively to  the  ship  by  a  trial  and  error  process. 

Having  obtained  the  weight  and  buoyancy  curves,  the  load 
curve  can  bs  next  constructed,  and  this  curve  when  integrated 
gives  the  curve  of  shearing  forces  for  the  first  integral,  and  the 
bending  moment  curve  for  the  second  integral.  Fig.  6. 

In  Fig.  7  it  has  not  been  necessary  to  draw  out  the  load  curve. 
In  this  figure  the  weight  and  the  buoyancy  curves  have  been  inte- 
grated twice.  The  difference  of  the  ordinates  of  the  first  integrals 
gives  the  shearing  force,  and  the  difference  of  the  ordinates  of  the 
second  integrals  gives  the  bending  moment.  The  scales  for  the 
shearing  force  and  bending  moment  in  the  method  illustrated  by 
Fig.  7  are  necessarily  smaller  than  those  for  Fig.  6. 

If  the  maximum  bending  moment  only  is  required,  the  method  of 
Fig.  7  can  be  followed,  and  the  area  of  the  difference  of  the 
first  integrals  to  one  side  of  their  intersection  gives  the  maximum 
bending  moment.  If  the  buoyancy  curve  has  been  hurriedly 
constructed,  and  the  position  of  the  centre  of  buoyancy  is  in  conse- 
quence only  approximately  correct,  a  sufficient  approximation  to 


IN    SHIP    CALCULATIONS  201 

the  true  maximum  bending  moment  will  be  found  by  taking  a 
mean  of  the  areas  of  the  difference  of  the  integral  curves  on  either 
side  of  their  intersection. 

Moment  oj  Inertia  'Calculation, — The  calculation  for  the  moment 
of  inertia  of  the  cross  section  of  a  ship  is  generally  done  arithmeti- 
cally by  calculating  the  moment  of  inertia  of  the  cross  sectional 
area  of  each  item  that  contributes  directly  to  the  longitudinal 
strength.  If,  however,  the  **  equivalent  girder"  is  set  up  by  the 
usual  method,  and  integrated  three  times,  the  result  is  a  curve  of 
moment  of  inertia  about  any  axis;  the  correct  position  of  the 
centre  of  gravity  can  also  be  found,  and  hence  the  neutral  axis* 
If  it  can  be  said  that  the  labour  of  constructing  the  '^equivalent 
girder  "  is  less  than  the  labour  of  calculating  arithmetically  the 
moment  of  inertia,  then  this  method  is  to  be  recommended.  It 
has  the  further  advantage  that  if  it  is  desirable  to  plot  a  shearing 
stress  curve,  the  second  integral  curve  gives  the  value  of  A  ^  in 

the  expression  for  shearing  stress,  namely,  a  =    .  -^.    Pig.  8  illus- 

61 

trates  an  example  of  a  moment  of  inertia  calculation  for  a  small 

one-decked  vessel  with  light  scantlings. 

Deflection  of  a  Ship. — ^The  deflection  of  a  ship  due  to  the  change 
in  bending  moment  from  one  condition  of  load  to  another,  can  be 
estimated  by  the  method  outlined  in  a  paper  read  before  the 
Institute  of  Naval  Architects,  in  1890,  by  the  late  Mr  Bead. 

If  M  represents  at  any  point  of  the  length  of  the  ship  the  change 
in  the  bending  moment,  and  I  represents  the  moment  of  inertia  of 
the  corresponding  cross  section,  then  the  change  of  form  or  deflec- 
tion y  is  given  by  (considering  the  ends  fixed) — 

Where  E  is  the  modulus  of  elasticity  for  the  structure  as  a  whole^ 
I  the  length  of  ship,  and  x  the  abscissa  of  the  section  along  the 
length. 


202 


THE    USES    OF    THE    INTEGRAPH 


This  integration  can  be  very  simply  performed  graphically     All 

M 

that  is  necessary  is  to  plot  the  ~j  curve,  and  integrate  it  twice  with 

the  integraph  along  the  length. 

The  second  integral  curve  is  the  curve  which  gives  the  change 
of  form,  and  is 


='=j:j:"-^^- 


When  I  is  constant  throughout  the  length,  as  in  the  case  of  a 
beam  of  uniform  cross  section,  the  section  becomes 


EIy=   [' {' }.L  dx.dx. 


and,  therefore,  the  deflection  can  be  obtained  by  integrating  the 
curve  of  change  of  bending  moment  twice.  This  calculation  for 
deflection  has  often  to  be  made  for  beams  and  girder  work,  so  that 
the  machine  may  possess  some  interest  for  engineers. 

STABILITY    CALCULATIONS. 

The  general  problem  in  dealing  with  the  question  of  stability  is 
to  obtain  a  set  of  curves  which  will  give  the  position  of  the  centre 
of  buoyancy  for  any  displacement  and  any  angle  of  heel. 

An  "  isovol"  is  the  name  generally  given  to  the  locus  of  the 
the  centre  of  buoyancy  for  a  constant  displacement  and  var3ring 
angle  of  heel.  An  *'  isocline"  is  the  name  of  the  locus  of  the 
centre  of  buoyancy  for  a  constant  angle  of  heel  and  varying 
displacement. 

The  following  method  gives  an  easy  way  to  obtain  the  isovol 
curves,  Figs.  9-13. 

First  make  the  ordinary  stability  body  plan.  In  Fig.  9,  the  body 
plan  sections  are  spaced  according  to  TchebychefTs  rule  for  two 
ordinates.  From  the  body  plan  construct  a  series  of  *'  area  of 
water-planes  "  curve.  Fig  10.     The  **  area  of  water-planes  "  curve 


IN    SHIP    CALCULATIONS  203 

at  any  inclination,  can  be  obtained  in  the  same  way  as  has  been 
already  described  in  obtaining  the  ordinary  displacement  curve. 
This  method  is  liable  to  give  slight  inaccuracies  at  water-planes 
cutting  off  small  displacements,  but  there  seems  to  be  sufficient 
accuracy  in  order  to  obtain  a  good  final  result.  **  Water-plane 
area  "  curves  have  been  set  for  angles  of  inclination  0°,  15**,  30', 
45%  60°,  75°,  90%  in  Fig.  10.  These  curves  when  integrated,  give 
displacement  curves  as  in  Fig.  11. 

The  displacement  for  each  inchnation  varies  from  zero  to 
total  submersion.  A  check  on  the  accuracy  of  the  curves  is 
afforded  here,  as  the  final  ordinates  of  the  curves  are  all  equal. 
Generally  it  is  found  that  the  maximum  ordinates  of  the  0°  and 
•90°  curves  are  exactly  equal,  and  the  others  differ  a  little. 
By  integrating  the  displacement  curves,  **  moment  of  displace- 
ment "  curves  are  obtained,  and  then,  by  taking  the  ratio  of 
ordinates,  the  heights  of  the  corresponding  centres  of  buoyancy  are 
ascertained.     These  curves  are  shown  in  Fig.  12. 

In  Fig.  11  a  series  of  lines  can  be  drawn  which  give  certain 
percentages  of  displacement,  so  that  for  each  percentage,  the 
height  of  the  centre  of  buoyancy  corresponding  to  any  angle  of 
inclination  can  easily  be  determined.  In  the  figures,  percentages 
have  been  taken  from  20°/^  up  to  907o-  The  heights  of  the  centres 
of  buoyancy  so  found  can  be  transferred  to  the  body  plan,  and  a 
series  of  lines  drawn,  which,  for  the  same  percentage  of  displacement, 
will  be  tangents  to  the  corresponding  isovols.  It  has  been  found 
that  the  isovols  can  be  drawn  very  accurately  by  this  method. 

The  cross  curve  to  the  isovols — the  isoclines — can  be  approxi- 
mately constructed  by  drawing  the  line  through  the  points  where 
the  isovols  touch  the  tangents  which  are  parallel,  but  it  has  been 
found  that  where  the  isovol  curves  are  flat,  an  individual  spot  on 
the  isovol  for  an  isocline  cannot  be  determined  with  certainty.  How- 
ever, considering  that  the  isocline  should  be  a  fair  curve,  this 
method  seems  to  be  fairly  accurate.  In  any  case  a  check  can  be 
made  for  a  few  spots  on  the  isoclines  by  the  integrator  in  the  usual 
way.      The  curves  in  the  figure  were  drawn  out  by  the  means 


204  THE  USES  or  THE  INTEGRAPH 

already  described,  and  it  was  found  that  the  isocline  curves  corres- 
ponded closely  with  the  spots  obtained  by  an  independent  series 
of  integrator  readings. 

Eegarding  the  reliability  of  the  work  done,  the  machine  requires 
careful  handling  to  produce  good  results.  Faults  in  the  working  of 
it  are  very  likely  to  occur  to  one  not  accustomed  to  its  use,  but  with 
experience  these  faults  can  be  easily  eliminated  as  they  are  gene- 
rally due  to  careless  adjustment  or  setting.  For  good  working 
it  should  be  used  on  a  strong  level  board,  to  which  the  paper 
should  be  carefully  pinned  down. 

There  are  many  interesting  and  special  problems  in  naval 
architecture  that  can  be  greatly  simplified  by  using  the  integraph, 
but  I  think  enough  has  already  been  described  in  order  to  present 
an  idea  of  its  general  utility  in  ship  calculations. 


APPENDIX  A. 
Description  of  the  Integraph.* 


Fig  I.  represents  the  latest  type  of  this  machine.  The  figure  has  for 
simplicity  been  drawn  in  diagrammatic  form. 

The  motion  of  the  machine  is  governed  by  the  two  non-slipping 
wheels  W  and  W|,  which  are  fixed  about  22  inches  apart  on  the  spindle 
A  B.  On  this  arrangement  are  suspended  .two  grooved  bars  a  b  and 
a,  dp  each  of  which  is  grooved  to  carry  an  arrangement  of  travelling 
wheels.  These  travellers  are  shown  at  ^^  and  ff.  The  bars  ab  and 
0,  d,  are  fixed  together  at  their  ends  and  at  the  centre.  In  the  centre 
piece  there  is  a  pivot  or  hinge  C  through  which  a  long  radial  bar  can 
slide.  The  radial  bar  can  also  revolve  about  C.  A  scale  bar  E  P,  on 
which  is  measured  inches,  is  supported  at  right  angles  to  A  B,  and  is 
fixed  to  the  traveller  e  e.  At  the  end  P  of  this  scale  bar  there  is  a  tracing 
point. 

A  vernier  arrangement,  with  a  pivot  joint  attachment  Q,  slides  along 
E  P,  and  can  be  fixed  at  any  point  on  the  bar  along  the  scale.  The 
radial  bar  passes  through  the  pivot  Q,  and  can  be  fixed  at  Q  so  as  to 

♦For  a  more  detailed  description  of  the  Integraph  see  a  pamphlet ^ 
L'Integraphe  Abdank-Abakanowicz  par  Henry  Losbier,  publie  par  G. 
Coradi,   Zurich   (Suisse.) 


IN    SHIP   CALCULATIONS  205 

prevent  it  from  sliding,  but  permits  it  to  revolve  about  Q.  The  record- 
ing pen  P,  is  fitted  into  a  bar  FP,  supported  af  right  angles  to  the 
bar  a,  A,  from  the  traveller  ff  on  <i^  h^. 

P,  records  the  movements  of  a  small  wheel  w  which  has  a  sharp  edge. 
This  wheel  can  be  lowered  on  to  the  paper  when  the  machine  is  to 
integrate,  and  it  is  so  fitted  that  it  can  revolve  about  a  vertical  axis 
through  its  centre.  The  direction  of  this  wheel  is  governed  by  the 
parallel  motion  M  N,  the  end  M  being  free  to  travel  on  the  radial  bar 
as  shown.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  wheel  w  is  thus  always  kept  parallel 
to  the  radial  bar. 

Setting  the  Machine. 

When  the  machine  is  stationary  the  tracing  point  can  be  moved 
parallel  to  the  bar  a  b.  Before  integrating  a  given  curve,  the  machine 
must  be  placed  so  that  it  runs  parallel  to  the  axis  of  the  curve.  When 
the  inclination  of  the  radial  bar  is  zero,  i.e.,  when  it  is  perpendicular  to 
A  B,  the  tracing  point  P  should  trace  out  the  axis  of  the  given  curve, 
and  should  coincide  with  or  be  parallel  to  the  axis  of  the  integral  cur\'e. 

A  small  adjustment  in  the  machine  provides  for  bringing  the  radial  bar 
in  the  set  position  so  as  to  test  the  direction  of  the  motion  of  the 
machine  when  moved  along.  The  scale  is  fixed  by  adjusting  the  vernier 
slide  arrangement  to  the  required  number  of  inches  along  E  P. 

Principle  of  the  Machine. 

The  operation  of  integrating  a  given  curve  such  as  O  P  consists  in 
merely  tracing  out  O  P,  starting  at  O  with  the  point  P.  The  pen  can  be 
set  at  first  to  any  axis  parallel  to  the  axis  of  the  curve.  In  Fig.  I. 
the  pen  is  at  Oi  when  the  point  P  is  at  O,  so  that  the  axis  of  the 
integral  curve  coincides  with  the  axis  of  the  given  curve. 

Wlien  the  radial  bar  is  perpendicular  to  A  B,  as  in  the  set  position, 
so  also  is  the  plane  of  the  wheel  w,  no  matter  what  the  position  of  // 
on  a  b  may  be,  so  that  if  the  machine  be  moved,  keeping  the  radial  bar 
in  this  position,  the  pen  will  trace  out  a  line  parallel  to  the  axis  of  the 
curve  or  to  the  radial  bar.  This  is  the  method  of  drawing  the  axis  to 
the  integral  curve. 

Suppose  the  point  P  to  be  kept  fixed  in  the  position  in  the  figure  and 
the  machine  moved  along,  the  radial  bar  will  keep  its  position  relatively 
to  A  B  and  the  direction  of  the  wheel  w  will  not  change.  Therefore  the 
wheel  w  will  follow  a  line  in  the  plane  of  its  circumference  or  parallel  to 
the  radial  bar.  If  P  be  moved  up  or  down  during  the  time  the  machine 
is  moved  along,  the  radial  bar  will  rotate  about  C,  and  the  wheel  w  at 
any  instant  will  be  tangential  to  the  curve  traced  out. 

In  the  figure  let  O-i  pi  be  the  curve  traced  out  by  the  pen  as  the 
point  P  is  moved  from  O  to  P.    Then  the  wheel  w  is  parallel  to  the 

19 


206  THE    USES    OF    THE   INTEGRAPH 

tangent  P|  to  the  curve  at  P,.     Let  $   be  the   angle  of  inclination   of 

dy 
this  tangent.    Then  Tan  d  is  the  —  of  the  curve  P,T  at  P, 

dx 
But  Tan  ^  =  Tangent  of  angle  Q  C  ^ 

Q^        PR 

■"   Q    ~  EQ 
dy        PR 

"  dx"  Y,Q 

Now  E  Q  is  the  scale,  say  »,  and  is  constant. 

dy 

PR  =  «. 

dx 

i.e.  the  ordinate  of  the  given  curve  is  a  measure  of  the  first  differential 
coefficient  of  the  curve  traced  out.  Therefore,  the  curve  0,P,  is  the 
integral  of  the  curve  OP. 


APPENDIX   B. 

Properties  of  the  First  Three  Integral   Curves. 

We  have  seen  that  any  ordinate  of  the  given  curve  is  a  measure  of 
the  differential  coefficient  of  the  integral  curve  at  a  corresponding  point, 
i.e.,  at  a  point  whose  abscissa  with  reference  to  the  origin  of  the  integral 
curve  is  equal  to  the  abscissa  of  the  ordinate  of  the  given  curve. 

In  Fig.  I.  PR  and  P|R|  are  corresponding  ordinates  of  the  given  and 
integral  curves  respectively.    And 

Let  :k  =PR  and  :Ki=P|R| 
dy       y 
Then  —  =  - 
dx        n 


.-.   y^=:—      y^dx  or  ny^^      y.dx 


.'.  (1)  The  ordinate  of  the  integral  curve  measured  in  inches  and 
multiplied  in  inches  by  the  scale  n,  gives  the  number  of  square 
inches  in  the  area  of  the  integrated  part  of  the  given  curve. 

Referring  to  Fig.  II.  let  AA  be  the  given  curve  y  =  f(x)  with  reference 
to  the  axes  OX  and  OY. 


IN    SHIP    CALCULATIONS  207 

Integrating  AA  along  the  axis  of  x  then  the  first  integral  curve  OX^,  or 
y\  :=^y.dx  is  obtained ;    Integrating  OAi  in  the  same  way  the  second 
integral  curve  OAj  or  ^4=  \y^dx  is  obtained;  OA3  is  the  third  integral 
curve. 

Take  an  elemental  strip  of  AA  between  the  parallel  ordinates  *B  and 
*,  B,  as  shown.  Then  the  area  of  elemental  strip  =  ^.<te.  This  area  is 
represented  by  the  horizontal  distance  between  C  and  Ci  the  intersections 
of  the  ordinates  on  the  curve  OA,. 

Call  OX  =  / 

Then  the  moment   of  elemental  strip  about  XA  is  equal  to  y,dx.  (/— r). 
This  is  equal  to  the  area  of  strip  CC,  cc^. 

Therefore  the  area  of  the  first  integral  curve  OA,  represents  the  moment 
of  the  area  of  the  given  curve  O  A  A  X  about  the  axis  of  X  A. 
This  property  may  therefore  be  expressed  generally. 

(2)  Any  ordinate  of  the  second  integral  curve  represents  the 
moment  of  the  corresponding  area  of  the  given  curve  about  that 
ordinate  as  axis. 

The  second  integral  curve  may  therefore  be  called  a  moment  curve 
with  reference  to  the  given  curve. 

Then  from  the  above  property  the  ordinate  h  D  represents  the  moment 
of  the  area  OAB^  about  ^B  as  axis,  and  the  ordinate  ^|  D,  represents 
the  moment  of  the  area  O  AB,  3,  about  h^  B,  as  axis.  It  can  be  easily 
shown  that  if  the  tangents  D/  and  D,  /,  are  drawn  to  meet  the  line  XA 
in  /  and  /,,  the  ordinate  X/  represents  the  moment  of  the  area  OABd 
about  X  A  as  axis,  and  the  ordinate  X/J^  represents  the  moment  of 
OAB,^,  about  XA  as  axis.  Therefore  tt^  represents  the  moment  of  the 
elemental  area  strip  about  X  A  as  axis,  i.e.,  m  =  (l-^xSy^dx, 

Now  the  area  enclosed  between  the  tangents  D  /  and  D,/|,   and  the 
line  X  A  is  equal  to  ^  tt^   (/— x)  which  is  therefore   =i  {l—x)^yAx  — 
i  moment  of  inertia  of  area  strip  about  X  A. 

Therefore,  the  area  of  the  triangular  element  of  the  curve  O  A^  is  equal 
to  half  the  moment  of  inertia  of  area  strip  about  the  axis  X  A. 

So  that  the  area  of  the  curve  O  A^  represents  half  the  moment  of 
inertia  of  the  area  of  the  given  curve  about  X  A  as  axis.    Therefore, 

(3)  Any  ordinate  of  the  third  integral  curve  represents  half  the 
moment  of  inertia  of  the  corresponding  area  of  the  given  curve 
about  that  ordinate  as  axis. 

Now,  at  Aa  if  the  tangent  to  the  curve  Aj  G  T  be  drawn  to  meet  the 
axis  OX  in  G. 


208  THE    USES    OF    THE   INTEGRAPH 


Then  X  G  = 


Tan^      XA 
Moment  of  area  OAAX  about  XA 

Area  OAAX 

=  Distance  of  C.  G.  of  area  of  given  curve  from  X 
Therefore, 

(4)  If  a  tangent  be  drawn  at  any  point  in  the  moment  curve, 
it  meets  the  axis  in  a  point  which  gives  the  co-ordinate  of  the  C.  G. 
of  the  corresponding  area  of  the  given  curve. 

Note.  [This  tangent  can  be  accurately  drawn  by  the  machine,  as  for 
instance  A^  G  T  is  traced  out  by  the  pen,  when  the  pointer  is  made  to 
return  along  the  line  A  parallel  to  the  axis  OX.] 

Again  the  area  of  O  X  Aj  represents  half  the  amount  of  inertia  of  the 
area  OAAX  about  X  A  as  axis.     If  the  moment  of  inertia  about  any 
other  axis  is  required,  then  a  deduction  must  be  made  of  (A)  {k^  —  h  *) 
where  (A)  =  area  OAAX  and  A  =  distance  of  new  axis  from  G. 
Let  A    in  this  case  be  Gb. 
Then  (A2_A^J2)==GX?_*G2. 
Now  XA2  =  (A)  GX. 
Triangle  G  X  A^^i  (A)  G  X«, 
and  triangle  G  d  E  =  i  (A)  *  G^. 
.'.The  correction  (A)  (A^  —  A^')  is  twice  the  area  of  triangle  G  X  A^ 
minus  twice  the  area  of  triangle  G  ^  £.     So  that  the  area  shown  shaded 
represents  half  the  moment  of  inertia  of  the  area  OAAX  about  the 
axis  b  B. 

This  shaded  area  can  be  represented  by  the  ordinate  of  the  curve  A^  A4, 
which  is  obtained  by  tracing  the  line  A^T  after  having  traced  over  OAf 
Thus  in  the  figure  *^,=area  0  b  Tf. 
e^e^  =area  D  A^    E. 
.-.  b  tf2  =  i  moment  of  inertia  of  O  A  A  X  about  *  D  as 
axis. 
Therefore, 
(5)  A3  A^  is  a  moment  of  inertia  curve,  any  ordinate  of  which 
represents  one  half  the  moment  of  inertia  of  the  wh)U  of  the  given 
area  about  that  ordinate  as  axis. 

Discusnon, 

Mr  C.  S.  Douglas,  B.Sc.  (Member)  said  he  was  familiar  with 

this  instrument,  and  was  pleased  that  Mr  Johnstone  had  laid  its 

merits  before  the  Institution.     It  was  principally  useful  in  ship 

calculations,  and  although  he  did  not  think  that  it  would  ever 


IN    SHIP   CALCULATIONS  209 

MrC.  8  Doujflan. 

entirely  take  the  place  of  the  planimeter  and  integrator,  yet  there 
"were  certain  calculations  to  which  it  was  specially  applicable. 
Generally  speaking,  these  were  calculations  the  results  of  which  it 
was  desired  to  record  in  the  form  of  curves.  For  a  single 
operation,  he  believed  the  planimeter  or  the  integrator  was  of 
greater  use.  In  the  pamphlet  by  M.  Henry  Lossier  on  the 
integraph  on  which  M.  Coradi  had  worked,  it  was  stated  that  the 
first  instrument  of  the  kind  was  made  in  1878 — 26  years  ago. 
There  were  certain  ship  calculations  not  specially  referred  to  by 
Mr  Johnstone,  but  probably  in  his  mind  when  he  wrote  the  last 
paragraph  of  his  paper,  in  which  the  instrument  was  of  special 
use ;  such  as  launching  calculations,  and  calculations  for  finding 
the  sinkage  and  change  of  trim  due  to  flooding,  from  which  the 
proper  spacing  of  watertight  bulkheads  might  be  determined.  In 
these  investigations  it  was  of  great  use  to  have  the  area  curve 
for  each  section  of  the  ship  drawn  at  its  particular  section,  as  by 
(his  means  it  was  easy,  at  any  trim,  to  obtain  the  displacement  of 
each  unit  of  length.  A  diagram  prepared  in  accordance  with  the 
profile  in  Fig.  6,  was  of  the  nature  required  to  perform  these 
special  calculations.  He  heartily  agreed  with  what  Mr  Johnstone 
said  with  respect  to  the  special  use  of  the  integraph  in  strength 
calculations.  The  labour  of  making  a  strength  calculation  was  very 
great,  and  it  had  been  made  much  less  by  the  use  of  this  instru- 
ment. The  ordinary  integrator  in  use  in  shipyards — No.  I  in  Amsler's 
list — ^was  not  sufficient  in  span  to  take  in  a  20-inch  diagram  at 
one  operation,  and  a  20-inch  diagram  was  now  very  generally  used 
for  plotting  the  curves  of  weight  and  buoyancy,  after  the  manner 
shown  in  the  lower  part  of  Fig.  6 ;  of  course,  the  integration  would 
be  performed  along  the  length  of  the  20-inch  diagram,  and  the 
distances  between  the  wheels  of  the  integraph  should  be  such 
that  the  maximum  ordinate  of  the  bending  moment  curve  would 
be  on  a  sufficiently  large  scale.  In  making  a  strength  calcula- 
tion, the  necessity  for  drawing  down  a  load  curve  was  entirely 
obviated  by  the  use  of  the  integraph,  and  the  shearing  force  curve 
could  be  plotted  if  desired,  after  two  operations.     The  integraph 


210  THE  USES  OF  THE  INTEGRAPH 

Mr  C.  8.  Douglas. 

did  not  appear  to  him  to  be  so  useftd  for  stability  calculations  aa 
Amsler's  integrating  planimeter,  and  the  method  given  by  Mr  John- 
stone seemed  to  him  to  be  a  roundabout  one.  Following  this 
method  however,  there  was  one  part  of  it  which  he  thought  could 
be  improved.  Mr  Johnstone  showed,  on  page  203,  how  to  obtain  the 
heights  of  the  centres  of  buoyancy  for  varying  angles  of  heel,  and 
for  various  percentages  of  displacement.     For  example  in  Fig.  14, 


Fig.  14. 

the  heights  above  the  keel,  or  lowest  point  of  the  bilge  of  B,,  B^, 
B3,  etc.,  were  obtained  each  for  its  proper  inclination  of  the  ship^ 
and  therefrom  the  values  BRj,  BR^,  BR3,  etc.,  were  deduced  by 
drawing  tangents  at  the  known  heights,  sketching  in  the  isovols, 
and  checking  by  the  fairness  of  the  isoclines,  as  shown  in  Fig.  13* 
He  (Mr  Douglas)  thought  there  was  a  liability  to  very  great  error 
here.  What  was  wanted  finally  was  the  values  of  the  righting  arm 
of  statical  stability  GZ.  This  was  the  difference  of  two  quantities, 
and  in  itself  small,  but  what  might  be  a  small  percentage  error  in 


IN   SHIP  CALCULATIONS  211 

Mr  C.  8.  DottglM 

obtaining  the  value  of  BB|,  BB^,  BBg,  etc.,  might  be  a  large 
percentage  error  in  the  corresponding  value  of  GZ.  He  suggested 
that  the  values  of  B^  B^  B^  B,,  etc  ,  in  Fig.  14,  should  be  plotted 
in  a  curve  for  each  percentage  of  displacement  wanted,  as  in  Fig. 
16.  One  of  the  uses  of  the  instrument,  was  to  obtain  the  curve 
of  dynamical  stability  from  a  given  curve  of  statical  stability  by 
integraphing  it,  and  if  the  reverse  operation  were  performed,  the 
curve  of  statical  stability  would  be  obtained.  The  operation  could 
be  performed  by  tracing  over  the  dynamical  curve  with  the 
"  recording  "  pen  of  the  instrument  and  marking  the  statical  curve 
as  obtained  at  the  tracing  point.  Similarly,  here,  if  the  *'  record- 
ing "  pen  were  taken  along  the  curve  of  values  of  Bj   Bj  the 


Fig.  15. 

tracing  point  would  follow  a  curve  whose  ordinates  were  values 
of  BBj,  as  shown  in  Fig.  15.  This  relation  between  these 
curves  was  well  known  in  the  theory  of  stability.  Then  by  means  of 
known  rectangular  co-ordinates  the  position  of  B^,  Bg,  Bj.  etc., 
could  be  set  oif  from  B  for  20  per  cent  displacement,  and  by 
repeating  this  work  for  the  various  percentages  of  displacement, 
correct  isoclines  and  isovols  could  be  drawn.  The  earliest  type 
of  integraph  was  somewhat  different  from  the  one  illustrated  in  the 
diagram,  although  the  principle  was  the  same.  The  former  con- 
sisted of  a  rectangular  frame  with  four  milled  wheels,  and  he 


212  THE  USES   OF  THE  INTEGRAPH 

Mr  C.  8.  Douglas. 

should  like  to  remark  that  most  of  the  integrators  and  instruments 
of  this  kind  made  by  M.  Coradi  depended  upon  the  milled  wheels  for 
rectilinear  motion,  whereas  in  the  instruments  of  some  other  makers 
this  motion  was  obtained  by  the  use  of  a  long  bar  acting  as  a 
guide  rail.  In  this  respect  Coradi 's  machines  were  very  much 
more  compact.  The  latest  types  were  as  illustrated,  and  there 
were  two  sizes.  Some  shipbuilding  firms  had  been  purchasing 
these  instruments  lately,  and  he  had  been  asked  which  was  the 
most  useful  for  a  shipbuilder  to  possess.  He  was  of  opinion  that 
the  large  size  was  the  correct  one,  because  it  had  a  span  of  52 
centimeters,  or  20*8  inches,  while  the  smaller  one  had  only  a  span 
of  27  centimeters,  or  10-8  inches.  From  the  diagram  of  the 
machine  it  would  be  seen  that  a  long  bar  extended  over  the  top 
and  carried  a  trolley  arrangement  That  was  called  the  radial 
bar,  and  in  one  instrument  which  came  under  bis  notice,  it  had 
given  some  trouble  by  getting  out  of  shape.  At  the  lower  end  of 
this  bar,  in  the  latest  type  of  integraph,  a  balance  weight  had  been 
provided  to  counteract  some  of  the  weight  of  the  mechanism,  a 
difference  from  the  one  illustrated  in  Fig.  1. 

Mr  W.  H.  KiDDLESwoRTH,  M.Sc.  (Associate  Member),  said 
he  should  be  glad  to  hear  from  Mr  Johnstone  about  the 
accuracy  with  which  the  moment  to  alter  trim  could  be  got  by 
the  method  that  he  indicated  in  the  body  of  his  paper.  He 
should  also  like  to  know  generally  regarding  the  accuracy  with 
which  the  integraph  worked.  It  seemed  to  him  that  the  scale  on 
which  the  result  was  read  was  very  small.  In  the  case  of  ship 
calculations,  a  very  short  line  would  represent  the  whole  displace- 
ment, or  whatever  was  being  calculated,  and  the  accuracy  with 
which  that  short  line  could  be  measured  was,  of  course,  limited. 
Mr  Johnstone  in  his  paper  said,  '*If  it  can  be  said  that  the 
labour  of  constructing  an  *  equivalent  girder '  is  less  than  the 
labour  of  calculating  arithmetically  the  moment  of  inertia,  then 
this  method  is  to  be  recommended."  The  crux  of  the  whole 
matter  lay  in  the  clause  "If  it  can  be  said,"  In  the  course 
of    his   remarks    Mr   Luke   said   he   would   have    preferred    to 


IN    SHIP   CALCULATIONS  213 

Hr  W.  H.  mddjeewortlu 

have  seen  a  direct  proof  that  the  first  derived  curve  was  the 
integral  of  the  given  curve.  Such  a  proof  could  be  built  up  in  the 
following  manner  (avoiding,  too,  incidentally,  the  notation  of  the 
calculus) : — In  Fig.  16, 

Let  Oj  Pj  Aj  be  the  given  curve,  and  O^  Nj  its  axis. 
Og  Pg  A2  the  first  derived  curve,  and  Og  No  its  axis. 


0, 

N, 
P. 

0. 

Q. 

N. 

Fig.  16. 

Premising    by  the   explanation    that,  the  instrument   caused  a 

pencil,  constrained  to  lie  on  a  line  through  P^  perpendicular  to 

the  axis,  to  move  in  a  direction  parallel  to  Pj  Qp  where  Qj  N^  was 

any  convenient  constant  length — Then,   if  the  abscissa  0^  N^, 

increased  by  unity,  whilst  the  ordinate  P^  N^  remained  constant, 

the  added  area  became  P^  N^  x  1 ;  or  the  rate  of  increase  of  the 

area  Oj  Pj  N^  was  P^  Nj.     Now,  as  the  pencil  at  Pg  moved  in  a 

direction  parallel  to  Pj  Qj,  the  increase  in  the  ordinate  P^  N^  for 

P  N 
unit  increase  in  Oj  Nj  (or  Og  Ng)  was  1  x  j~^,  or  the  rate  of 

increase  of  PjN^was  equal  to  the  rate  of  increase  of  the  area 
Oj  Pj  Nj  -5-  Qi  Nj,  so  that  Q^  N^  x  difference  of  ordinates  to  Pg  at 


214  THE  USES   OF  THE  INTEGRAPH 

Mr  W.  H.  Biddlesworth. 

any  two  positions  was  equal  to  the  area  between  the  original 
curve  and  the  axis  lying  between  corresponding  ordinates. 
It  might  be  noted  that  given  a  curve  drawn  on  squared  paper 
(or  even  closely  and  accurately  ruled  paper)*  it  was  by  no  means 
difficult  to  draw  the  integral  curve,  using  an  instrument  no  more 
complicated  than  a  parallel  ruler  in  its  simplest  form,  namely,  a 
straight  edge  and  a  set  square.     In  Fig.  17, 

Let  Oi  Aj  be  the  given  curve. 
Oj  Ag  the  first  derived  curve. 


Fig.  17. 

The  derived  curve  was  drawn  as  a  series  of  straight  lines,  each 
spanning  two  of  the  spaces  between  the  lines  on  the  squared,  or 
ruled,  paper.  The  direction  of  each  of  these  straight  lines  was 
obtained  in  the  following  manner: — Take  P^Ni  to  be  an  ordi- 

*  The  closely  spaced  lines  at  right  angles  to  the  axes  of  the  curves  were 
merely  indicated  in  Fig.  17. 


IN   SHIP   CALCULATIONS  215 

Mr  W.  H.  Biddleswoxth. 

nate  of  the  given  curve  at  the  middle  of  one  of  these  pairs 
of  spaces,  and  measure  off  N^  Qj  any  convenient  length  (this 
became  the  scale  constant) ;  a  double  set  of  numberings  along 
the  axis  was  most  convenient  for  this.  Join  Pj  Q^.  The 
short  section  of  the  derived  curve  belonging  to  that  portion  of 
the  original  cxirve  spanning  the  two  spaces  mentioned  above  was 
drawn  parallel  to  Pj  Q^.  Repeat  for  the  adjacent  pair  of  spaces 
throughout  the  curve,  drawing  each  straight  line  portion  of  the 
derived  curve  from  the  end  of  the  preceding  one.  In  practice  the 
line  Pj  Qi  was  not  drawn,  the  parallel  ruler  being  merely  set  along 
Pj  Qj.  He  might  mention  the  fact  that  a  curve  of  loads  of  average 
complexity  had  been  integrated  by  this  method,  giving  a  result  of 
very  satisfactory  accuracy,  and  with  an  amount  of  labour  by  no 
means  excessive. 

Mr  W.  J.  Luke  (Member)  remarked  that  it  was  a  long  time 
since  he  first  became  acquainted  with  the  name  of  Abdank- 
Abakanowicz,  and  those  who  were  interested  in  mechanical  inte- 
grators would  find  a  very  interesting  paper  which  was  read  before 
the  Institution  of  Civil  Engineers  by  Professor  Hele  Shaw,* 
in  which  all  kinds  of  mechanical  integrators  were  dealt 
with,  and  the  principles  gone  into  with  considerable  detail. 
M.  Abdank-Abakanowicz,  who  was  one  of  the  contributors  to  the 
discussion  on  that  paper,  exhibited  a  planimeter  of  his  own  design 
and  said  that  he  had  been  engaged  in  making  a  machine  to  draw 
the  curve  which  was  the  integral  of  some  fundamental  curve  on 
which  one  wanted  to  operate.  He  also  said  that  "  since  1878  he  had 
constructed  machines  to  solve  this  problem,  and  he  had  brought 
them  forward  on  various  occasions."  One  great  advantage  of  the 
integraph  over  such  an  instrument  as  the  planimeter  was,  that  it 
recorded  continuously,  and  in  that  he  fancied  its  greatest  benefit 
would  ultimately  be  felt.  Anyone  with  a  planimeter  obtained  a 
final  result  which  he  read  perfectly  or  imperfectly  from  the  wheel, 
but  if  this  result  required  checking  the  operator  had  to  go  over  all 

*  Minutes  gf   Proceedings    of    Institution   of    Civil    Engineers.      Vol. 
Ixxxii  p  75. 


216  THE  USES   OF  THE  INTEGRAPH 

Mr  W.J.  Luke. 

the  work  from  the  beginning ;  whereas,  with  the  integraph  a  more 
or  less  continuous  record  of  the  work  done  could  be  preserved,  and 
anyone  who  had  occasion  afterwards  to  check,  had  his  work  con- 
siderably eased.  He  quite  agreed  with  Mr  Douglas'  recommenda- 
tion that  anyone  who  intended  to  buy  an  integraph  should  buy  the 
larger  machine.  The  large  machine  was  big  enough  for  ordinary 
use,  and  at  the  same  time  was  not  so  large  and  heavy  as  to  make 
it  unwieldy.  As  the  paper  stated,  however,  it  was  necessary  to 
have  a  good  firm  level  table  for  operating  upon.  He  had  already 
expressed  his  regret  to  Mr  Johnstone  that  he  had  not  exhibited 
his  integraph.  If  there  was  any  desire  on  the  part  of  the  members 
present  to  see  the  integraph,  he  would  be  very  pleased  to 
show  one  at  the  next  meeting.  At  page  196  it  was  stated 
that  "  This  type  will  integrate  in  one  operation  a  curve  whose 
maximum  ordinate  on  either  side  of  the  axis  does  not  exceed  10 
inches,  and  it  will  integrate  an  area  not  exceeding  120  square 
inches."  It  seemed  to  him  that  that  sentence  ought  to  be  a  little 
amplified,  because  it  might  be  supposed  that  one  could  not  do  any- 
thing more  than  integrate  10  inches  on  one  or  the  other  side  of  a 
line  as  shown  in  Fig.  3 ;  but  if  the  machine  was  set  a  bit  sideways  the 
whole  20  inches  range  could  be  taken  upon  one  side  of  the  datum  line. 
The  datum  line  for  the  integral  curve  would  in  that  case  slant 
more  or  less  across  the  paper.  For  his  own  part,  too,  he  should 
be  inclined  to  say  that  the  area  which  could  be  measured  was 
something  more  nearly  150  square  inches  than  120.  That,  how- 
ever, was  simply  a  matter  for  individual  judgment  as  to  how  far 
any  one  would  like  to  work  the  machine  to  its  extreme  limit.  In 
connection  with  the  last  sentence  on  page  196,  he  congratulated  Mr 
Johnstone  upon  the  fact  that  he  had  not  been  perverted  when  he 
used  Tchebycheffs  rule.  When  some  years  ago  a  paper  was  read 
before  the  Institution  upon  the  use  of  Tchebycheff  s  rules,*  it  was 
shown,  or  was  attempted  to  be  shown,  that  good  results  were 
obtained  with  very  few  ordinates.      He  observed  that  Mr  John. 

•On  M.  TchebychefE'8  Formula,  by   Prof.   J.   H.  BUes.     Vol.  XLII., 
page  176. 


IN   SHIP   CALCULATIONS  217 

Mr  W.  J.  Luke. 

stone  was  not  led  astray  in  that  direction.     If  any  one  studied 
Figs.  3  and  4  he  would  see  that  the  curves  in  Fig.  4  had  been 
rectified,  if  he  might  say  so,  because  the  curves  of  the  fore  body 
were  given  on  the  right  hand  side  of  the  axis,  and  the  curves  for 
the  after  body  sections  were  given  on  the  left  hand  side  of  the  axis, 
but  in  taking  them  straight  from  the  machine  the  reverse  of  that 
was  the  case.     He  merely  mentioned  this  because  he  thought  he 
had  noticed  that   in   the   subsequent   work  in   connection  with 
stability  the  curves  were  laid  down  one  after  the  other  as  they 
were  taken  off  the  machine,  namely,  alternately  to  the  right  and 
left  of  the  axis.     He  was  inclined  to  agree  with  Mr  Douglas  that 
the  methods  of  attempting  to  get  curves  of  statical  stability  from 
dynamical  curves  would  not  give  very  good  results.     Perhaps  he 
ought  to  say  that  he  had  never  succeeded  in  getting  good  results 
from  them,  though  others  might  succeed  where  he  had  failed. 
Once  he  had  been  very  much  smitten  with  the  attempts  to  per- 
form stability  work  by  means  of  a  planimeter,  a  parallel  case  to 
the  work  done  in  the  paper,  as  he  took  the  integraph  as  being  only 
a  very  good  sort  of  planimeter.     In  such  work,  to  determine  the 
value  of  the  arm  of  dynamical  stability,  one  quantity  of  substantial 
magnitude   was    subtracted  from    another  not  greatly  different. 
The  difference  that  was  wanted  was  a  small  one,  and  if  the  per- 
centage errors  were  trifling  in  the  two  initial  quantities,  and  in 
opposite  directions,  one  could  be  considerably  out,  and  have  a 
considerable  percentage  error  in  the  difference.     Whether  or  not^ 
as  time  went  on,  the  integraph  would  be  successfully  used  in  the 
way  mentioned  in  the  paper,  or  with   the  modification  which 
Mr  Douglas  had  suggested,  he  did  not  know ;  time  alone  would 
tell .     With  regard  to  what  Mr  Johnstone  said  regarding  the  relia- 
bility  of  the  work  done,  the  statement  that  the  machine  required 
careful  handling  to  produce  good  results  should  not  be  regarded 
as  being  any  discredit  to  the  integraph.     He  had  had  the  advantage 
of  working  with  no  less  than  five  different  integrators,  and  his 
experience  was  that  they  aJl  required  careful  handling,  as  also  did 
the  integraph.     Quite  recently  he  had  seen  some  veiy  remarkable 


218  THE  USES   OF  THE  INTEGRAPH 

Mr  W.J.Lake. 

results  which  had  been  got  with  an  ordinary  planimeter.  Tracing 
twice  round  a  rectangle,  successive  results  could  not  be  obtained 
within  5  per  cent  of  each  other.  The  machine  worked  well  enough, 
but  had  got  out  of  adjustment  in  some  way  which  was  not  easily 
noticeable  to  the  ordinary  observer.  With  regard  to  what  was 
observed  with  respect  to  setting  the  machine,  he  had  only  to  re- 
mark that  he  had  found  it  rather  difficult  to  set  it  to  his  own 
satisfaction,  but  that  again  might  be  a  matter  of  personal  opinion. 
Kegarding  its  accuracy  he  might  say  that  recently  in  drawing  a 
curve  of  sectional  areas  of  a  large  ship,  with  which  he  was  dealing, 
he  had  taken  off  the  displacement  at  one  water-line  and  compared 
it  with  the  result  that  had  been  obtained  by  figures  on  a  displace- 
ment sheet.  It  was  not  a  specially  prepared  curve  got  ofif  by  the 
integraph,  neither  was  there  any  special  care  taken  in  doing  the 
work  on  the  displacement  sheet, — no  more  care,  that  was  to  say, 

than  was  ordinarily  used — and  the  two  were  within  -— -    part    of 

600 

each  other.     That  was  a  degree  of  accuracy  which  he  thought  one 

could  not  hope   to  better.     Whether  it  was  specially  good  or 

specially  bad  he  could  not  say,  but  it  was  just  one  particular  case 

which  he  had  got.     He  was  perfectly  satisfied  with  the  machine, 

and  felt  he  had  done  a  right  thing  in  acquiring  one.       He  did 

not  think  that  it  would  displace  the  ordinary  planimeter  or  the 

integrator,  but  it  was  certainly  a  very  useful  machine  to  have  and 

a  machine  which  did  very  good  work.     Eeferring  to  the  opening 

paragraph  of  the  paper,  Mr  Johnstone  might  be  asked  whether  he 

would  favour  the  Institution  with  his  opinion  on  the  utility  of  the 

machine  as  compared  with  the  integrator  and  the  planimeter  as 

they  were  commonly  known. 

Prof.  Archibald  Babr,  D.Sc.  (Member  of  Council),  was  surprised 

to  hear  what  Mr  Luke  had  said  regarding  the  inaccuracy  of  the 

planimeter.     He   was  one  of  those  who  had  always  held  that 

it  could  be  worked  to  an  extreme  degree  of  accuracy,  and  what 

was  wrong  in  Mr  Luke's  case  he  did  not  know.     The  planimeter 

could  be  worked  to  something  like  one  part  in  two  thousand.   How 


IN   SHIP  CALCULATIONS  219 

Prof.  Archibald  Barr. 

Mr  Luke  could  get  anything  like  five  per  cent,  wrong  he  had  not 
the  slightest  conception. 

Mr  Luke  said  in  working  the  planimeter  he  had  always  insisted 
that  upon  the  drawing  to  be  measured  a  large  rectangle  should  be 
drawn,  and  the  constant  found  for  a  particular  setting  by  actual 
trial  upon  the  same  paper  on  which  the  drawing  was  made.  It 
was  generally  impressed  upon  the  operator  not  to  be  content  with 
going  round  once,  but  to  go  round  two  or  three  times  to  make  the 
constant  determination  absolutely  certain.  It  was  in  one  of  these 
cases  that  the  peculiar  thing  to  which  he  had  previously  referred 
was  discovered.  He  could  only  suppose  that  the  machine  had 
fallen,  or  that  some  such  accident  had  taken  place.  Of  course 
the  machine  was  at  once  sent  away  to  be  adjusted,  and,  so  far  as 
he  knew,  they  had  not  since  had  any  peculiarities  in  its  move- 
ments. 

Mr  Johnstone  (in  reply)  said  he  would  like  to  thank  the  speakers 
for  the  manner  in  which  they  had  spoken  about  the  instrument. 
Those  who  had  criticised  the  paper  had  had  some  experience  in  the 
use  of  the  machine  and  bethought  their  remarks  would  be  useful  and 
would  explain  some  parts  of  the  paper  which  might  have  appeared 
rather  vague.  A  good  many  of  the  calculations  had  only  been  done 
for  the  first  time  and  the  methods  employed  were  perhaps  capable 
of  improvement,  but,  as  Mr  Luke  had  said,  time  would  prove  what 
the  machine  could  do.  Mr  Douglas  referred  to  certain  other  ship 
calculations  that  could  be  simplified  by  using  the  integraph.  A  body 
plan  of  integrated  sections  such  as  in  Fig,  4.  shortened  the  work  of 
launching  and  flooding  calculations  considerably.  In  flooding 
calculations  he  had  found  it  easier  and  quicker  to  get  the  position 
of  the  new  water-plane  for  the  damaged  condition  of  the  vessel,  by 
a  trial  process,-(a  diagram  similar  to  the  profile  view  of  Fig.  6.,  had 
to  be  used  and  buoyancy  curves  constructed  for  the  arbitrarily 
chosen  position  of  the  water-line),  than  to  calculate  by  the  ordinary 
method  the  amount  of  sinkage  and  then  the  amount  of  change 
of  trim.  The  latter  operation  was  rather  involved  as  it  necessitated 
the  determination  of  the  moment  of  inertia  of  the  damaged  water- 


220  THE   USES   OF  THE  INTEGRAPH 

Hr  Johnstone. 

plane.     Mr  Douglas  did  not  think  the  method  of  drawing  tangents 
to  the  isovols  and  then  fairing  up  was  sufficiently  accurate,  for 
obtaining  isoclines.       He   suggested   a  method  which   involved 
differentiating  the  curves  of  B,  B,^  values.     He  had  not  tried  that 
method  but  he  was  of  opinion  that  the  operation  of  differentiating 
such  curves  was  not  likely  to  lead  to  more  accurate  results  than 
the  method  indicated  in  the  paper.     He  had  tried  to  differentiate 
various  kinds  of  curves  by  the  machine  and  found  that  only  verj- 
fair  curves  gave  successful  results.     The  process  of  fairing  up 
isoclines  which  had  been  obtained  from  *'  isovols/'  (it  did  not 
matter  which  method  was   used),   eliminated  small   errors  and 
tended  to  make  the  curves  more  nearly  correct.     In  comparing 
two  or  three  set  of  isoclines  obtained  by  the  above  method,  with 
isocline  spots  from  careful  integrator  readings,  he  found  that  the 
curves  agreed  with  most  of  the  spots  and  those  spots  that  were  in 
disagreement  would  have  made  unfair  curves,  and  concluded  that 
the  faired  isoclines  were  correct  enough  for  all  practical  purposes. 
Had  the  integrator   spots   been   faired  they   would  have  given* 
identically  the  same  curves.     Mr  Biddlesworth  had  given  a  short 
proof  of  the  derived  curve  being  the  integral  of  the  given  curve. 
To   anyone  who  understood  the  method  of  differentiation,  the 
principle  of  the  machine  would  be  seen  at  once.     That  led  him  to 
give  the  proof  as  in  the  paper.     Mr  Biddlesworth  called  attention 
to  the  statement  viz.,  '*If  it  can  be  said  that  the  labour  of  con- 
structing an  equivalent  girder  is  less  than  the  labour  of  calculating 
arithmetically  the  moment  of  inertia,  then  this  method  is  to  be 
recommended."     This  statement  was  one  which  should  be  pre> 
ceded  with   aji  *'if,*'   as   he  had  often   heard  the   above  point 
disputed.     He  believed  that  it  was  quicker  in  the  majority  of  cases 
to  calculate  the  value  of  the  moment  of  inertia,  but  he  preferred 
to  construct  an  equivalent  girder  for  the  purpose  of  judging  the 
effect  of  neglecting  certain  parts  of,  or  adding  more  material  to,  the 
longitudinal  structure.     An  equivalent  girder  and  a  diagram  of  the 
nature  of  that  in  Fig.  8.  were  also  useful  in  a  shearing  stresa 
calculation.      The  accuracy  of  the  work,   as   Mr  Biddlesworth 


IN    SHIP  CALCULATIONS  221 

Mr  JohnttoiM. 

mentioned,  was  limited  by  the  final  scale.  In  all  the  ship  calcu- 
lations he  had  made  and  seen  made  with  this  machine,  the  final 
scale  was  quite  large  enough  for  all  practical  purposes.  In  dis- 
placement calculation  for  instance,  the  ordinates  could  be  measured 
from  a  small  scale  body  plan,  and  if  the  sections  be  traced  over  with 
every  care  by  an  instrument  then  he  should  say  that  the  work  of  the 
machine  was  more  correct  than  arithmetical  rules  for  integration. 
Of  course,  if  the  ordinates  in  the  displacement  sheet  calculation 
were  taken  from  the  full  size  measurements  of  the  drawing  loft 
the  arithmetical  results  might  be  more  correct.  It  might  have 
been  noticed  that  the  displacement  curve,  constructed  according 
to  the  first  method  described  in  the  paper,  was  not  limited  to  any 
final  scale.  Each  ordinate  was  a  function  of  the  sum  of  the 
corresponding  ordinates  of  the  integrated  sections  and  therefore 
had  to  be  figured  out.  The  accuracy  therefore  depended  on  the 
accuracy  of  the  integrated  sections.  Suppose  the  original  body 
plan  to  be  drawn  to  a  ^  inch  scale  and  the  sections  integrated  to  a 
scale  of  6.  Then  one  inch  of  ordinate  of  the  integrated  sections 
represented  48  square  feet  (both  sides  of  ship  taken  into  account). 
Supposing  that  the  length  of  ordinate  could  be  read  correctly  to  a  ^\y 
part  of  an  inch  then  the  reading  was  reliable  to  one  square  foot, 
approximately.  Mr  Luke  referred  to  the  value  of  the  integraph  as  a 
working  machine  compared  with  the  planimeter  and  integrator, 
and  gave  some  of  the  results  of  his  experience  with  the  latter 
machines.  For  many  ship  calculations  such  as  those  indicated^in 
the  paper,  the  integraph  was  a  more  suitable  machine  than  the 
planimeter  or  integrator,  but  for  single  operations  such  as  finding 
the  area,  or  moment,  or  moment  of  inertia  of  a  given  curve,  the 
integrator  could  be  more  conveniently  used.  The  integraph  and 
the  integrator  possessed  the  same  accuracy  because  the  operation 
was  the  same  in  each,  viz.,  tracing  a  line  by  guiding  a  movable 
pointer  over  it.  Mr  Luke's  experience  with  the  integrator  was 
that  it  was  liable  to  get  out  of  order  at  times.  Such  was  also  his 
experience  and  he  had  found  the  integraph  also  to  get  out  of  order, 
but  the  cause  of  the  error  in  the  integraph  was  not  far  to  seek  and 

20 


222  THE  USES   OF  THE  INTEGRAPH 

Hr  Johnstoiie. 

T^as  easily  remedied  Granting,  however,  good  working  conditions 
and  the  machines  in  good  order  the  accuracy  was  the  same  for  the 
integraph  as  for  the  integrator.  It  was  a  necessity  in  using  these 
machines  to  have  a  means  of  testing  them,  or  of  checking  the 
result.  The  integraph  was  used  generally  to  integrate  a  series  of 
curves  and  had  thus  to  he  driven  backwards  and  forwards  along 
the  axis.  If  the  paper  were  loosely  pinned  to  the  drawing  board 
then  some  trouble  might  be  experienced  by  the  axis  shifting. 
Hence  the  necessity  of  having  a  level  board  to  which  the  paper 
could  be  firmly  pinned  down.  He  thanked  those  who  had  taken 
part  in  the  discussion  for  the  favourable  and  helpful  way  they 
had  spoken. 

The  Chaibman  (Mr  James  Gilchrist,  Vice-President)  said  the 
Institution  was  much  indebted  to  Mr  Johnstone  for  bringing 
forward  a  paper  on  such  an  interesting  instrument  as  the  inte- 
graph. He  was  not  prepared  to  say  anything  particularly  on  the 
merits  of  the  integraph,  as  it  was  really  an  instrument  with  which 
he  was  not  familiar,  but  in  reading  over  the  paper  he  could  see 
that  it  must  be  a  very  valuable  addition  to  the  instruments  that 
were  used  by  shipbuilders  in  their  calculations.  He  would  ask  the 
Members  to  accord  a  very  hearty  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr  Johnstone 
for  his  paper.  He  would  just  like  to  take  Mr  Luke  at  his  word  as 
to  exhibiting  the  instrument,  and  perhaps  Mr  Johnstone  could 
give  some  further  explanations  regarding  its  working. 

The  vote  of  thanks  was  carried  by  acclamation. 


At  a  meeting  of  the  Institution  held  on  3rd  May,  1904, 
Mr  W.  J.  Luke,  in  the  enforced  absence  of  Mr  Johnstone, 
exhibited  two  integraphs  and  explained  their  properties  and 
action  to  the  meeting.  He  said  at  the  last  meeting  he  was 
asked  concerning  the  accuracy  of  the  machine,  and  he  might  now 
say  that  he  had  not  had  a  sufficiently  wide  experience  of  the  inte- 
graph to  see  whether  or  not  its  accuracy  could  be  relied  upon. 
Mr  Johnstone  had  told  him  that  a  machine  of  the  form  exhibited 


IN   SHIP  CALCULATIONS  228 

Mr  W.J.  Luke. 

with  which  he  (Mr  Johnstone)  had  had  experience  gave  considerable 
trouble  simply  because  the  radial  bar  did  not  keep  straight.  He 
would  point  out  that  if  an  apparatus  of  a  rather  delicate  character 
was  not  taken  care  of  it  could  not  be  expected  that  it  would  do  its 
work  properly.  A  question  had  been  asked  by  one  gentleman  as 
to  whether  the  records  got  were  sufficiently  large  to  be  of  practical 
use.  As  the  machine  was  set,  the  area  curve  multiplied  by  8 
gaye  the  area  integrated  in  square  inches,  and  that,  he  thought, 
was  large  enough  for  practical  use,  and  on  quite  as  large  a  scale  as 
area  curves  need  be  in  anything  short  of  very  delicate  work.  The 
second  machine  shewn  was  of  the  earlier  type  with  which  he  was 
not  quite  so  familiar.  Its  range  was  not  so  wide  as  that  of  the  later 
type,  but  of  course  the  general  principles  of  its  action  were  prac- 
tically the  same. 


SOME  MODEKN   APPLIANCES   CONNECTED   WITH 
KAILWAY  CK0SSING8  AND  POINTS. 

By  Mr  Owen  E.  Williams,  B.Sc.  (Member). 


(see  plates  XVII,  XVIII,  AND  XIX.) 


Bead  26th  April,  1904, 


Of  late  years  great  developments  have  been  made  in  the  various 
branches  of  railway  engineering,  notably  in  locomotives,  in 
carriage  building,  and  in  signalling  by  pneumatic  and  other 
powers;  but  in  the  permanent  way,  except  in  the  strengthening 
of  the  rails  and  their  fastenings  to  meet  the  heavier  loads,  very 
little  change  has  taken  place;  and  it  is  consequently  intended 
in  this  paper  to  describe  and  consider  some  appliances  regarding 
railway  points  and  crossings,  to  state  the  reasons  why  these 
appliances  are  wanted,  the  qualities  they  ought  to  possess,  and  to 
show  in  how  far  they  possess  these  necessary  qualities. 

Diamond  Crossings. 

When  one  line  crosses  another  a  diamond  crossing  is  formed. 
This  complete  crossing  consists  of  two  obtuse-angled  crossings  or 
elbows,  and  two  acute-angled,  or,  as  they  are  usually  called,  V- 
crossings.     Fig.  1. 

In  the  acute-angled  crossing,  Fig.  2,  although  the  wheel  is 
unsupported  for  a  short  distance  at  one  side,  a  complete  guide  and 
support  is  provided  at  the  other,  and  the  crossing  can  conse- 
quently  be  made  strong  enough  to  secure  perfect  safety  and  easy 
maintenance. 

In  the  obtuse-angled  crossings.  Fig.  3,  however,  there  is  a  space 
(varying  with  the  angle  of  the  crossing)  during  which  the  wheels 
are  only  partially  supported,  and  during  which  the  flanges  have 


RAILWAY    CROSSINGS   AND    POINTS 


225 


no  rail  by  which  they  can  exercise  their  guiding  functions.  Tiiis 
space  or  gap  in  a  1  in  8  crossing,  is  3'  3" ;  and  in  a  1  in  10*5 
croesing,  is  4'  4".  The  following  table  shows  the  gaps  of  corrres- 
ponding  angles  of  crossings  : — 

Table  op  Gaps 


Angle  of 
Crossing. 

Length  of 
Gap. 

1  in     7 

2'  lOi" 

1   „     8 

3'     3' 

1    „     9 

3'     8" 

1   „    10 

4'    r 

1  „    11 

4'    5J" 

1  „    12 

4'  lOJ" 

1  „    15 

6'  ir 

During  the  gap,  as  the  flanges  can  give  no  guidance,  the 
criterion  that  the  wheels  will  take  the  right  side  of  the  diamond 
point  is  solely  that  the  vehicles  will  continue  to  move  in  the  same 
direction  as  when  entering  the  gap.  In  the  case  of  a  straight 
road,  they  will  undoubtedly  do  this,  provided  no  other  influences 
are  imposed ;  but  in  the  case  of  a  diamond  crossing  on  a  curved 
mad,  it  is  difficult  to  be  certain  in  what  precise  direction  the 
vehicles  will  continue  to  move,  and  consequently  flat  crossings, 
especially  on  curved  roads,  are  the  most  frequent  causes  of 
accident  on  railways. 

Let  us  suppose  that  any  wheel  of  a  train,  say  one  of  an  oscil- 
lating vehicle,  after  leaving  the  first  diamond  point,  trespasses 
only  slightly  out  of  the  straight  path,  then  it  will  inevitably  hit  the 
wing  rail's  running  edge,  or  the  check  rail  at  or  before  the  elbow ; 


:^26  SOBCE   MODERN   APPLIANCES    CONNECTED    WITH 

this  again  alters  the  direotion  in  which  the  wheels  will  travel,  and 
will  ill-conduce  to  their  taking  the  correct  side  of  the  points. 

The  most  frequent  derailments  are  probably  caused  by  goods 
trains,  consisting  of  wagons  having  wooden  bufifers,  being  stopped  on 
a  diamond  crossing  on  a  curved  road,  and  then  pushed  back.  Con- 
sider a  wagon  actually  at  the  obtuse  angle.  As  the  inside 
buffers  will  touch  first,  the  wagon  will  get  a  push  from  the  one 
comer,  and  therefore  will  tend  to  move  in  a  direction  at  an  angle 
to  the  line  of  the  road,  and  in  consequence  will  probably  take  the 
wrong  side  of  the  diamond  points. 

Beferring  to  Fig.  4,  it  will  be  readily  seen  that  the  gaps  between 
the  diamond  points  A  and  A^  are  the  critical  places  of  the  crossing, 
there  being  a  rail  at  one  side  only  to  support  the  wheels  between 
the  diamond  points  and  the  angle,  and  the  possibility  of  accidents 
may  be  attributed  to  the  following  causes : — 

1.  The  guiding  function  of  the  flanges  is  greatly  impaired,  or 

ceases  entirely. 

2.  The  treads  of  the  wheels  are  provided  with  a  full  rail 

head  support  at  one  side  only ;  consequently  the 
support  is  diminished. 

3.  As  the  clearance  space  between  the  points  is  wider  than 

in  the  ordinary  case  {^{^  instead  of  1^"),  the  flanges 
lose  their  guiding  properties,  as  they  cannot  touch  the 
edge  of  the  rails. 

To  eliminate  these  causes  of  uncertainty,  and  at  the  same  time 
provide  a  crossing  strong  enough  to  ensure  easy  maintenance,  is 
the  object  in  view. 

There  are  four  possible  methods  of  dealing  with  the  case  of  a 
troublesome  diamond  crossing.  To  substitute  for  the  diamond 
crossing : — 

1.  Two  pairs  of  facing  points. 

Fig.  5  shows  the  substitution  of  facing  points,  which  means  a 
complete  relaying  (to  an  existing  crossing),  and  as  the  points 
have  to  be  detected  and  provided  with  lock-bars,  special  levers 


RAILWAY   CROSSINGS   AND   POINTS  227 

are  required  in  the  Bigaal  cabin.  The  arrangement  oosts  several 
hundred  pounds,  and  aometunes  cannot  be  done  on  account  of 
confined  space. 

2.  A  "flying"  crossing  or  junction. 

Such  a  crossing  is  formed  by  one  line  passing  under  the  other, 
and  is  only  done  to  allow  of  a  quickened  train  service. 

3.  To  alter  the  crossing  to  the  New  South  Wales  type. 

The  New  South  Wales  system,  Fig.  6,  consists  in  putting  in 
the  obtuse  angles  two  pairs  of  short  switches,  working  in  opposite 
directions  and  connected  by  one  rod.  The  intention  of  this  is  to 
provide  a  continuous  running  rail  edge,  and  continuous  support, 
and  therefore  cures  both  causes,  1  and. 2.  The  apparatus,  how- 
ever, has  the  following  disadvantages  : — 

a.  Placing  four  finely  planed  switches  such  as  are  required 
into  such  a  confined  space,  renders  the  crossing  very 
weak,  and  is  therefore  against  the  object  in  view. 

fc.  As  the  switches  come  under  the  heading  of  *'  facing 
points,"  which  have  to  be  detected,  and  require  special 
levers  in  the  cabin,  this  arrangement  is  very  costly. 

4.  To  equip  the  existing  crossing,  with  the  **  protectors  " 
invented  by  the  late  Henry  Williams. 

In  the  Williams'  protector,  four  treadles  are  introduced  into  the 
existing  crossing  which  does  not  require  to  be  relaid  in  anyway. 
The  action  of  these  treadles  is  to  reduce  the  undue  clearance  space 
to  the  standard,  and  consequently  to  provide  a  true  guidance  to 
the  wheel  flanges.  This  cures  cause  No.  3,  and  also  provides  for 
cause  No.  1,  and  as  the  crossing  is  not  weakened  in  any  way,  but 
left  in  the  original  solidity,  cause  No.  2  becomes  negligible. 

The  four  steel  treadles.  A,  A^,  B,  and  B^,  Fig.  7,  differ  from  all 
other  types,  in  that  they  are  moved  vertically  instead  of  horizon- 
tally; therefore,  they  do  not  come  under  the  Board  of  Trade's 
definition  of  a  **  facing  "  point.  They  are  fitted  into  the  clearance 
spaces  between  the  check  rail  and  the  running  rail.     They  are 


228  SOME    MODERN    APPLIANCES    CONNECTED    WITH 

fulcrummed  on  a  speoial  bolt,  which  is  fixed  to  the  oheok  rail, 
and  in  a  sliding  nut  whioh  fits  olose  to  the  web  of  the  running 
rail;  this  nut  can  move  in  the  line  of  the  rail,  and  there 
fore,  if  one  rail  **  creeps  ''  ahead  of  the  other,  the  fulcrum  pin  is 
not  broken.  The  four  treadles  are  raised  and  lowered  by  a  special 
**  arm  "  working  in  a  slot  in  each  treadle ;  the  arms  are  affixed  to 
two  "rocking"  shafts,  which  are  revolved  through  about  90 
degrees  by  a  piece  of  point  rod,  this  rod  being  part  of  or  joined  to 
the  rod  which  works  the  points  controlling  the  way  through  the 
crossing.     No  extra  lever  is  required  in  the  signal  cabin. 

The  treadles  are  operated  in  the  following  manner  : — 
For  the  main  line,  A  and  A^  will  be  raised,  and  B  and  B^  will 

be  lowered. 
For  the  branch  line,  B^  and  B  will  be  raised,  and  A  and  A^ 
will  be  lowered. 

Consider  a  vehicle  passing  from  right  to  left  on  the  main  line  ; 
the  flanges,  on  arriving  at  YY^  pass  over  the  top  of  the  treadle 
B,  but  do  not  touch  it,  as  it  is  2  inches  down,  but  they  are  guided 
on  the  other  side  by  treadle  A^  On  arriving  at  XX^,  treadle  B^  is 
down  out  of  the  way,  and  treadle  A  entirely  blocks  up  the  wrong 
way,  thus  allowing  the  flanges  no  option  as  to  which  side  they  will 
take,  but  forcing  them  to  go  to  the  desired  side  of  the  points. 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  treadles  do  not  support  the  weight  of  the 
vehicles,  as  it  would  be  impracticable  to  make  a  vertically  moving 
treadle  strong  enough  to  take  the  weight  of  a  locomotive.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  crossing  still  has  its  original  strength,  and,  there- 
fore, no  further  support  is  necessary. 

These  protectors  have  the  following  advantages  over  other 
systems : — 

1.  They  are  perfectly  efficient,  derailments  being  impossible 

(this  is  borne  out  in  practice). 

2.  They  are  less  than  /jth  of  the  cost  of  other  systems. 

3.  They  can  be  fitted  into  existing  crossings  in  about  four 

hours. 


RAILWAY   CROSSINGS   AND    POINTS  229 

4.    The  crossing  has  not  to  be  relaid  or  altered  in  any  way. 

The  efficiency  of  the  protectors  is  proved  by  the  fact  that  there 
are  about  100  of  them  fitted,  in  all  cases  to  **  troublesome  "  cross- 
ings,  where  derailments  were  formerly  as  frequent  as  three  per 
week,  and  since  the  time  of  equipment  (from  three  years)  derail- 
ments have  entirely  ceased.  Should  a  driver,  by  disobeying  the 
signal,  run  an  engine  over  the  crossing  when  the  protectors 
are  set  for  the  opposite  road,  something  will  give  way,  and  the 
protectors  (till  repaired)  will  be  put  out  of  action  ;  this  is  important, 
as  if  they  did  not  give  way  the  engine  would  run  off  the  road,  but 
when  set  for  the  correct  way  a  derailment  is  impossible. 

These  protectors  have  been  fitted  to  crossings  as  flat  as  1  in  16. 
The  rule  of  the  Board  of  Trade  is  that  in  new  work  no  crossings 
flatter  than  1  in  8  are  allowed,  but  new  crossings  up  to  1  in  10 
have  been  sanctioned  when  fitted  with  these  protectors.  Engineers 
having  to  plan  crossings  in  confined  spaces  will  appreciate  this. 

On  examining  a  treadle  from  a  set  of  protectors  that  have  been 
in  use  for  some  time,  the  following  will  usually  be  noticed  : — ^The 
points  of  the  treadle  and  the  working  heel  will  be  quite  black ;  but 
there  is  a  bright  part  on  the  side  half  way  between  the  point  and 
heeL  This  brightness  is  caused  by  rubbing  and  knocks  from  the 
flanges^  and  as  the  flanges  can  only  knock  the  treadle  when  they 
begin  to  stray  from  the  correct  path,  each  knock  (if  unchecked) 
would  probably  have  been  the  means  of  a  derailment.  Some  idea 
of  what  these  protectors  have  saved  can,  therefore,  be  judged. 

Hand  Levers  for  Points, 

There  are  two  classes  of  levers  required  for  hand -worked 
points : — 

1.  A   lever  that   will  hold  the  points   for  either  way  as 

required ;  this  is  the  type  generally  used  in  shunting 
and  goods  yards. 

2.  A  lever  that  will  hold  the   points    always  in  the  one 

position  for  the  main  siding,  and  has  to  be  held  over 
for  the  other  road. 


230  SOME   MODERN   APPLIANCES   CONNECTED   WITH 

For  both  types  any  first-olass  lever  should  possess  the  following 
points  : — 

1.  It  should  absolutely  prevent  the  switches  from  "  stioking" 

when  trailed  or  otherwise. 

2.  It  should  be  reasonably  easy  to  operate,  so  that  shunting 

may  be  done  quickly. 

3.  It  should  have  a  still  handle  when  the  points  are  trailed, 

as  a  moving  handle  is  very  dangerous  to  shunters. 

4.  It  should  give  as  little  obstruction  to  the  feet  as  possible* 

6.    As  regards  wear,  it  should  be  as  *•  easy  "  as  possible  on 
the  switches  and  connections. 

6.    It  should  be  strong  and  durable. 

The  simplest  form  of  hand  point  lever  is  the  plain  straight  lever 
handle  fulcrummed  in  a  cast-iron  base  fixed  to  the  sleepers.  This 
lever  generally  has  a  large  weight  on  the  top  end  to  make  it  fall  to 
the  required  side,  at  the  same  time  pushing  the  switches  into  the 
required  position. 

As  an  improvement  on  this  type  a  crank  or  a  cranking  device 
is  put  into  the  lever,  which  enables  the  motion  of  the  handle  to  be 
parallel  to  the  line  of  the  rails.  This  is  now  a  Board  of  Trade 
regulation,  as  when  one  of  these  levers  is  trailed  the  flanges  cause 
the  weight  and  the  handle  to  move  up  and  down ;  consequently, 
if  a  shunter  holds  one  of  these  handles  which  is  moving  at  right 
angles  to  the  rails,  it  will  tend  to  pull  him  under  the  train ;  but  if 
the  handle  works  parallel  to  the  rails,  it  will  only  pull  him  along 
side  in  the  6-foet  way.  Swinging  handles  of  any  kind,  however, 
are  a  great  objection,  as  the  shunter  runs  a  great  risk  of  getting 
hit  on  the  legs,  and,  as  the  moving  weight  is  usually  from  56  to  80 
lbs.,  the  effect  is  not  inconsiderable. 

When  a  vehicle  trails  a  pair  of  points,  that  is  to  say,  in  going 
from  B  to  A,  Figs.  8  and  9,  at  the  point  X  the  flanges  of  the  wheel 
have  to  force  open  the  switch,  and  it  is  the  duty  of  the  lever  to 
close  it  again  to  the  stock  rail  after  the  vehicle  has  passed.     This 


RAaWAY   CROSSINGS   AND   POINTS 


381 


is  the  object  of  the  weight,  and  if  the  weight  does  not  properly 
elose  the  switch,  the  points  "  stick  "  in  a  half-way  position,  and  a 
vehicle  coming  from  A  will  go  to  neither  B  nor  C,  but  will  get 
derailed.  Such  derailments  happen  in  very  large  numbers,  and  as 
the  average  cost  of  a  derailment  is  £5,  they  are  a  great  source 
of  expense,  besides  being  very  inconvenient  at  busy  places. 

There  are  many  designs  of  weighted  levers,  but  in  all  cases 
wherein  the  trailing  of  the  point  moves  the  handle,  the  weight 
cannot  be  made  large  enough  to  absolutely  ensure  the  switches 
from  "  sticking,"  as,  if  it  is,  no  man  can  work  the  lever.  The 
nearer  to  the  vertical  that  the  weight  is  moved  by  the  flange,  the 
effect  of  the  weight  (tending  to  close  the  switches)  becomes  the 
less,  and  in  the  vertical  position  it  has  no  effect  whatever,  so  that 
no  matter  how  large  the  weight  is,  it  cannot  prevent  the  switch 
"  sticking/'*  Moreover,  as  the  flanges  when  trailing  the  points 
keep  the  weight  swinging  about,  there  is  an  excessive  amount  of 
wear  in  the  lever  connections,  and,  most  important  of  all, 
on  the  switches  themselves. 

Spring  Design  Switch  Levebs. 

The  spring  switch  levers.  Figs.  10  and  11,  differ  in 
principle  from  all  others  in  that,  although  the  handle  has  full 
control  of  the  points,  the  points  have  no  control  over  the  handle. 
When  the  points  are  trailed,  the  handle  remains  perfectly  still, 
and  after  each  wheel  has  passed,  the  spring  instantly  forces  the 
switches  back  to  the  original  position,  as  indicated  by  the  handle. 
This  still  handle  means  much  greater  safety  to  the  shunter,  as 
with  it  he  cannot  get  pulled  under  or  alongside  the  train,  nor  can 
he  get  hit  by  it. 

In  the  **Eeversible*'  Lever,  Figs.  10  and  11,  the  handle  moves 
a  malleable  iron  plate  in  which  is  a  diagonal  slot;  in  this  slot 
moves  a  ring  fixed  to  a  cradle  containing  a  spring,  the  spring  being 
fixed  to  the  rod  which  goes  straight  to  the  connection  of  the 

•  "  Sticking "  switches  are  most  prevalent  when  the  slide  chairs  are 
dirty,  or  covered  with  sand  and  snow. 


232  SOME    MODERN   APPLIANCES    CONNECTED    WITH 

switches.  The  springs  used  in  the  levers  are  capable  of  being 
compressed  solid  without  taking  any  set,  but  their  working  range 
is  only  about  half  of  the  full  range.  Fig.  12  shows  a  stress  strain 
diagram  from  tests  made  by  the  Great  Western  Railway  Company 
at  Swindon.  When  the  springs  are  fitted  into  the  lever  they  are 
compressed  1^",  the  compressing  force  being  2  cwts.,  and  when 
the  switches  are  trailed  the  spring  is  compressed  a  further  1^" 
when  the  flange  is  at  the  point  end  of  the  switch,  and  2^'  when 
the  wheel  is  at  the  heel  end ;  the  spring  is  therefore  compressed 
2}"  in  the  one  case,  and  3f "  in  the  second,  and  the  force  tending 
to  close  the  switch  varies  from  4  to  6  cwts.  As  this  force  acts 
directly  on  the  switches,  it  is  impossible  for  them  to  ''stick," 
and  with  these  levers  derailments  from  ** sticking  switches" 
are  unknown. 

Comparing  this  spring  design  lever  with  the  weighted  type 
it  has  the  following  advantages : — 

1.  It  is  easier  to  work,  there  being  no  large  weight  to  lift; 

as  a  result,  shunting  can  be  done  quicker. 

2.  It  entirely  prevents  derailments  from  sticking  switches. 

3.  When  trailed  the  handle  remains  still. 

4.  It  presents  practically  no  obstruction  by  which  shunters 

may  be  tripped. 

5.  The  cushioning  action  of  the  spring  preserves  the  adjust- 

ment of  the  connections,  and  greatly  reduces  the  wear 
on  the  switch  blades.  The  maintenance  is,  therefore, 
less,  and  as  there  is  no  swinging  weight,  the  lever  itself 
lasts  several  times  as  long  as  the  weighted  type. 

The  general  method  a  shunter  adopts  with  a  weighted  lever  is 
to  raise  the  weight,  give  it  a  push  and  pass  on,  trusting  to  the 
weight  to  push  the  points  over.  This  it  will  do,  but  as  in  falling 
it  gathers  momentum,  the  weight  generally  comes  down  with  such 
a  force  as  to  cause  it  to  rise  up  again  once  or  twice  before  settling 
down  to  the  proper  position.    As  the  weight  bumps  up  and  down, 


RAILWAY    CROSSINGS   AND   POINTS  283 

the  switches  open  and  close  a  small  amount,  and  if  a  vehicle  is 
approaching  **  facing  ways  "  it  is  possible  for  a  flange  to  get  into 
this  opening  and  split  the  points.  In  the  spring  design  the  handle 
is  pushed  over,  and  this  opening  and  closing  cannot  occur ;  also 
there  is  a  small  half-lock  at  each  end  of  the  slot  in  the  plate  which 
secures  and  locks  the  points  in  the  correct  position  until  moved 
again  by  the  handle. 

For  points  which  have  to  stand  always  set  for  one  way,  the 
"one  way"  spring  switch  lever  is  used.     Figs.  13  and  14. 

In  this  lever  the  handle  moves  one  end  of  a  right-angled  crank 
against  a  tortional  spring,  the  other  end  of  the  crank  being  con- 
nected direct  to  the  switches.  This  lever  ensures  that  the  points 
stand  set  for  the  main  line.  If  a  train  is  to  be  sent  into  the  siding 
the  handle  is  pulled  over  and  held  in  this  position  till  the  train  has 
passed,  when  on  loosing  the  handle  the  spring  forces  the  points 
back  to  the  position  for  the  main  road.  A  curved  handle  is  here 
of  advantage,  as  a  shunter  can  pull  the  points  over  and  either  sit 
on  it  or  put  his  foot  on  it  till  the  train  has  passed,  thereby  saving 
bis  muscles. 

Figs.  15  and  16  show  a  combined  switch  lever  and  point 
indicator.  This  appliance  puts  the  points  into  the  required  position 
and  also  indicates  for  which  road  they  are  set ;  thus  during  the 
day,  the  arrow  points  to  the  direction  the  train  will  proceed  in,  and 
for  night  work  the  lights  being  of  different  colours,  and  also 
having  the  number  of  the  siding  on  them,  amply  show  for  which 
way  the  points  are  set.  Ag*  a  further  object  of  safety,  if  the  points 
have  not  been  put  properly  home,  say  due  to  some  obstruction, 
the  arrow  will  show  this  by  pointing  in  neither  direction,  and  the 
lamps  will  also  indicate  this  by  showing  both  colours. 

Another  design  has  a  large  red  target  standing  up  for  the  one 
way  and  falling  down  for  the  other,  the  coloured  light  motion 
being  the  same  as  before.  This  is  on  the  lines  of  a  standard 
ground  disc  signal  which  the  indicator  supercedes  when  used  as  a 
point  indicator. 

In  some  of  the  colonies  signal  cabins  are  dispensed  with  on 


2S4  SOME    MODERN   APPLIANCES    CONNECTED    WITH 

MrG«ozg«W.B«id. 

branch  lines,  and  a  hand  worked  lever  is  used  to  move  the  points 
for  passenger  trains,  the  lever  being  conneoted  to  a  ground  disc 
signal  The  combined  lever  and  indicator  does  the  work  of  both, 
takes  less  than  half  the  fitting,  saves  connecting  rods,  and  is  much 
cheaper  in  first  cost.  In  principle  it  is  better  than  the  two  single 
appliances,  as  an  indicator  should  be  as  near  and  as  directly  con- 
nected as  possible  to  what  it  indicates ;  the  indicator  being  actually 
part  of  the  ground  lever  fulfils  this  condition. 

Discussion. 

Mr  Gbobge  W.  Eeid  (Member)  thought  this  paper  one  of  con- 
siderable interest  to  all  Members  of  the   Institution,   either  as 
engineers  or  travellers  by  rail.     It  was  certainly  complimentary 
to  railway  engineers  that,   as    Mr    Williams    remarked    at    the 
commencement    of    his    paper,    very    little    change    had    been 
made   on    the  permanent  way  since    railways  started,   beyond 
making    the    metals    heavier,    which,    however,    was    a    very 
important    point.      It    struck  him   as    somewhat   strange  that 
Mr   Williams   had   not  referred  to  the   point  blades  as  being 
the  source  of  danger.     It  had  been  his  duty  to  investigate  many 
derailments,  which  necessitated  passing  over  crossings  on  foot, 
and  all  his  experience  went  to  show  that  if  a  train  passed  over 
the  point  blades  it  was  safe  for  the  rest  of  the  junction.    The 
diamond  crossing  which  Mr  Williams  referred  to  did  not  obtain  in 
single  line  working.     In  single  lines  the  crossing  shown  in  Fig.  2 
was  adopted.     Mr  Williams  did  not  s%y  that  there  was  any  great 
risk  in  running  over  it,  although  an  element  of  danger  did  exist. 
In  practice  all  main  lines  were  made  straight  and  the  branch  lines 
were  taken  ofif  at  an  angle,  and,  as  Mr  Williams  pointed  out  there 
was  no  danger  of  leaving  at  the  point,  so  long  as  a  train  ran  on 
the  straight.     Branch  traffic  was  usually  run  at  a  slower  rate  of 
speed,  and  the  throw-ofif  was  always  to  the  branch.     If  engineers 
did  not  discover  any  difficulty  there,  he  thought  they  were  quite 
right  in  not  introducing  anything  additional.     All  good  engineers 
knew,  the  less  the  number  of  parts  in  any  construction  the  better, 


RAILWAY    CROSSINGS    AND    POINTS  235 

proyided  always  that  they  felt  sufBciently  safe  with  what  they 
had  got.      When  a  train  went  on  to  a  branoh  line  it  ran  over 
one  crossing,  Fig.  2,  and  one  of  those  marked  A,  Fig.  4,   pro- 
vided it  was  going  to  the  right  hand  side ;  but  if  it  went  to  the  left 
hand  the  train  was  not  taken  over  the  crossing  marked  A,  so  that 
when  a  branch  struck  ofif  a  main  line  to  the  left  there  was  none  of 
those  objectionable  crossings  to  pass  over.     There  was  one  on  the 
right  turn  out  rail,  but  it  was  a  long  line  and  there  was  sufficient 
space  always  to  make  a  long  check  rail.     The  long  check  rail 
steadied  the  train  before  it  could  reach  this  particular  point.     He 
thought  the  distance  between  the  two  points  was  2  feet  8  inches. 
One  half  of  the  2  feet  8  inches  was  without  a  guide,  and  taking 
the  half  at  1  foot  4  inches,  there  was  an  equivalent  to  a  check  rail 
for  about  2  inches  in  length,  so  that  if  there  was  any  likelihood  of 
oscillation  it  must  confine  itself  to  something  like  15  inches.     Any- 
one looking  at  the  crossing  would  see  the  almost  impossibility  of  a 
wheel  changing  from  a  straight  line  to  turn  a  comer  in  such  a 
short  distance,  and  he  had  never  found  that  derailment  took  place 
at  that  portion  of  a  main  line.     In  saying  this  he  did  not  speak  of 
sidings.     Sidings  were  put  into  goods  yards  in  the  most  profitable 
positions.    But  engineers  sometimes  had  not  sufficient  room,  and 
there  might  be  several  sidings  put  into  a  goods  yard  which  were 
objectionable,  but  that  was  only  a  matter  of  shunting  and  the 
shunters  seeing  that  special  precautions  were  taken.     He  did  not 
know  whether  in  that  case  it  would  be  advisable  to  put  in  extra 
"treadles,"  but  if  so  it  meant  that  they  must  either  be  connected 
-with  the  point  rod  or  there  must  be  another  rod  to  work  by.    If 
there  were  two  separate  rods,  the  shunter  would  certainly  object 
to  pull  two  handles  instead  of  one,  and  if  both  rods  were  attached 
to  one  lever  it  would  perhaps  be  too  heavy.     One  way  by  which 
a  solution  could  be  arrived  at  would   be  to  hear  a  yardsman's 
opinion  on  it, — and  he  believed  in  having  the  opinion  of  a  yards- 
man  on  a  practical  question  of  this  kind,     With  regard  to  levers, 
the  present  lever  was  very  convenient.     When  a  shunter  tipped  up 
the  end  of  the  lever,  it  went  over  to  the  reverse  side.     Nothing 


236  SOM£    MODERN    APPLIANCES    CONNECTED    WITH 

Mr  George  W.  Rdd. 

could  be  quicker  or  smarter  than  that,  and  the  turn  over  of  the 
weighted  lever  did  not  seem  to  incommode  the  shunter  at  all. 
He  did  not  like  a  spring.  If  the  driver  of  an  engine  could  be 
assured  that  the  point-blades  were  close  he  would  go  on  ahead, 
but  if  he  was  not  sure  he  was  timorous.  The  objection  to 
the  spring  was  that  it  was  not  seen.  It  might  be  working  all 
right,  but  at  the  same  time  it  might  have  lost  some  of  its  elasticity 
or  it  might  be  broken.  There  was  nothing  that  gave  a  driver  more 
confidence  than  to  know  that  the  thing  was  as  represented,  and  if 
the  indicator  as  well  as  indicating  that  the  line  was  clear  indicated 
whether  the  point  blades  were  close  or  not  they  would  be  of  great 
service.  He  had  not  been  fortunate  enough  to  see  the  model  shown 
by  Mr  Williams,  but  if  the  indicator  were  connected  with  the  handle, 
it  was  connected  with  the  wrong  part.  All  indicators  ought  to  be 
connected  with  the  point  blades. 

Mr  John  Bibkie,  (Member)  said  his  experience  was  pretty  much 
the  same  as  Mr  Eeid's.  With  respect  to  improvements  in  connec- 
tion with  railways,  he  would  go  further  than  Mr  Reid.  Mr  Williams 
said  that  improvements  had  been  made  ''  notably  in  locomotives,'' 
but  he  knew  of  absolutely  no  improvement  in  the  last  thirty-six 
years,  except  increasing  the  boiler  pressure  of  locomotives  and 
making  them  very  much  heavier.  He  had  been  greatly  surprised 
to  learn  that  derailments  took  place  at  crossings.  Like  Mr  Beid 
he  had  found  that  when  the  engine  had  passed  safely  over  the 
point  rails  it  afterwards  passed  the  crossing  without  giving  any 
more  trouble.  On  the  railways  that  he  had  been  connected  with 
there  were  no  wooden  buffers,  and  that  might  account  for  the 
absence  of  derailments.  The  treadle  device  for  preventing  accidents 
appeared  to  be  a  very  ingenious  one,  and  also,  apparently,  a  very 
necessary  one,  where  wooden  buffers  were  used.  The  only 
trouble  he  had  experienced  with  crossings  due  to  the  gap  was  the 
damage  done  to  the  nose  of  the  crossing  by  the  constant  hammer- 
ing of  the  tread  of  the  wheel.  To  overcome  this,  when  making 
crossings,  a  distance  piece  was  fitted  between  the  rails,  and 
arranged  so  that  the  flange  of  the  wheel  could  run  on  it  supporting 


RAILWAY    CROSSINGS    AND    POINTS  237 

MrJohnBeOde. 

the  wheel  while  passing  the  gap.  This  support  also  tended  to 
jl^de  the  flange,  the  bed  of  the  block  being  grooved.  Although 
simple  and  effective,  this  might  not,  however,  prevent  derailments 
where  wooden  buffers  were  used.  Begarding  weighted  levers,  he 
had  been  very  much  astonished  to  learn  that  any  trouble  had  been 
experienced  with  them.  They  had  been  in  extensive  use  in  India 
for  many  years,  and  he  had  never  found  them  to  give  the  slightest 
trouble,  provided  the  points  were  kept  clean  and  in  thorough 
working  order.  The  type  must  have  been  somewhat  different  to 
that  referred  to  by  Mr  Williams,  for  it  was  possible  for  the  lever 
to  recoil  without  moving  the  tongue  rail.  This  class  of  lever  was 
found  to  be  extremely  useful  in  shunting  operations,  allowing  an 
engine  to  go  from  one  line  to  another  without  manning  the  points. 
For  instance,  a  driver  could  run  his  engine  through  a  set  of  points, 
and  go  back  on  the  same  line  or  on  to  an  adjoining  line.  There 
was  no  undue  wear  owing  to  the  use  of  weights.  The  spring 
used  in  connection  with  a  lever  appeared  to  him  to  be  one  that 
would  act  more  kindly  in  action  than  a  weight.  He  should  like 
to  ask  Mr  Williams  if  any  provision  had  been  made  to  guard 
against  the  breaking  of  a  spring  when  vehicles  were  passing  over 
the  points.  In  other  matters,  Mr  Beid's  experience  and  his  (>wn 
seemed  to  be  exactly  similar, 

Mr  E.  J.  EowAN  (Member  of  Council)  said  it  might  be  interest- 
ing if  Mr  Williams  would  make  a  comparison  between  the  device 
that  he  had  introduced  and  one  that  was  introduced  some  years 
ago  on  the  Wemyss  Bay  line.  The  latter  was  an  invention  of  Mr 
J.  S.  Williams,  an  American,  by  which  the  main  line  was  really 
never  broken  at  all,  and  the  diamond  crossings  were  done  away 
with.  This  was  for  a  single  line,  but  the  system  had  been 
installed  on  several  double  hues  on  the  Continent.  He  believed 
it  had  been  very  highly  spoken  of  by  the  inspecting  officer  of  the 
Board  of  Trade. 

Mr  Williams  thanked  those  who  had  spoken  for  their  criticisms, 
and  in  reply  to  Mr  Beid,  said  that  a  2  feet  8  inches  gap  corres- 
ponded to  a  1  in  7  crossing.     A  1  in  8  crossing  was  considered 

21 


SOME    MODERN   APPLIANCES    CONNECTED    WITH 
Hr  WflUamfi. 

safe  by  the  Board  of  Trade,  but  his  paper  had  dealt  with  flatter 
crossings  than  that,  and  a  crossing  of  1  in  15  was  a  very  different 
thing  from  1  in  7  or  1  in  8.     It  had  also  been  said  that  of  the 
2  feet  8  inches,  only  half  was  unguided.       When  the  elbow  was 
passed  the  remaining  1  foot  4  inches  was  unguided.    Beally  the 
whole  distance  was  practically  unguided  except  for  the   small 
distance  in  the  centre.     Complications  were  of  two  kinds,  those 
which  when  they  worked  were  of  benefit  and  when  they  did  not 
work  were  of  no  harm,  and  those  that  were  all  right  when  they 
worked  but  were  dangerous  when   they  did  not  work,  and  he 
claimed  that  the  protectors  belonged  to  the  first  order  of  compli- 
cation.    Eegarding  accidents,  on  one  of  their  main  lines  in  Glasgow 
there  were  certain  crossings  which  were  never  used,  simply  because 
if  carriages  were  put  over  them   they  ran   off.      Before  these 
crossings  had  been  fitted  with  protectors  nothing  was  ever  put 
through  them,  but  since  the  date  of  equipment  the  crossings  were 
used  regularly  without  trouble.  Diamond  crossings  were  frequently 
found  on  goods'  lines,  but  derailments  on  these  lines  might  foul 
the  main  line  and  this  was  very  common.     He  could  hardly  agree 
with  Mr  Beid  that  when  the  switch  points  were  passed  all  was 
safe.     Some  years  ago  there  was  an  accident  at  Eglinton  Street, 
where  the  engine  actually  took  the  one  side  of  the  diamond  points 
and  the  tender  the  other.     In  that  case,  of  course,  the  couplings 
split,  and  there  was  a  derailment    Throwing  over  the  weight  of 
weighted  levers  with  a  shunting  pole  was  probably  a  very  simple 
way  of  doing  it,  but  it  also  looked  to  him  a  very  poor  method,  for 
due  to  its  momentum  in  falling,  the  weight  would  be  sure  to  rebound 
up  and  down  several  times  with  a  consequent  opening  and  closing 
of  the  switch  blades,  and  if  a  vehicle  approached  the  facing-ways, 
the  flanges  might  get  into  the  opening  and  split  the  points.     With 
regard  to  Mr  Bowan's  point,  that  was  a  through  line  form  of 
crossing,  somewhat  on  the  style  of  what  he  termed  the  New 
South  Wales  system  of  frogs.     These  gave  a  continuous  running 
through  the  crossing.     Ee  had  had  no  practical  experience  of  them, 
but  he  had  been  told  that  they  were  not  considered  strong  enough 


RAILWAY    CROSSINGS    AND    POINTS  289 

MrWiUiams. 

to  make  their  maintenance  cheap  enough  to  be  put  into  regular 
practice. 

The  Chairman  (Mr  E.  Hall-Brown,  Vioe-Preaident)  thought  Mr 
Williams  had  put  his  subject  in  a  very  interesting  manner,  making 
everything  very  clear  to  one  who  was  not  acquainted  with  railway 
work  There  was  one  thing  which  interested  him  very  much,  and 
that  was  the  application  of  springs  as  shown  in  Fig.  11,  which  was 
practically  the  same  as  that  described  by  Mr  Govan  in  connection 
with  his  chain-speed  gear.  It  seemed  to  be  rather  curious  and 
interesting  that  practically  the  same  application  should  be  used 
for  two  such  dissimilar  purposes  and  dealt  with  in  two  papers  read 
daring  the  same  evening.  He  thought  Mr  Williams  deserved 
and  should  receive  a  hearty  vote  of  thanks  for  his  paper. 

The  vote  of  thanks  was  carried  by  acclamation. 


MOTOR  CARS. 
By  Mr  Albxandbb  Gov  an  (Member). 


(see   plates   XX,   XXI,   XXII,  AND   XXIII.) 


Bead  26th  April  1904, 


The  Motor  Car  has  had  a  very  chequered  career,  and,  but  for 
popular  prejudice,  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  great  bulk  of  the 
road  traction  would  have  been  conducted  by  motor  wagons  to-day. 
Cugnot,  about  the  year  1770,  constructed  a  gun  carriage  pro- 
pelled by  steam,  and  between  the  years  1832  and  1840  very 
promising  vehicles  were  made  by  Trevthick,  Gurney,  and  Walter 
Hancock.  Later,  other  constructors  came  into  the  field,  and  it 
appears  that  many  of  the  difficulties  which  they  had  to  contend 
with  were  being  overcome  when  vested  interest  combined  with 
ignorance  prevailed  and  stopped  progress.  The  passing  of  what 
is  known  as  the  ''  Red  Flag  Act "  put  the  development  of  road 
traction  back  half-a-century  in  this  country,  and  gave  our  friends 
on  the  Continent  an  opportunity  which  they  have  taken  advantage 
of  to  the  full. 

Benz,  of  Manheim,  was  one  of  the  first  to  put  a  commercial 
vehicle  on  the  road  driven  by  an  engine  working  on  the  Otto- 
cycle  principle.  The  engine  was  horizontal,  and  was  placed  in  the 
rear  of  the  car,  belted  to  a  countershaft  running  across  the  centre, 
the  countershaft  being  fitted  with  differential  gear,  and  having 
chain  sprockets  on  either  end.  Power  was  thus  transmitted  by 
chains  to  the  road  wheels.  In  this  vehicle  will  be  perceived  the 
germ  of  the  modem  motor  car.  For  earlier  vehicles  see  Figs. 
1  and  2. 

To-day  there  are  upwards  of  a  hundred  thousand  workmen 
employed  in  France,  directly  and  indirectly,  on  the  production  of 
motor  cars,  and  during  1903  there  were  imported  into  this  country 


MOTOR   CARS  241 

motor  cars  to  the  value  of  £1,800,000.  These  facts  should  be 
sufficient  to  create  great  interest  in  this  industry,  and  to  overcome 
the  prejudiced  opposition  which  has  been  shown  in  the  past. 

I  have  no  desire  to  make  this  a  historical  paper,  but  rather  to 
deal  with  the  various  parts  of  the  motor  car  from  the  time  that 
it  really  commenced  to  show  signs  of  being  adopted  for  every  day 
use,  and  the  deductions  and  theories  advanced  are  rather  those  of 
the  mechanical  engineer  than  of  the  scientific  expert. 

To  make  discussion  easier,  it  might  be  better  to  deal  with  each 
item  in  connection  with  the  car  separately,  beginning  with  fuel : — 

PBTBOL. 

This  is  one  of  the  light  hydro-carbons,  distilled  from  crude 
petroleum.  The  two  essential  points  of  good  spirit  are  correct 
specific  gravity  and  purity.  The  specific  gravity  should  not  be 
less  than  -68  or  over  -70.  At  this  density  the  spirit  not  only 
vaporises  freely,  but  it  mixes  readier  with  the  air  than  would  a 
spirit  of  heavier  specific  gravity.  The  manufacture  of  petrol  may 
be  explained  in  a  few  words : — 

A  large  fire  is  kindled  under  a  vat  which  contains  thousands  of 
gallons  of  petroleum.  The  first  vapour  that  passes  off  is  the 
petrol  vapour.  This  is  conducted  through  a  worm  surrounded  by 
cold  running  water,  where  it  is  condensed  and  afterwards  run  into 
the  washing  tank.  The  washing  process  is  to  remove  impurities. 
Air  is  forced  through  a  pipe  at  the  bottom  of  the  tank,  and 
sulphuric  acid  is  forced  into  the  petrol  at  the  top.  This  is  allowed 
to  go  on  until  the  petrol  and  sulphuric  acid  are  thoroughly  mixed, 
when  the  process  is  stopped.  The  sulphuric  acid  then  falls  to  the 
bottom,  taking  with  it  the  impurities.  Any  remaining  sulphuric 
acid  is  removed  by  an  alkaline  mixture,  which,  in  its  turn,  is 
allowed  to  precipitate,  when  the  petrol  is  considered  ready  for 
the  market. 

Should  the  process  of  distillation  be  hurried,  or  the  temperature 
raised  too  high,  the  spirit  will  contain  a  proportion  of  the  heavier 
hydro-carbons,  and  if  not  thoroughly  washed  it  leaves  a  deposit  of 
pitchy  matter  on  the  valves  and  sparking  plugs,  which  may  be  the 


242  MOTOR   CARS 

oauge  of  much  trouble  to  motorists.  Temperature  effects  the 
specific  gravity  of  petrol  in  the  inverse  ratio  of  two  to  one ;  that  is 
to  say,  if  the  temperature  is  raised  two  degrees,  the  specific 
gravity  is  lowered  -1.  It  will  be  seen  that  during  the  winter 
months  the  specific  gravity  of  the  petrol  may  be  from  I'O  to  1*5 
greater  than  during  the  warmest  part  of  the  year. 

CABBUBETTER. 

The  carburetter  mostly  in  use  is  the  Daimler  type,  Fig.  3. 
This  consists  of  two  essential  parts,  namely,  the  float  feed  and  the 
mixing  chamber.  The  petrol  is  either  forced  by  air  pressure  into 
the  float  chamber,  or  the  petrol  tank  is  placed  higher  than  the 
carburetter  so  as  to  ensure  gravity  feed.  A  constant  height  of 
petrol  is  maintained  in  the  float  chamber  by  means  of  a  needle 
valve  which  passes  through  a  tube  in  the  float.  The  needle  valve 
is  operated  by  a  small  link  motion,  so  that  as  the  float  rises  the 
needle  sinks,  and  so  closes  the  opening  to  the  petrol  tank.  The 
valve  is  set  to  keep  the  height  of  the  petrol  about  ^  of  an  inch 
from  the  nose  of  the  jet  in  the  mixing  chamber.  The  air  opening 
to  the  mixing  chamber  is  below  the  jet,  so  that  the  inrushing  air 
carries  with  it  the  petrol  spray  from  the  jet  on  its  way  to  the 
engine.  This  is  one  of  the  simplest  forms  of  carburetters.  Many 
devices  have  been  introduced  to  insure  the  pulverization  of  the 
petrol  by  impinging  it  against  serrated  cones  and  periorated 
diaphragms,  but  they  do  not  appear  to  give  any  better  result  than 
the  system  just  described,  Pig.  4.  To  overcome  the  difficulty 
arising  from  a  variable  atmosphere,  it  is  usual  to  fit  an  air-, 
regulating  lever.  This  also  is  useful  when  a  variation  in  the 
quality  of  petrol  takes  place,  and,  as  a  rule,  the  motor  will  start 
better  on  a  rich  mixture,  this  being  obtained  by  partly  closing  the 
air  intake. 

It  has  been  found  that  the  air  opening  should  vary  as  the  speed 
varies,  and  although  many  attempts  have  been  made  in  the  past 
to  insure  a  variable  air  opening  controlled  by  the  speed  of  the 
engine,  the  point  does  not  appear  to  have  had  the  attention  it 
deserved  until  the  introduction  of  the  *'  Erebes  "  carburetter.    In 


MOTOR   CARS  243 

this  device  a  oonstant  air  opening  is  fixed  sufficient  to  run  the 
engine  at  about  200  revolutions  per  minute,  and  as  the  speed 
is  accelerated  the  area  of  the  opening  is  increased  by  means  of 
a  piston  valve  controlled  by  a  spring  of  suitable  tension.  As  the 
speed  increases,  and  more  air  is  required  by  the  engine,  the  piston 
valve  is  pulled  further  and  further  through  its  cylinder,  opening 
suitable  air  ports  on  the  cylinder  walls  ;  thus  the  area  of  the  air 
supply  is  governed  by  the  piston  speed  of  the  motor.  This  device 
permits  the  engine  to  be  run  quietly  at  a  very  slow  speed,  and 
insures  the  maximum  power  being  given  off  at  any  speed  between 
the  maximum  and  minimum,  owing  to  the  fact  that  approximately 
the  correct  mixture  of  air  and  petrol  is  maintained.  It  will  be 
observed  that  the  success  of  the  device  depends  to  a  large  extent 
on  the  tension  of  the  air-inlet  valve-spring,  Fig.  5. 

Other  devices  are  constructed  on  the  theory  that  correct  mixture 
at  all  speeds  can  only  be  obtained  by  introducing  an  attachment 
which  will  vary  the  petrol,  supply  as  well  as  the  air  supply.  This 
is  done  in  one  way  by  fitting  a  needle  valve  into  the  petrol  jet, 
the  air  inlet  being  through  annular  ports  surrounding  the  jet. 
These  ports  are  covered  by  a  flat-faced  valve  of  suitable  shape  to 
allow  the  mixture  to  pass  through  it.  The  top  end  of  the  needle 
valve  is  fixed  to  the  air-inlet  valve,  and  operates  witb  it.  Fig.  6. 
When  the  suction  stroke  takes  place  the  air  valve  is  forced  from 
its  seat ;  at  the  same  time  the  needle  valve  in  the  jet  is  lifted. 
When  the  piston  reaches  the  end  of  the  suction  stroke,  the 
air-inlet  valve  immediately  returns  to  its  seat,  bringing  with  it 
the  needle  valve,  and  closing  the  petrol  jet.  This  system  has 
something  to  recommend  it,  for  when  running  at  a  slow  speed  with 
reduced  air-inlet  area,  there  is  a  tendency  for  too  much  petrol  to 
be  drawn  from  the  jet,  and  this  results  in  a  deposit  being  left  on 
the  sparking  plugs  and  valves,  showing  a  waste  of  petrol  when  the 
area  of  the  air  inlet  only  is  made  variable. 

Some  carburetters  are  in  use  (chiefly  in  America)  without  a 
float  feed.  Such  a  carburetter  consists  merely  of  a  casting  con- 
taining a  mushroom  valve  held  on  its  seat  by  a  spring  of  suitable 


244  MOTOR   CARS 

tension.  The  inrushing  air  forces  the  valve  open  from  the  valve- 
seat.  A  small  hole  is  drilled  through  the  valve-seat  into  a  boss, 
which  is  piped  up  to  the  petrol  tank.  This  boss  contains  a  small 
screw  valve  for  the  purpose  of  regulating  the  supply  of  petrol. 
This  is  perhaps  the  very  simplest  form  of  carburetter  in  use,  and 
certainly  for  launches  it  would  appear  to  have  advantages  over 
any  other.  The  petrol  cannot  overflow  the  jet,  as  it  may  do  in 
the  float-feed  type  should  there  be  a  sea  running,  Fig.  7. 

All  carburetters  should  have  a  heating  jacket  round  the  mixing 
chamber,  as  the  intense  cold  caused  by  evaporation  freezes  the 
moisture  in  the  air,  and  so  chokes  up  the  working  parts  of  the 
device  as  well  as  the  air  opening.  As  a  rule,  heated  air  obtained 
from  the  vicinity  of  the  exhaust  pipe  is  taken  into  the  intake  pipe, 
and  this  is  a  very  good  practice.  On  some  carburetters  the  mouth 
of  the  intake  pipe  is  belled  out,  and  covered  with  a  fine  wire  gauze 
for  the  purpose  of  straining  the  moisture  from  the  air  before 
entering  the  carburetter. 

IGNITION. 

The  system  fitted  on  the  large  majority  of  cars  is  known  as  the 
high-tension  system.  Many  types  of  storage  cells  are  in  use. 
Generally  two  cells  are  adopted,  giving  4  volts  and  from  10  to  50 
ampere  hours.  To  obtain  the  spark  at  the  firing  plug,  the  current 
is  conducted  through  a  make  and  break  device  fitted  on  the  half- 
time  shaft  of  the  motor.  This  device  consists  of  a  ring  of  wood 
fibre  into  which  metal  strips  are  fitted,  having  terminals  to  which 
storage  cells  are  wired.  The  current  is  then  conducted  through 
the  induction  coil  fitted  with  trembler  blades,  and  from  it  to  the 
sparking  plug,  the  circuit  being  completed  through  the  engine. 
This  system  requires  little  attention  beyond  being  kept  clean. 
The  platinum  points  on  the  trembler  blades  require  filling  from 
time  to  time.  The  metal  plates  in  the  make  and  break  bum  just 
at  the  point  of  breaking  contact.  This  can  easily  be  remedied  by 
skimming  up  in  the  lathe.  The  cells  can  be  recharged  through  a 
16  C.P.  lamp.  The  platinum  tips  of  the  sparking  plugs  also 
require  cleaning  occasionally. 


MOTOR    CARS  245 

Magneto  ignition  is  often  fitted,  but  in  the  majority  of  the 
designs  the  moving  mechanical  parts  are  very  small.  This  is  a 
source  of  trouble,  and  no  doubt  is  the  reason  why  the  system  has 
not  been  more  generally  adopted.  A  shield,  having  slots  cut  in  it, 
is  mounted  between  the  magnet  and  the  armature,  and  is  made 
to  oscillate  by  means  of  a  small  crank  or  eccentric  on  the  engine 
shaft.  The  shield  interrupts  the  magnetic  lines  from  the  magnet, 
and  as  it  oscillates  the  current  is  alternately  made  and  broken, 
the  current  being  conducted  to  a  make  and  break  device  in  the 
cylinder  head,  Figs.  8  and  9. 

THE    ENGINE. 

Credit  is  due  to  the  late  Herr  G.  Daimler  for  the  design  of  the 
type  of  engine,  which,  in  modified  form,  is  fitted  to  the  large 
majority  of  modem  motor  cars.  It  belongs  to  the  Otto-cycle 
type.  As  placed  on  the  market  it  was  fitted  with  lamp  ignition. 
This  is  now  practically  discarded  by  makers,  because,  in  the  first 
place,  there  was  a  danger  of  fire,  and  no  doubt  a  number  of  cars 
were  burned  through  it ;  and  in  the  second  plac9,  the  point  of 
firing  in  the  cylinder  was  fixed.  Electric  ignition  overcame  both 
these  difficulties.  To  govern  the  engine,  fly-weights  were  used 
operating  hit-and-miss  pauls,  which,  in  their  tarn,  operated  the 
exhaust  valve.  This  system  got  out  of  order  too  easily,  and  was 
very  noisy.  Greater  reliability  and  quieter  running  was  obtained 
by  transferring  the  cutting  out  of  the  engine  to  the  induction  pipe. 
This  was  done  by  allowing  the  fly- weights  to  operate  a  butterfly 
valve  in  the  induction  pipe.  A  great  many  manufacturers  are 
now  controlling  in  this  way.  The  difficulty  of  running  the  engine 
slowly  when  the  car  is  stationary,  and  the  hunting  of  the  governor, 
are  the  chief  objections  to  this  system.  Engine  control  is  now 
transferred  to  the  carburetter,  as  has  already  been  described.  The 
difficulty  of  preventing  the  engine  from  racing  when  the  load  is 
suddenly  taken  off,  is  managed  by  fitting  an  attachment  between 
the  clutch  foot  pedal  and  the  control  lever  on  the  carburetter,  so 
that,  as  the  clutch  pedal  is  depressed,  the  gas  supply  of  the 
engine  is  cut  down.     To  overcome  this  difficulty,  governors  are 


246  MOTOR    CARS 

also  fitted  operating  piston  valves  in  the  induction  pipe,  or 
sometimes  a  variable  lift  is  given  to  the  inlet  valves,  which 
may  also  be  controlled  by  a  governor. 

The  weight  of  the  engine  per  horse  power  is  perhaps  the  most 
important  factor  in  motor  car  design.  In  some  quarters  high 
speed  has  been  condemned,  but  if  the  engine  has  not  been  com- 
plicated with  two  cycle  devices,  then  acceleration  of  speed  would 
appear  to  be  the  only  road  open  to  increased  efficiency  per  pound 
weight.  Already  the  lift  and  the  area  of  the  valves,  also  the  best 
position  for  them  in  the  cylinder  head,  has  had  the  mostt»reful 
attention  of  designers. 

To  build  high  speed  engines  satisfactorily  is  merely  a  question 
of  design,  material,  and  workmanship.  At  first  protests  were  loud 
and  long  against  running  at  1000  revolutions  per  minute  by  those 
who  ran  their  engine  at  750  revolutions.  Now  the  latter  speed  has 
been  accelerated  to  1000,  and  the  1000  to  1500,  so  that  what  is  con- 
demned to-day  by  some  to  be  a  high  speed,  is  accepted  to-morrow 
by  others.  Progress  must  not  be  trammelled  by  mere  opinions. 
High-speed  engines  have  been  running  for  years  without  any  signs 
of  undue  wear.  They  have  been  built  by  people  who  know  their 
business,  and  whose  practice  is  based  on  experience. 

A  comparison  of  surface  speed  of  the  modern  locomotive  with  a 

petrol  engine  running  at  1500  revolutions  per  minute   will   be 

interesting.     A  locomotive  running  at  60  miles  per  hour,  having  a 

26-inches  stroke  and  a  driving  wheel  6  feet  in  diameter,  has  a 

piston  speed 

60  X  5280  X  4^       1  oi  o  o  r    i.  -4. 

=  _^ TrTiT^ ^=  1213-3  feet  per  mmute. 

bO  X  lo'oo 

A  petrol  engine  running  at  1500  revolutions  per  minute,  having 

a  stroke  of  120  m/m,  has  a  piston  speed 

^4-724x2x1500  ^  ^^^  ^^^        ^^ 

12  ^ 

It  is  thus  seen  that  the  piston  speed  of  the  high-speed  petrol 

engine  is  actually  33*3  feet  per  minute  slower  than  that  of  the 

modem  locomotive. 


MOTOR   CARS  247 

In  oomparing  the  surface  speed  of  the  crank  shaft  bearings,  it  is 
foand  that  when  the  locomotive  engine  is  running  at  280  revolu- 
tions per  minute,  and  the  crank  shaft  is  6^  inches  in  diameter, 
that  the  surface  speed  is 

20-42  X  280 


12 


=  476*46  feet  per  minute. 


The  petrol  engine  having  a  IJ  inch  nickel-steel  crank  running  at 
1500  revolutions  per  minute,  has  a  bearing  surface  speed 

=  1'^^__^  >-59?.  =  441-25  feet  per  minute. 
12  ^ 

So  that  surface  speed  of  the  crank  shaft  bearings  in  high  speed 
petrol  engines  is  35*21  feet  per  minute  slower  than  is  found  in 
modem  locomotive  practice. 

Objections  are  raised  to  the  high  speed  engine  on  the  ground  of 
excessive  vibration.  When  the  car  is  standing,  and  the  engine  is 
not  well  governed,  then  vibration  is  excessive.  But  the  latest 
controlling  devices,  when  the  engine  is  running  on  light  loads, 
practically  overcomes  this  objection.  When  the  car  is  in  motion 
with  the  highest  gear,  the  vibration  from  the  engine  transmitted 
through  the  frame  is  practically  nilf  the  speed  of  the  car  acting  as 
a  fly-wheel ;  but  in  hill-climbing,  with  the  low  gear,  this  action  is 
decreased  and  vibration  is  felt.  The  best  remedy  for  this  would 
appear  to  be  the  multiplication  of  cylinders.  Already  some  makers 
have  placed  six  cylinder  cars  on  the  market  to  meet  the  demand 
of  those  who  wish  to  drive  under  ideal  circumstances,  and  who 
can  afford  to  pay  for  the  luxury.  Practice  has  proved  that  good 
results  are  obtained  when  the  stroke  is  one-fourth  greater  than  the 
bore.  A  slightly  greater  proportionate  length  of  stroke  may  be 
used  with  advantage,  the  speed  of  the  engine  being  maintained  by 
opening  the  exhaust  valves  early.  There  is  no  exact  data  yet 
to  show  if  any  gain  results  in  making  the  stroke  much  longer  than 
the  proportion  indicated.  No  doubt  this  proportion  shows  greater 
efficiency  than  when  the  bore  and  stroke  are  equal.  As  a  general 
rule,  it  way  be  taken  that  the  longer  the  stroke  in  proportion 


248  MOTOR   CARS 

to  the  bore,  the  earlier  the  exhaust-valves  must  be  opened,  bat, 
as  the  stroke  is  increased  within  limits,  greater  advantage  can  be 
taken  of  expansion. 

If  it  is  desired  to  run  the  engine  up  to  1500  revolutions  per 
minute,  the  exhaust-valve  should  be  set  to  open  early.  An 
ignition  which  can  be  advanced  and  retarded  should  be  fitted,  so 
as  to  enable  the  engine  to  be  started,  which  can  only  be  done 
with  safety  when  the  ignition  is  retarded.  After  the  engine  is 
started  the  ignition  can  be  gradually  advanced,  and  when  1500 
revolutions  per  minute  is  reached,  it  will  be  found  that  the  contact 
in  the  commutator  is  being  made  really  before  the  piston  arrives 
at  the  top  of  the  stroke.     These  points  are  shown  on  Fig.  10. 

A  two-cylinder  engine,  having  a  bore  of  90  m/m  and  a  stroke  of 
120  m/m  will  give  11  b,h.p,  at  1500  revolutions  per  minute. 
Taking  the  efficiency  of  the  engine  to  be  80  per  cent.,  its  lh.p.  is 
13'75,  which  gives  a  mean  pressure  of  62  pounds  per  square  inch. 
The  compression  before  ignition  is  60  pounds  per  square  inch, 
which  runs  up  to  150  pounds  per  square  inch  at  the  point  of 
firing.  The  weight  of  the  engine  is  194  pounds,  or  17*7  pounds 
per  horse  power. 

It  is  well  here  to  note  that  the  motor  is  seldom  accelerated  to 
the  maximum  speed  under  ordinary  running  conditions,  and  that 
the  speed  continually  varies  according  to  the  nature  of  the  roads 
and  traffic.  Figs.  11  and  12  show  a  3-cylinder  petrol  motor  of 
the  standard  type.    • 

LUBRICATION. 

Excellent  results  have  been  obtained  from  the  splash  system, 
fed  from  a  sight-feed  lubricator  fixed  on  the  dashboard,  which  can 
be  set  to  give  any  number  of  drops  per  minute.  Pipes  are  led  to 
the  main  bearings,  and  also  to  the  bottom  of  the  cylinder,  so  as  to 
drop  on  to  the  connecting-rod  ends.  Oil  of  sufficiently  high 
vaporosity  and  flash  point  can  now  easily  be  obtained.  An 
inspection  door  is  usually  fitted  to  the  side  of  the  crank  chamber, 
and  the  oil  should  be  fed  by  the  lubricator  so  as  to  compensate 


MOTOJ^    CARS  249 

for  that  used,  keeping  oil  high  enough  in  the  crank-chamber  to 
touoh  the  connecting-rod  ends.  Catch  pockets  are  fitted  on  all 
bearings  to  ensure  lubrication  by  the  splasb. 

COOLING   AKBANOEMENTS. 

At  first  water  tanks  were  fitted  holding  from  10  to  20  gallons, 
and  the  water  was  circulated  through  the  cylinder  jacket  by  means 
of  a  pump,  but  satisfactory  results  were  not  obtained  until  a 
radiator  was  fitted.  This  consists  of  a  coil  of  copper  pipe,  having 
radiating  gills  soldered  to  it  about  every  ^  of  an  inch,  and,  as  a 
rule,  from  4  to  6  feet  of  this  pipe  is  used  per  horse  power. 

The  type  of  radiator  known  as  the  honeycomb  has  now  become 
popular.  This  consists  of  a  properly  designed  tank  which  forms 
the  front  of  the  motor  bonnet,  into  which  is  soldered  a  nest  of 
square  tubes,  held  apart  at  either  end  by  a  square  wire 
about  ^0  of  an  inch  thick.  The  water  runs  through  the  spaces 
between  the  tubes,  and  the  cooling  is  assisted  by  a  fan  driven 
off  the  engine  shaft  immediately  behind  the  radiator.  This 
creates  an  air  current  through  the  square  tubes.  On  the  whole» 
the  system  can  be  said  to  be  very  satisfactory,  although  at 
first  the  tubes  leaked  very  badly,  but  their  manufacture  has  been 
improved.  The  space  round  the  outside  of  the  nest  of  tubes  forms 
the  water  tank,  so  that  a  tank  under  the  car  is  dispensed  with. 
Of  course,  objections  can  be  taken  to  the  fan  on  the  ground  of 
increasing  the  working  parts.  A  pump  is  also  used  in  this  system 
to  circulate  water,  Fig  13. 

The  Thermo-syphon  system,  although  it  has  proved  its  efficiency 
over  and  over  again,  has  met  with  a  deal  of  opposition.  It 
is  alleged  that  when  fitted  the  engine  will  overheat,  and  that  the 
water  will  boil  away  in  a  short  journey ;  and  further,  that  the 
engine  will  not  develop  so  much  power. 

As  the  adoption  of  this  system  simplifies  the  motor  car,  it  ia 
worthy  of  full  consideration.  To  ensure  circulation  the  water  tank 
is  placed  above  the  cylinders.  A  water  pipe  or  tank  surrounds  the 
engine  top  and  bottom,  which  also  forms  part  of  the  engine  bonnet. 
The  two  pipes  or  tanks  are  joined  by  vertical  cooling  pipes  about 


250  MOTOR   CARS 

10  inches  in  length,  and  on  a  10  h.p.  engine  there  may  be  48  pipes, 
the  bottom  horizontal  tank  or  pipes  being  connected  to  the  bottom 
of  the  engine  water-jacket.  This  forms  a  complete  circuit  for  the 
water,  which,  as  it  becomes  heated  rises  into  the  top  tank  and  falls 
through  the  vertical  cooling  tubes  entering  the  engine-jacket  again 
at  the  bottom. 

In  the  "  Argyll "  system,  when  the  car  is  being  hard  driven,  the 
temperature  in  the  top  tank  rises  to  about  130  degrees  F.,  the 
bottom  tank  will  then  register  about  100  degrees  F.  Fifty-two 
pounds  of  water  is  carried  in  the  system,  and  at  this  variation  of 
temperature  the  water  rises  at  the  rate  of  3*71  lbs.  per  minute, 
therefore  the  whole  of  the  water  will  be  circulated  in  14-18 
minutes.  There  is  40  feet  of  f  of  an  inch  pipe  or  4  feet  per 
horse-power.     The  cooling  surface  is  6*49  square  feet. 

The  system  depends  on  slow  circulation  through  the  vertical 
pipes  for  efficiency*  The  quantity  of  water  which  rises  into  the 
top  tank  due  to  the  heat  of  the  cylinder  is  practically  constant, 
and  if  this  is  allowed  to  fall  through  double  the  number  of  vertical 
tubes  of  equal  length,  the  water  will  pass  through  at  half  the  speed 
allowing  double  the  time  to  cool,  Fig.  14. 

Public  trials  have  demonstrated  its  efficiency  beyond  all  doubt. 
In  the  month  of  May  last  year,  a  car  fitted  with  one  of  these 
bonnets  was  driven  in  the  Automobile  Club's  trial  from  Glasgow 
to  London,  only  making  one  stop  at  Leeds,  without  adding  a  drop 
of  water.  Also  in  the  Thousand  Miles  Reliability  Trials,  organised 
by  the  Automobile  Club  and  held  round  London,  a  car  was  driven 
the  total  distance  without  adding  water.  This  is  probably  the 
longest  distance  ever  yet  accomplished  by  a  motor  car  without 
replenishing  the  water  tank.  Also  it  is  to  be  noted  that  a  French 
car  fitted  with  this  system  did  the  fastest  time  from  Paris  to 
Vienna  in  the  great  race  held  in  1902.  This  answers  in  full  the 
arguments  used  against  the  system. 

FRICTION   CLUTCH. 

The  weight  of  the  engine  per  horse-power  and  the  speed  at 
which   the  horse-power   is   obtained    practically  determine    the 


MOTOR   CARS  251 

dimensions  and  weight  of  the  whole  of  the  remaining  parts  of  the 

car.      Through  a    well-designed    friction    clutch    of    11    inches 

diameter  12  H.r.  at  1,500  revolutions  per  minute  can  safely  he 

transmitted.    The  angle  of  the  conical  face  of  the  clutch  should 

be  12  degrees,  and  the  spring  should  exert  a  pressure  of  about  115 

pounds.    Clutches  having  this  relation  of  diameter  to  power  are  found 

to  give  very  satisfactory  results,  and  require  little  or  no  attention. 

The  rim  of  the  fly-wheel  is  coned  out  to  the  required  angle.     The 

male  portion  of  the  clutch  faced  with  leather  is  held  up  to  its  work 

by  means  of  an  open  spring.     An  attachment  to  the  foot  pedal 

overcomes  the  spring,  and  withdraws  the  clutch  when  the  foot 

pedal  is  depressed.      The  chief  objections  to  this  clutch  are  the 

continual  end  thrust  when  the  car  is  in  motion  which  must  absorb 

power,  and  the  difficulty  of  obtaining  a  flexible  joint  between  the 

clutch  and  the  gear  box.      These  are  overcome  when  the  clutch  is 

made  self-contained,  by  boring  the  rim  of  the  fly-wheel  out  parallel 

and  inserting  a  ring  containing  the  leather-faced  clutch  coned  in  the 

opposite  direction.     The  ring  is  fixed  in  the  rim  of  the  fly-wheel 

and  the  leather-faced  male  portion  of  the  clutch  is  mounted  on  the 

engine  shaft.     The  open  spiral  spring  is  inside  the  fly-wheel  forcing 

the  male  portion  outwards  into  the  taper  ring,  so  that  the  spring 

is  exerted  between  the  boss  of  the  fly-wheel  and  the  male  portion 

of  the   clutch.     Therefore  no  end  thrust  is  transmitted  to  any 

bearing  when  the  car  is  in  motion.     When  the  foot  pedal  is 

depcBSsed  the  male  portion  of  the  clutch  is  forced  into  the  fly-wheel 

against  the  spring,  when,  of  course,  end  thrust  takes  place  without 

loss  of  driving  power.     A  ball  bearing  is  provided,  in"yhich  the 

end  of  the  spring  is  fixed  and  revolves  with  the  fly-wheel,  when 

the  motion  of  the  male  portion  of  the  clutch  ceases.     The  engine 

shaft  extends  only  to  form  the  bearing  for  the  clutch,  and  the 

power  is  transmitted  to  the  gear  box  by  means  of  a  universal 

sliding-joint.     This  form  of  clutch  gives  excellent  results  when  the 

diameter  is  kept  large  enough,  so  that  only  a  comparatively  light 

spring  may  be  used,  thus  avoiding  the  danger  of  burning  the  clutch 

leather,  Fig.  15. 


252  MOTOR    CARS 

GEAR   BOX. 

The  system  most  commonly  in  use  is  known  as  the  '*  Panhard  "^ 
type.  It  consists  of  a  train  of  toothed  wheels  driven  from  the 
engine  through  the  friction  clutch.  Over  this  a  square  shaft  is 
mounted  carrying  another  train  of  toothed  wheels.  These  wheels 
bear  suitable  ratios  te  one  another,  and  are  so  placed  that  only  one 
pair  can  be  in  gear  at  a  time.  The  row  of  wheels  on  the  square 
shaft  are  all  mounted  on  a  sleeve,  which  can  be  moved  along  the 
square  shaft,  and  is  operated  through  mechanism  by  the  change 
speed  lever  placed  convenient  to  the  driver.  The  reverse  is 
obtained  by  means  of  an  intermediate  wheel  driven  from  one  of 
the  fixed  wheels.  One  of  the  wheels  in  the  sliding  sleeve  is  made 
of  suitable  size  to  gear  with  the  intermediate  when  the  reverse  is 
required.  The  whole  is  contained  in  an  aluminium  box  and  runs 
in  grease. 

This  system  requires  a  very  large  gear  box;  the  shafts  are 
usually  so  long  that  they  spring  under  the  load,  especially  when 
starting,  and  so  cause  the  teeth  to  chatter.  Often  a  ratio  in  the 
wheels  of  4  to  1  is  required,  so  that  to  keep  down  the  overall  size 
of  the  box  sometimes  the  driving  wheel  is  made  too  small,  Figs. 
16  and  17.  To  overcome  the  difficulty  of  long  shafts  some 
makers  have  adopted  two  sliding  sleeves  carrying  gear  wheels. 
In  this  way  it  is  possible  to  arrange  the  wheels  closer  together, 
although  a  more  complicated  mechanism  is  required  to  operate 
them.     It  is  sometimes  done  with  a  cam  movement. 

Serious  objection  has  been  taken  by  many  to  the  wheels  sliding 
into  gear  across  the  face  of  the  teeth.  It  may  not  be  considered 
mechanical,  but  it  enables  a  very  simple  change-gear  mechanism 
to  be  built,  and  when  it  is  carefully  handled  much  less  damage  is 
done  to  the  teeth  of  the  wheels  than  one  would  suppose. 

A  change  gear  is  made  with  all  the  wheels  running  in  gear.  A 
deep  slot  is  cut  in  the  shaft  on  which  the  train  of  wheels  run  idle^ 
and  into  this  a  disappearing  feather  is  fitted ;  the  feather  being 
forced  up  into  the  keyway,  cut  into  the  wheels  to  receive  it,  by 
means  of  a  spring.     A  washer  is  placed  between  each  wheel  to 


MOTOR    CARS  253 

prevent  the  possibility  of  the  feather  engaging  two  wheels  at  the 
same  time.  The  chief  objection  to  this  gear  appears  to  be  the 
load  thrown  on  the  moveable  feather. 

Change  gears  operated  by  friction  clutches  are  also  adopted  by 
some  makers,  but  they  have  always  been  made  too  small  in 
diameter,  and  if  made  large  enough  the  gears  would  be  much  too 
bulky.  To  get  the  clutches  to  work  sweetly  and  to  take  the  grip 
they  really  ought  to  be  as  big  as  the  main  clutch  in  the  car.  Other 
makers  are  using  square-jaw  clutches.  This  overcomes  the 
objection  of  sliding  the  wheels  across  the  face  of  the  teeth,  and  as 
the  gear  fitted  to  the  **  Argyll "  car  is  of  this  type,  I  am  best 
acquainted  with  it,  and  it  might  not  be  out  of  place  to  describe  it 
here. 

This  gear  is  designed  to  secure  lightness,  short  shafts,  and  to 
keep  the  wheels  always  in  gear  on  the  two  speeds  which  are 
continually  being  used.  The  slow  speed  which  is  only  used  for 
extraordinary  hills  is  made  to  slide  across  the  face  of  the  teeth  as 
in  the  **  Panhard"  type.  The  size  of  the  wheels  are  kept  down 
by  mounting  the  slow  speed  on  the  countershaft,  which  runs  at 
half  the  speed  of  the  engine,  so  that  gear  wheels  of  a  ratio  of  2 
to  1  are  only  used,  the  fast  speed  being  driven  direct  without 
reduction.  The  countershaft  runs  at  half -speed  and  drives  the 
medium-speed  pinion,  on  which  is  cut  the  medium-speed  clutch. 
To  avoid  smashing  the  clutches  when  changing  the  gears  a  spring 
lever  is  fitted  which  shoots  the  clutch  in  at  the  proper  time. 
Before  changing  gears  the  main  friction  clutch  is  withdrawn  to 
take  off  the  driving  strain.  (This  practice  is  followed  in  all 
systems.)  In  this  gear  the  coimtershaft  is  mounted  alongside  the 
main  shaft,  enabling  the  lid  to  be  easily  detached  and  the  gear 
wheels  taken  out  without  crawling  underneath  the  car.  This 
arrangement  also  allows  the  change-speed  lever  to  be  moved  in  a 
T-slot,  so  that  the  lever  goes  to  a  full  stop  when  engaging  either 
of  the  three  speeds.  This  is  an  advantage  when  driving  in  the 
dark.  Figs.  18  and  19. 

All  gears  now  fitted  to  cars  are  contained  in  an  aluminium  box 

22 


254  MOTOR   CARS 

and  run  in  grease,  the  bearings  being  provided  with  oil-conducting 
grooves.  Oil  replenishment  is  either  done  through  a  hd  on  the  top 
of  the  gear  box  or  from  a  reservoir  on  the  dash  board  fitted  with  a 
pump  for  forcing  the  thick  oil  into  the  box.  Great  trouble  was  at 
first  experienced  in  getting  the  gear  wheels  to  stand,  but  steel 
makers  have  overcome  this  difficulty  by  finding  a  mixture  suitable 
for  the  work.  The  shafts  in  the  gear  box  are  often  made  from 
nickel  steel. 

There  are  now  two  systems  for  transmitting  the  power  to  the 
driving  wheels  striving  for  supremacy.  They  are  known  as  the 
chain  drive  and  live-axle  drive.  No  actual  tests  have  been  made 
to  prove  which  is  the  more  efficient,  there  being  many  difficulties 
in  the  way  of  arriving  at  even  an  approximate  result.  In  the  chain 
drive  the  power  from  the  gear  box  is  transmitted  through  a  pair  of 
bevel  wheels  to  a  countershaft  hung  across  the  car.  The  counter- 
shaft is  fitted  with  a  differential  gear,  and  on  either  end  is  mounted 
the  chain  sprockets.  Chains  transmit  the  power  to  the  chain 
wheels,  which  are  bolted  to  the  driving  wheels  of  the  car,  Fig.  20. 
In  the  live-axle  drive  power  is  transmitted  by  means  of  a  universally 
jointed  propeller  shaft  to  the  driving  bevel  pinion  mounted  in  the 
case  which  surrounds  the  live  axle.  In  fact,  the  live  axle  is 
merely  an  enlarged  countershaft  made  to  serve  as  the  rear  axle, 
the  driving  wheels  being  mounted  on  either  end,  Figs.  21  and  22. 
It  is  claimed  for  the  chain  drive  that  being  direct  it  is  more 
efficient,  that  it  is  a  flexible  drive,  and  that  it  can  be  made  stronger 
than  the  live  axle. 

Regarding  efficiency  ;  in  comparing  two  cars  of  equal  power  the 
bevel  gears  which  drive  the  countershaft  on  the  chain-driven 
system  transmit  an  equal  power,  and  therefore  the  same  frictional 
loss  will  take  place,  and  whatever  power  is  absorbed  by  the  chains 
will  be  in  excess  of  the  power  lost  in  the  live- axle  drive. 

With  respect  to  strength,  it  has  to  be  admitted  that  a  greater 
proportion  of  the  failures  up  till  recently  occurred  in  the  live  axle. 
Makers  have  now  strengthened  the  weak  parts,  and  in  many 
cases  adopted  nickel  steel,  with  the  result  that  they  are  now  as 


MOTOR    CARS  255 

reliable  as  solid  axles.  The  claim  that  the  chain  is  a  more  flexible 
drive  appears  to  be  fallacious,  as  it  is  known  that  chains  stretch. 
They  are  not  elastic,  however,  and  stretch  permanently.  It  must 
be  noted  that  the  live  axle  being  hung  on  long  carriage  springs  much 
of  the  shock  from  sudden  starting  is  absorbed,  and  when  a  well- 
designed  friction-clutch  is  fitted  there  need  be  no  shocks  whatever 
thrown  on  the  driving  gear  when  starting.  Some  makers,  to  over- 
come this  objection,  have  fitted  a  spring  drive  to  the  propeller 
shaft,  but  this  is  an  unnecessary  complication. 

Chains  are  never  covered  in  as  they  sometimes  break.  If  a 
covered  chain  broke,  in  all  likelihood  it  would  get  caught  and  tear 
the  cover  right  off  the  car.  A  car  ran  in  the  Thousand  Miles 
Reliability  Trials,  held  last  year,  fitted  with  chain  guards.  They 
appear  to  act  very  well,  but  it  is  not  likely  that  a  chain  has  ever 
broken  inside  one  of  them  yet.  When  not  covered  the  chains  get 
into  a  filthy  state,  and  the  grit  from  the  road  soon  grinds  both  the 
teeth  of  the  sprockets  and  the  chains  themselves.  Tight  places 
and  slack  places  are  sure  to  result,  causing  a  great  deal  of  the 
noise  which  is  made  by  the  modem  chain-driven  car.  Live  axles 
are  now  made  of  ample  strength.  Some  are  run  on  ball  bearings 
while  others  run  on  roller  bearings.  The  end  thrust  from  the 
bevel  drive  is  always  reduced  to  a  minimum  by  fitting  an  end- 
thrust  ball  bearing.  The  teeth  of  the  bevel  driving  wheels  are 
planed  from  steel  stampings,  which  are  afterwards  hardened.  All 
the  bearings  are  of  hardened  steel,  and  the  whole  axle  is  encased 
80  that  not  a  particle  of  dust  can  get  in.  The  case  is  filled  with 
thin  grease,  and  the  teeth  being  cut  in  a  perfect  manner  run 
noiselessly. 

Three  years  ago  it  was  said  by  many  that  live  axles  were  only 
suitable  for  very  light  cars  to  carry  two  people.  To-day  they  are 
being  fitted  to  the  largest  pleasure  cars  built,  and  continue  to  gain 
in  popularity,  Fig.  23. 

FRAMES. 

The  heavier  car  frames  were  at  first  made  of  channel  iron. 
This  gave  place  to  the  wood  frame,  with  inside  filch  plates  fixed  to 


256  MOTOR    CARS 

the  side  of  the  wood  runners  to  stiffen  them.  A  number  of  makers 
used  tubular  frames,  the  tubes  being  led  into  malleable  cast  iron 
joints  and  brazed  together  in  the  same  manner  as  a  bicycle  frame. 

The  wood  frame  with  steel  filch  plates  makes  a  very  satisfactory 
job,  and  it  has  the  advantage  of  being  cheap  to  make,  but  makers 
are  gradually  'adopting  hydraulic  pressed-steel  frames  of  Q  section. 
The  w^eb  is  deep  in  the  centre,  and  tapers  off  in  a  curve  to 
either  end,  where  brackets  are  bolted  to  receive  the  spring  ends. 
Fig.  24.  Another  fmme  is  made  in  inverted  \J  section.  The  two 
webs  in  this  frame  are  also  left  deep  in  the  centre,  and  the  sheet 
steel  is  cut  of  suitable  shape,  so  that  when  it  is  bent  over,  pockets 
to  receive  the  springs  are  formed  on  the  ends.  This  frame 
overcomes  the  need  for  end  brackets,  and  w^ill  stand  a  greater  dead 
load  than  the  channel  section,  Fig.  25. 

Both  the  wood  and  tubular  frames  are  apt  to  sag  in  the  centre. 
The  pressed  frame  keeps  straight,  and  it  is  also  light.  Objections 
have  been  raised  to  it  on  the  ground  that  if  the  car  to  which  it  is 
fitted  met  with  an  accident,  in  all  probability  the  frame  would 
become  useless.  Sometime  ago  I  met  with  a  bad  accident  on  a 
car  fitted  with  a  steel  frame.  The  car,  through  a  side  slip,  ran  into 
a  w^all.  The  front  extension  which  carries  the  front  spring  was 
bent  right  in,  the  front  axle  being  practically  torn  from  the  car. 
Afterwards  the  frame  was  heated,  and  pulled  out  to  the  proper 
shape  in  three-quarters  of  an  hour.  I  am  of  opinion  that  had  this 
been  a  wood  frame,  the  wood  would  have  been  splintered  and  one 
of  the  runners  at  any  rate  rendered  useless.  The  pleasure  car  is 
now  built  wnth  a  long  wheel  base  which  allows  long  springs  to  be 
fitted,  so  that  a  rough  road  may  be  covered  at  a  high  speed  with  a 
degree  of  comfort  which  was  impossible  in  the  days  of  short  wheel 
bases  and  short  springs.  The  springs  should  also  be  flexible. 
The  French  manufacturers  make  a  lighter  and  more  flexible  spring 
to  carry  the  same  load,  and  this  spring  appears  to  keep  shape 
better  than  those  of  British  make. 

AXL£S. 

The  axles  for  the  majority  of  cars  built  in  this  country  are  still 


MOTOR    CARS  '  257 

jnade  in  France  and  Belgium.  Special  plant  has  been  laid  down 
to  meet  the  enormous  demand  for  forged  axles.  Where  the  live- 
axle  drive  is  adopted,  however,  they  are  made  in  the  home  factory ; 
the  axle  proper  being  made  from  nickel  steel  bars  and  the  casings 
from  weldless  steel  tubes,  the  whole  being  a  machine  shop  job. 
SuflScient  attention  has  not  been  given  to  the  possibilities  of  the 
tubular  front  axle.  This  is  easy  and  cheap  to  make,  and  certainly 
gives  as  good  results  as  the  solid  forged  axles ;  it  has  also  the 
advantage  of  being  lighter,  Fig.  26. 

WHEELS. 

These  are  now  exclusively  of  the  artillery  pattern.  Wire  wheels 
have  been  fitted  to  many  cars,  but  the  lateral  strain  thrown  on 
them  when  turning  corners  at  high  speed  has  caused  them  to 
collapse,  and  only  very  few  makers  are  now  fitting  them.  No  doubt 
they  can  be  made  to  stand  by  keeping  the  hub  flanges  far  enough 
apart,  and  using  a  thick  gauge  of  wire,  but  the  one  great  objection 
to  them  is  the  difficulty  of  keeping  them  clean. 

TYRES. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  pneumatic  tyres  have  made  it 
possible  to  very  considerably  reduce  the  weight  of  the  car,  and 
also  have  been  one  of  the  chief  factors  in  attaining  high  speed,  as 
they  reduce  the  resistance  very  materially.  The  chief  objection, 
of  course,  to  their  use  is  the  liability  to  puncture.  Buyers  of  cars 
fitted  with  solid  tyres  use  them  because  they  wish  to  be  absolutely 
safe  from  punctures,  and  they  do  not  wish  to  travel  fast.  With 
pneumatic  tyres  punctures  are  of  very  rare  occurrence  at  any 
speed  up  to  18  miles  per  hour,  and  a  great  deal  more  comfort  is 
found  in  driving;  besides,  the  car  will  run  more  economically, 
will  climb  hills  better,  and  the  saving  to  the  axles  and  mechanical 
parts  of  the  car  is  very  great.  Naturally  the  greatest  gain  can  be 
obtained  from  pneumatic  tyres  when  the  car  is  specially  designed 
for  them,  as  the  lighter  the  car  is  the  longer  the  tyres  will  last, 
besides  being  less  liable  to  puncture. 

A  great  mistake  has  been  made  in  fitting  tyres  of  too  light  a 
section,  and  to  nearly  every  type  of  car  there  is  a  marked  tendency 


25*8  MOTOR   CARS 

now  to  fit  heavier  tyres.  This  in  a  large  measure  will  overcome 
the  objections  that  have  been  raised.  There  can  be  no  doubt, 
however,  that  the  surface  of  some  roads  are  very  much  harder  on 
tyres  than  others,  but  the  road  question  appears  to  be  absorbing 
attention  in  the  proper  quarters,  and  there  is  every  reason  to 
believe  that  the  roads  will  be  put  into  a  better  condition  in  the 
near  future,  This  is  a  matter  for  congratulation,  as  the  road 
question  and  mobor  cars  are  very  closely  allied. 

CONCLUSION. 

Having  given  a  brief  description  of  the  various  parts  of  the 
motor  car  it  may  be  interesting  now  to  deal  with  it  from  a 
general  point  of  view.  Although  the  most  of  my  remarks  apply  to 
all  petrol-driven  vehicles,  still  they  apply  most  particularly  to  the 
pleasure  cars.  On  many  important  points  no  reliable  scientific 
data  can  be  found,  and  it  may  be  said  that  the  modern  motor  car 
is  the  result  of  experience  and  experiment.  For  example,  the 
amount  of  vibration  and  shock  that  is  absorbed  by  the  springs  and 
pneumatic  tyres  can  only  be  approximately  ascertained  ;  further, 
the  road  surface  continually  varies,  and  it  is  sometimes  necessary 
to  run  over  very  rough  roads  with  depressions  in  them  quite  4 
inches  deep.  To  be  strong  enough  to  stand  this  and  to  be  also 
light  enough  to  carry  four  or  five  people  at  an  average  speed  of  20 
miles  per  hour  is  a  marvel  to  many  engineers.  The  secret  is 
found  in  the  weight  per  horse-power.  Many  pleasure  cars  are 
now  built  which  only  weigh  1  cwt.  per  horse -power  of  the  motor. 
As  the  power  required  to  climb  hills  increases  in  a  direct  ratio  to 
the  weight  of  the  car  and  the  load,  an  enormous  advantage  is 
gained  by  keeping  the  car  light.  Of  course  the  reliability  must 
not  be  sacrificed,  but  special  materials  of  the  most  suitable  quality 
must  be  used ;  aluminium  wherever  possible  and  steel  of  different 
mixtures  best  suited  for  the  various  purposes.  The  speed  at  which 
the  engine  shaft  is  running  when  giving  off  full  power  practically 
determines  the  weight  of  the  whole  car.  It  is,  therefore,  of  the 
greatest  importance  that  every  encouragement  and  assistance 
should  be  given  to  the  development  of  the  high-speed  engine. 


MOTOR    CARS  269 

The  weight  of  the  oar  per  horse-power  determiues  its  efficiency  as 
a  hill  climber,  and  it  also  determines  the  cost  of  running  per  mile 
for  tyres.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  where  the  mechanism  is 
properly  looked  after  the  tyre  bill  is  one  of  the  biggest  items. 

At  present  improvements  appear  to  lie  along  the  line  of 
acceleration  of  engine  speed  and  reduction  of  weight.  These  two 
factors  demand  simplicity.  Any  of  the  known  systems  of  two- 
cycle  engines  with  their  complicated  valve  gear  and  compression 
devices,  require  such  heavy  plant  that  there  does  not  appear  any 
hope  for  them  ever  being  adopted  in  motor  cars.  Mere  weight 
does  not  mean  reliability,  and  it  is  certainly  disastrous  to  efficiency. 
A  combination  of  reliability  and  efficiency  can  only  be  found  when 
every  part  is  designed  in  the  simplest  possible  manner,  and  the 
metal  distributed  to  the  best  possible  advantage.  A  careful 
selection  of  the  most  suitable  material  for  the  purpose  must  be 
made ;  and  further,  the  car  must  be  considered  as  a  whole  in  order 
to  get  a  proper  distribution  of  strain  and  vibration.  On  the  top  of 
all  this  a  very  high  standard  of  workmanship  is  absolutely  required. 
Engineers  complain  that  motor  cars  are  too  light ;  it  is  a  very  easy 
matter  indeed  to  make  the  parts  heavy.  In  doing  this,  efficiency  is 
destroyed.  All  the  experience  of  designers  has  been  concentrated 
in  an  effort  to  obtain  reliability  without  sacrificing  efficiency. 

The  gearing  of  the  car  is  sometimes  objected  to,  but  when  it  is 
remembered  that  four  times  the  power  is  required  to  take  a  car  up 
hills  met  with,  it  would  appear  that  the  gearing  is  preferable  to 
such  an  increase  in  the  size  of  the  engine. 

The  advertised  horse-power  of  cars  is  at  the  present  time  no 
guide  to  the  purchaser,  While  makers  have  arrived  at  this  factor 
in  different  ways,  still,  if  only  the  brake  horse  power  were  given,  it 
would  not  be  a  reliable  guide,  as  the  efficiency  of  transmission 
and  the  weight  of  the  car  would  still  require  to  be  taken  into  account. 
Besalts  in  public  tests  are  also  to  some  extent  misleading,  as 
excellent  cars  sometimes  perform  badly  through  a  minor  temporary 
defect.  This  fact  was  clearly  demonstrated  in  the  Thousand 
Miles  Reliability  Trial  recently  held,  where  marks  were  lost  for 


260  MOTOR   CARS 

every  minute  occupied  in  cleaning  or.  making  adjustments  to  the 
car,  with  the  result  that  many  cars  were  not  seen  to  the  best 
advantage,  especially  in  the  speed  and  hill-climbing  tests. 

If  a  quarter  of  an  hour  is  given  to  the  car  before  starting  in  the 
morning,  there  is  now  very  little  fear  of  even  a  slight  stoppage  in 
a  day's  run.  Of  course,  cars  that  run  through  such  public  tests 
w^ell  deserve  all  the  credit  they  get. 

Through  discussions  in  Institutions  such  as  this,  the  science 
of  the  motor  car  will  be  evolved,  and  one  day  written.  The 
industry  has  made  very  rapid  strides.  It  is  difficult  to  realise  that 
it  is  only  from  four  to  six  years  ago  since  the  early  types  of  the 
well-known  cars  were  built  in  this  country.  At  first  the  public 
sneered)  and  showed  no  belief  whatever  in  the  movement.  As 
cars  became  better,  cries  were  heard  that  they  should  again  be 
abolished,  but  to-day  we  hear  very  little  sneering  at  breakdowns, 
and  have  the  satisfaction  of  knowing  that  tiie  majority  of  the 
public  recognise  the  fact  that  the  motor  car  has  come  to  stay. 
Credit  for  this  is  due,  in  the  first  place,  to  the  men  who  have 
mastered  the  mechanical  details,  and  placed  the  motor  car  as  a 
useful  vehicle  practically  beyond  reproach ;  and,  in  the  second 
place,  to  the  organisers  in  the  Automobile  Club,  who  have  never 
wearied  in  their  endeavours  to  show  its  possibilities  to  the  public. 

The  best  augury  for  the  future  is  the  fact  that  all  youths  display 
a  passionate  interest  in  motor  cars.  As  a  nation  we  are  un- 
doubtedly becoming  more  and  more  mechanical.  Prejudice,  so  far 
as  automobiles  are  concerned,  does  not  appear  to  exist  in  the 
rising  fi^eneration. 

I  have  not  referred  to  the  delivery  van,  because,  so  far  as  the 
petrol  vehicle  is  concerned,  no  organised  attempt  has  yet  been 
made  to  prove  its  efficiency.  Tnals  are  to  be  held  this  year, 
and  no  doubt  in  a  short  time  a  large  percentage  of  the  goods  passing 
through  our  streets  will  be  earned  by  means  of  motor  delivery  vans 
and  wagons.  For  loads  above  two  tons,  doubtless  steam  will 
be  largely  used,  but  not  for  the  pleasure  vehicle.  Direct 
application  of  fuel  in  the  petrol  car  as  now  designed,  where  silent 


MOTOR    CARS 


261 


and  steady  running  can  be  obtained,  appears  to  be  so  simple  and 
easy  to  manage  that  the  steam  car  as  at  present  constructed 
cannot  compare  favourably  with  it. 

Glasgow  is  well  equipped  with  all  the  necessary  requirements  to 
take  advantage  of  the  possibilities  of  this  new  industry.  In 
Glasgow,  perhaps  better  than  any  other  centre  in  the  world, 
engineering  practice  is  understood,  and  for  these  reasons  I  have 
confidence  and  great  pleasure  in  recommending  to  you  a  serious 
study  of  the  motor  car. 

Discussion. 
Mr  T.  Blackwood  Mubray,  B.Sc.  (Member),  thought  the  title 
of  Mr  Govan's  paper  was  a  little  misleading.  It  might  more 
properly  have  been  designated  a  paper  on  **  Internal  Combustion 
Petro  Motor  Cars,"  as  it  did  not  touch  upon  steam  or  electrically 
propelled  cars,  in  both  of  which  fields  a  great  deal  of  splendid 
work  had  been  done  in  the  past  few  years.  Already  the  subject 
was  so  large,  and  so  many  types  of  cars  were  on  the  market  that 
the  consideration  of  any  one  of  the  organs  of  a  motor  car  would 
provide  ample  material  for  a  most  interesting  paper.  Probably  no 
other  piece  of  mechanism  had  proved  more  attractive  to  modern 
engineers  or  had  received  more  attention  from  designers  in  the 
last  few  years.  The  subject  was  obviously  a  most  interesting 
one.  On  page  244  of  the  paper,  it  was  stated  that  the  wire  gauze 
over  the  inlet  pipe  strained  the  moisture  from  the  air  before 
entering  the  carburetter,  but  he  scarcely  thought  it  could  have 
any  appreciable  drying  effect  on  the  air,  as  the  velocity  of  the 
entering  air  was  cpnsiderable,  and  any  moisture  caught  upon 
the  gauze  during  one  stroke  would  be  carried  into  the  engine  by 
the  succeeding  suction  stroke.  The  gauze  screens,  however, 
prevented  road-grit  and  the  larger  particles  of  dust  being  carried 
into  the  engine.  Eespecting  the  question  of  ignition,  he  thought 
it  would  have  been  well  if  Mr  Govati  had  pointed  out  that  the 
accumulators  could  only  be  charged  off  a  continuous  current 
circuit  through  a  lamp  as  a  resistance ;  further,  the  size  of  the 


262  MOTOR    CARS 

Mr  T.  BlAckwuod  Murmy. 

lamp  should  be  chosen  Tvith  due  regard  to  the  voltage,  for  a 
16  G.P.  lamp  on  a  100  volt  circuit  took  2}  times  the  current 
required  by  one  on  a  250  volt  circuit,  which  meant  that  the 
charging  of  the  cells  would  take  2^  times  as  long  with  the  latter 
pressure.  With  high-tension  ignition,  as  usually  employed  and 
as  described  by  Mr  Govan,  it  was  necessary  to  have  an  advancing 
and  retarding  arrangement.  The  chief  necessity  for  this  arose 
from  the  fact  that,  in  this  system  of  ignition  there  was  a 
considerable  lag  or  lapse  of  time  between  the  making  of  the 
contact  by  the  commutator  in  the  primary  circuit  and  the  passing 
of  the  spark  in  the  secondary  circuit  which  ignited  the  charge. 
This  lag  was  due  to  the  time  taken,  after  the  primary  circuit  was 
completed,  to  magnetise  the  coil  and  to  attract  the  trembler  and 
break  the  primary  circuit,  whereupon  the  spark  occurred  in  the 
secondary  circuit.  It  was  to  compensate  for  this  lag  that  it  was 
necessary  to  advance  the  spark,  or,  as  it  should  rather  be 
expressed,  to  complete  the  primary  circuit  earlier.  Where 
ignition  was  obtained  by  a  make  and  break  inside  the  cylinder, 
as  in  magneto  ignition,  this  time  lag  might  be  almost  entireh' 
eliminated  and  it  was  then  found  that  a  very  small  advance  was 
necessary  to  get  the  maximum  results.  Owing  also  to  the  fact 
that  it  was  necessar\'  to  have  a  certain  angular  velocity  on  the 
engine  to  generate  the  current  for  ignition  from  the  magneto,  it 
was  quite  permissible  that  the  spark  should  take  place,  even 
at  starting,  slightly  before  the  dead  centre.  As  the  momentum 
of  the  fly-wheel  was  ample  to  ensure  that  the  crank  would  be 
within  the  dead  arc  by  the  time  ignition  had  taken  place  there 
was  therefore  no  possibility  of  a  back  kick.  It  was  most  important 
that  the  ignition  should  take  place  at  a  proper  period  of  the  cycle, 
and  this  point  could  best  be  determined  in  the  test-shop,  where 
the  B.H.P.  of  the  engine  could  be  accurately  measured  and 
indicator  diagrams  taken  at  the  same  time.  When  this  point  had 
been  determined  for  the  various  speeds  of  the  engine,  it  was 
certainly  desirable  that  maximum  eflBciency  should  be  secured  by 
arranging  for  the   ignition   to   be    automatically  advanced    and 


MOTOR    CARS  263 

Mr  T.  Bkokwood  Mturay. 

retarded  by  a  governor  fitted  to  the  engine  itself,  and  this  was 
now  being  done  by  some  leading  makers.  The  advantages  of 
magneto  ignition  over  the  high  tension  system  were  very  great. 
The  former  did  away  at  once,  with  the  necessity  for  batteries  or 
accomalators,  and  instead  of  a  multiplicity  of  high  and  low 
tension  circuits,  only  a  single  insulated  conductor,  leading  from 
the  magneto  to  the  sparking  plugs,  was  required.  It  was  easily 
understood,  as  there  were  no  electrical  complications  to  puzzle 
the  layman,  and  if  properly  designed  the  moving  parts  need  give 
no  trouble.  In  the  type  Mr  Govan  had  described,  a  reciprocating 
form  of  magneto  was  shown,  and  it  was  obviously  a  mistake  to 
introduce  more  reciprocating  parts  into  a  high-speed  engine  than 
were  absolutely  necessary  when  the  same  results  could  be  equally 
well  obtained  by  a  rotating  mechanism,  and,  as  might  be  expected, 
rotary  magnetos  were  rapidly  replacing  those  of  the  reciprocating 
type.  Indeed,  had  they  been  used  all  along,  and  proper  attention 
given  to  the  design  of  the  make  and  break  gear,  high  tension 
ignition  would  never  have  secured  anything  like  the  hold  it  had. 
In  designing  a  rotary  magneto,  it  was  of  course  desirable  to  have 
a  fixed  armature,  so  that  no  brushes,  commutators,  or  sHp  rings 
were  required.  In  the  hope  that  it  might  interest  the  members 
he  had  shown  in  the  accompanying  three  illustrations.  Figs.  27, 
28,  and  29,  a  magneto  of  this  type.  It  was  a  simple  alternating 
current  generator  having  a  fixed  armature  and  rotary  magnetic 
field.  The  armature  core  A  A  consisted  of  a  soft  iron  laminated 
ring  having  a  wide  gap  at  the  lower  side,  and  a  reduced  portion 
at  the  top  side  to  accommodate  the  winding  F,  which  consisted 
of  a  coil  of  fine  insulated  copper  wire,  the  one  end  of  this  coil 
being  earthed,  and  the  other  connected  to  the  live  terminal  in  the 
engine  cylinders.  The  field  magnet  system  was  keyed  to  an 
extension  of  the  crank  shaft  D  D,  and  consisted  of  a  phosphor 
bronze  spider  H  H,  carrying  upon  it  two  mild  steel  pole  pieces 
G  G,  which  were  magnetised  by  a  couple  of  bar  permanent 
magnets  J  J.  As  the  field  magnets  rotated  it  was  evident  that 
the  magnetic  flux  would  be  first  in  the  one  direction  and  then 


264 

Mr  T.  Blackwood  Munmy. 


MOTOR    CARS 


Fig.  27. 


Fig.  28. 


Fig.  29. 


in  the  other  through  the  armature  coil»  thus  generating  in  it 
an  alternating  current.  A  make  and  break  was  inserted  in 
the  combustion  space  controlled  by  a  simple  trip  cam,  and 
the  apparatus  was  so  arranged  that  the  break  took  place  when  the 
current  flowing  through  it  was  a  maximum,  and  the  resulting 
spark  ignited  the  charge.  The  magneto  shown  was  one  of  the 
improvements  patented  by  the  Albion  Motor  Car  Co.,  Limited. 
Mr  Govan  mentioned  the  difficulty  of  governors  hunting  when 
the  engine  ran   slowly,  but  this  was  purely  owing  to  the  fact 


MOTOR    CARS  265 

Mr  T.  Blackwood  Muiray. 

that  the  governors  fitted  on  most  engines  were  quite  unsuited 
for  low  speeds,  and  were  only  designed  to  control  the  engine  at, 
or  about,  its  maximum  speed.  This  difficulty  could  be  entirely 
got  over  by  a  properly  designed  governor,  and  the  engine  run 
smoothly  and  steadily  with  the  governor  at  about  200  revolutions 
per   minute.       Fig.  30    illustrated  a  new    type  of    centrifugal 


Fig.  30. 

governor,  which  he  had  designed  to  meet  the  special  requirements 
of  motor  car  work,  where  it  was  desired  to  have  in  the  engine  a 
range  of  governed  speeds  from,  say,  200  up  to  1000  revolutions 
per  minute.  At  low  speeds  the  governor  acted  against  a  light 
spring,  F,  and  as  the  speed  increased  it  took  up  a  stiffer 
spring,  H,  and  these  were  so  proportioned  as  to  give  a  fairly 
straight  characteristic  between  the  speed  limits  for  which  the 
governor  was  designed.  While  the  centrifugal  part  of  the  governor 
had  a  very  long  travel,  the  throttle  valve  was  so  arranged  that  a 
very  short  travel  sufficed  to  move  it  from   full-open  to  closed. 


266  MOTOR    CARS 

Mr  T.  Bkckwood  Mnrmy. 

The  throttle  valve  was  operated  through  the  lever  E,  which 
moved  on  a  fixed  fulcrum  pin  B.  The  speed  at  which  the 
governor  acted  was  determined  hy  the  relative  position  of  the 
throttle  valve,  and  the  roller  L,  and  this  was  controlled  by 
the  driver  from  the  hand  lever  L  by  inserting  or  withdrawing  the 
wedge  W.  If  the  wedge  was  only  slightly  inserted  the  governor 
would  act  at  a  low  speed ;  if  further  inserted,  at  a  higher  speed ; 
if  fully  inserted,  at  the  top  speed  for  which  the  governor  was 
designed.  Thus,  the  governor  migBt  be  set  to  hold  the  car  at  any 
desired  speed,  or  in  other  words  to  follow  up  the  desires  of  the 
driver.  He  was  afraid  that  Mr  Govan,  in  page  247,  had  fallen  into 
the  popular  eiTor  which  was  often  seen  in  semi-technical  motor 
papers,  that  the  longer  the  stroke  in  proportion  to  the  bore  the 
greater  was  the  advantage  that  could  be  taken  of  expansion. 
The  amount  of  expansion  depended,  of  course,  solely  upon  the 
ratio  of  the  clearance  volume  to  the  volume  swept  by  the  piston, 
and  was  therefore  independent  of  the  ratio  of  bore  to  stroke. 
Designers  had  been  mainly  guided  in  their  choice  of  ratio  of  bore 
to  stroke  by  such  considerations  as  making  the  ratio  of  the  area 
of  the  walls  of  the  combustion  space  to  the  volume  as  small  as 
possible ;  and  on  the  one  hand  the  choice  of  a  large  bore  and  a 
short  stroke  made  the  frictional  losses  in  the  crank  shaft 
excessive,  while  on  the  other  hand,  a  very  long  stroke  was 
undesirable,  as  the  connecting  rods  might  not  exceed  certain 
dimensions,  owing  to  overall  dimensions  being  limited.  The  two- 
cylinder  engines  described  on  page  247  would,  according  to  his 
calculations,  with  62  lbs.  mean  eifective  pressure,  at  1500 
revolutions  per  minute,  only  give  11  indicated  horse  power. 
Taking  an  efficiency  of  80%,  this  gave  a  b.h.p.  of  8*8  instead  of 
11  B.H.P.  as  stated  by  Mr  Govan.  To  give  11  b.h.p.  it  would 
require  a  mean  effective  pressure  of  77  lbs.  per  square  inch. 
With  a  compression  pressure  of  60  lbs.  per  square  inch  above 
the  atmosphere,  there  should  be  no  difficulty  in  getting  an 
explosion  pressure  of  240  lbs.  per  square  inch  above  the 
atmosphere.       The    pressure    of     150    lbs.    which    Mr    Govan 


MOTOR    CARS  267 

Mr  T.  Blackwood  Muny. 

mentioDed  appeared  to  him  to  be  very  low.  As  to  friction 
clutches,  it  was  of  course  quite  possible  to  make  a  friction  clutch 
of  the  type  in  Fig.  16,  which  would  exert  no  end  of  pressure 
when  in  gear,  and,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  this  was  done  by  a 
number  of  makers.  It  was  only  necessary  to  insure  that  the 
thrust  of  the  spring  was  taken  up  on  the  crank  shaft  itself.  It 
made  a  much  simpler  arrangement  than  that  shown  in  Fig.  15, 
as  the  rim  of  the  fly-wheel  might  be  coned  out  to  receive  the 
clutch,  thus  obviating  the  necessity  for  a  loose  ring.  As  to  side 
chains,  they  had  had  the  very  important  advantage  of  permitting 
the  use  of  a  very  simple  dead  rear  axle,  and  they  could  be  quite 
efficiently  protected  without  completely  covering  them  in. 
Regarding  frames,  it  seemed  to  him  that  there  could  be  no  doubt 
that  the  channel  section  if  properly  stayed  to  prevent  it  from 
buckling  was  very  much  stronger  than  the  \J  section.  He  had 
made  a  rough  calculation  of  two  sections  bent  from  the  same 
plate  of  steel.  The  channel  gave  a  moment  of  resistance  of  1*5, 
whereas  the  \J  section  only  gave  1*16.  That  was  to  say,  the 
channel  section  was  30%  stronger  than  the  (J . 

Mr  John  Eiekik  (Member)  observed  that  while  he  could  not 
enter  very  much  into  the  discussion  of  the  internal  combustion 
engine  (as  he  knew  little  about  that  class  of  engine;,  he  was  an 
enthusiast  in  all  matters  pertaining  to  steam  and  the  steam 
engine.  He  did  not  think  the  internal  combustion  engine  would 
carry  everything  before  it.  Mr  Govan  admitted  that  for  heavy 
vehicles  steam  would  largely  be  used,  but  he  should  like  to  ask 
him  what  would  prevent  steam  being  used  when  applied  to  lighter 
vans  and  small  pleasure  cars  ?  It  appeared  to  him  that  it  would 
be  quite  practicable  to  improve  the  steam  car  and  make  it  still 
more  popular,  and  this  appeared  to  be  so  when  the  comparison  of 
speed  between  the  steam  locomotive  engine  and  the  petrol  engine 
was  considered.  Steam  showed  most  favourably  in  the  case  of 
climbing  a  hill.  With  steam  there  would  be  no  necessity  for 
friction  clutches,  nor  for  cutting  down  the  strength  of  the  material 
to  reduce  the  weight.     Personally,  he  saw  no  reason  why  iron 


2G8  MOTOR    CARS 

Mr  T-  Blackwood  Murmy. 

tyres  should  not  be  used  in  future  for  cheap  cars  which  ran  at 
a  reasonably  slow  speed,  and  so  dispense  with  the  enormous 
expense  of  pneumatic  tyres.  It  was  only  necessary  for  manufac- 
turers to  take  up  this  branch  of  the  motor  car  industry  to  ensure 
it  being  made  equally  popular  if  not  more  popular  than  that  of  the 
petrol  engine. 

Mr  W.  M*Whirter  (Member)  considered  there  were  many 
good  points  in  Mr  Govan's  paper,  and  some  that,  no  doubt,  would 
be  considerably  amended,  or,  at  any  rate,  altered.  A  good  deal 
had  been  heard  about  electric  motor  cars  made  in  America,  but 
while  there  was  no  difficulty  about  the  cars  themselves,  there  w^as 
trouble  with  the  batteries.  He  had  had  the  pleasure  for  a  good 
many  years  of  using  a  reciprocating  steam  engine  running  up  to 
1000  revolutions,  and  it  was  very  successful,  never  giving  trouble 
of  any  kind.  This  was  over  a  period  of  close  on  20  years  ago,  and 
there  must  have  been  considerable  improvement  made  in  that 
time.  One  point  that  had  a  great  deal  to  do  with  the  question  of 
speed — a  point  about  which  Mr  Govan  said  nothing  at  all — was 
not  so  much  a  question  of  measuring  the  piston  speed  as  of  the 
number  of  reciprocations  per  minute,  which,  in  an  electric  motor, 
was  got  over  entirely.  He  believed  that  some  day  Mr  Govan  or 
Mr  MuiTay,  or  one  of  those  gentlemen  who  were  devoting  so 
much  time  to  this  subject,  would  produce  a  satisfactory  battery, 
when  the  petrol  and  the  steam  cars  would  be  consigned  to  the 
scrap  heap.  He  really  thought  that  the  car  of  the  future  w^ould  be 
an  electric  car,  and  to  bring  that  about  was  wholly  and  solely  a 
matter  of  the  battery.  Some  day,  no  doubt,  instead  of  proceeding 
on  the  lines  of  reducing  the  voltage  of  the  accumulator  by  one- 
half,  some  one  would  make  an  accumulator  of  about  4  volts,  and 
then  the  problem  would  be  much  nearer  solution  than  it  was  now. 
Regarding  ignition,  those  who  had  had  experience  with  small 
storage  batteries  knew  what  a  nuisance  they  were.  Mr  Govan 
dismissed  this  point  very  neatly  ;  he  simply  said  that  all  one  had 
to  do  was  to  put  it  on  in  place  of  a  16  c.p.  lamp,  or  in  circuit  with 
a  16  c  p.  lamp.     That  was  very  nice  ;  the  button  was  pressed,  and 


MOTOR    CARS  269 

MrW.M'Whirter. 

electricity  did  the  rest.  Mr  Murray  hard  not  gone  quite  far 
enough  to  tell  them  the  difiference  hetween  the  current  required 
for  100  volts  16  c.p.  lamp  and  that  for  250  volts,  such  as  was 
used  in  Glasgow.  Motor  car  users — he  hoped  he  would  be  excused 
for  saying  it — were  very  ignorant  concerning  accumulators.  They 
had  an  idea  that  all  they  had  to  do  was  to  charge  an  accumulator, 
and  if  they  were  not  charging  it  quick  enough  to  charge  it  longer ; 
that,  however,  was  a  great  mistake.  There  was  a  certain  current 
below  which  any  accumulator  got  very  little  benefit  in  the  way  of 
charge,  and  there  was  the  same  danger  if  too  much  current  were 
used.  Motor  car  users  ought  never  to  leave  their  cells  uncharged, 
although  to  leave  the  cells  uncharged  was  a  common  practice.  A 
motorist  out  for  a  week  end  might,  in  returning,  allow  his  car  to  lie 
idle  until  the  next  Thursday  or  Friday,  and  if  the  cells  were  allowed 
to  run  down  they  would  be  ruined.  On  recharging  them  the 
motorist  would  say  that  they  had  come  back  out  of  order,  and  that 
the  damage  had  been  done  at  the  charging  place.  The  subject  of 
motor  cars  was  a  very  interesting  one,  and  it  was  quite  right  that 
more  papers  dealing  with  it  should  be  brought  before  the  Institution. 
No  doubt  Mr  Murray  was  willing  and  able  to  give  one  or  two,  and 
he  thought  Mr  Parker  should  look  after  that. 

Mr  Owen  E,  Williams  B.  Sc,  (Member)  said  that  at  a  meeting 
of  motorists  held  lately  several  gentlemen  had  given  the  total  cost 
of  running  their  cars,  exclusive  of  depreciation,  to  be  about  3d 
per  mile.  The  cost  of  the  tyres  came  out  at  about  equal  to  the 
cost  of  the  petrol.  Solid  tyres  meant  the  loss  of  a  good  deal  of 
comfort,  and  he  did  not  think  that  to  have  solid  tyres  was 
altogether  economical.  It  was  pleasure  and  comfort  that  motor- 
ists seemed  to  think  about.  It  had  been  stated  in  some  of  the  papers 
that,  a  car  driven  by  an  engine  of  6  horse  power,  which  revolved 
at  about  1500  revolutions  per  minute,  had  travelled  50,000  miles 
without  undue  wear  to  the  engine.  He  was  sorry  that  nobody 
had  touched  on  the  matter  of  Mr  Govan's  gear  box.  That 
arrangement  was  considered  to  be  one  of  the  cleverest,  as  it 
enabled  three  speeds  to  be  obtained  with  the  minimum  amount  of 

23 


270  MOTOR    CARS 

Mr  Owen  R.  WiUiami. 

sliding  gear  wheels.     That  gear  box,  he  believed,  had  been  awarded 
a  medal  in  a  recent  reliability  trial. 

Mr  James  Coats  (Member)  remarked  that,  in  connection  with 
the  friction  clutch,  Mr  Govan  at  one  part  of  his  paper  said : — 
**  Through  a  well-defined  friction  clutch  of  11  inches  diameter, 
11  H.P.  at  1500  revolutions  can  safely  be  transmitted.  .  .  . 
Clutches  having  this  relation  of  diameter  to  power  are  found  to  give 
very  satisfactory  results,  and  require  little  or  no  attention."  At 
another  part  of  the  paper,  Mr  Govan  went  on  to  say  that  change 
gears  operated  by  friction  clutches  were  adopted  by  some  makers. 
He  thought  that  was  a  very  good  method  to  operate  the  gear  with, 
because  when  hill  climbing  or  reversing  often  the  gear  wheels  got 
worn  down  very  quickly,  and  they  had  to  be  renewed.  It  would 
be  a  good  thing  if  motor  builders  gave  more  consideration  to  the 
design  of  friction  clutches.  The  author  said  that  change  gears 
operated  by  friction  clutches  had  always  been  made  too  small  in 
diameter,  and  if  made  large  enough  the  gears  would  be  much  too 
bulky.  He  understood  that  there  were  gears  in  the  market  that 
did  away  with  the  whole  of  this  group  of  gear  wheels.  For  four 
speeds  there  were  eight  pinions,  and  for  reversing  other  two 
wheels  were  required.     It  would  be  much  better  to  do  away  with 


Fig.  31. 


MOTOR    CARS 


271 

Mr  James  Cwt«i. 


Pig.  32< 

all  tbese  wheels,  and  the  gear  with  which  be  was  best  acquainted 
had  a  friction  clutch  by  which  a  variation  of  speed  of  from  20 
miles  an  hour  to  a  foot  an  hour  could  he  obtained.  Figs.  31  and 
32  illustrated  this  gear. 

Mr  G.  C.  Thomson  (Member)  obser\^ed  that  Mr  Go  van,  at  the 
last  meeting,  in  speaking  about  friction  clutches  mentioned  one^ 
which,  from  the  description,  he  took  to  be  the  old  "Weston  brake, 
but  he  found  no  mention  of  it  in  the  paper,  and  he  would  he  glad 
if  Mr  Go  van  could  g'ive  some  information  on  that  point.  He  had 
found  the  Weston  friction -clutch  to  give  satisfaction  in  every 
case  where  he  had  used  it. 

The  Chaikman  (Mr  E.  Hall-Brown,  Vice-President)  said  he  was 
pretty  well  acquainted  with  Mr  Go  van's  ideas  on  motor  car  work, 
and  he  bad  listened  with  great  pleasure  to  what  he  had  to  say  at 
the  last  meeting  with  regard  to  his  paper.  A  number  of  gentlemen 
bad  criticised  the  paper,  and  he  thought  that  possibly  some  of 
these  criticisms  were  just.  He  did  not,  ho%vever,  think  that  Mr 
Murray  was  right  in  saying  that  the  principal  reason  for  having  a 
variable  point  at  which  the  spark  was  passed  into  the  machine  was 
the  lag  of  the  coiJ.     This  lag  was  practically  constant  and  tbey 


272  MOTOR    CARS 

Mr  E.  Hall-Brown. 

all  knew  that  in  ordinary  gas  engine  work,  the  speed  of  the  engine 
entered  very  largely  into  the  question  of  the  point  at  which  the 
spark  should  be  passed  into  the  mixture,  a  certain  time  being 
required  for  the  propagation  of  the  flame  into  the  mixture.     When 
an  engine  was  running  at  250  revolutions  per  minute,  the  time 
occupied  in  inflaming  the  mixture  bore  a  less  proportion  to  the 
time  occupied  by  the  working  stroke  than  when  the  engine  was 
running  at  500  revolutions  per  minute,  and  consequently  the  spark 
would  require  to  take  place  at  an  earlier  point-  of  the  revolution  at 
the  higher  speed.     He  did  not  say  that  the  same  result  could  not 
be  attained  in  other  ways,  but  he  thought  that  that  was  probably 
one  of  the  most  important  reasons  for  providing  means  for  regu- 
lating the  point  at  which  the  spark  passed  into  the  mixture.     Like 
Mr  Eiekie,  he'  did  not  quite  think  that  Mr  Govan's  figures  as  to 
speeds  of  piston  and  rubbing  surfaces  were  conclusive ;  but  he 
appreciated  highly  the  results  which  had  been  attained  by  these 
petrol  engines  which  could  be  run  at  speeds  of  1500  revolutions 
per  minute  and  even  higher  for  very  long  periods  with  very  little 
wear.     With  regard  to   the  influence  of  weight  on   motor  car 
design  and  efficiency,,  if  he  did  not  quite  agree  with  all  Mr  Govan 
had  said,  he  fully  appreciated  the  fact  that  if  a  car  weighing  15 
cwt.  could  be  made  as  reliable  as  one  weighing  30  cwt.  and  capable 
of  carrying  the  same  load,  then  the  lighter  car  would  be  much 
more  efficient  than  the  heavier  one ;  and  he  considered  that  high 
class  material  and  careful  design  had  resulted  in  the  production 
of  some  light  cars  which  were  actually  stronger  and  more  reliable 
than  some  cars  of  greater  weight. 

Correspondence. 

Prof.  Archibald  Babr,  D.Sc.  (Member  of  Council)  considered 
that  a  paper  dealing  with  motor  cars  in  their  present  state  of  develop- 
ment naturally  raised  many  questions  for  discussion.  The  conditions 
to  be  accomplished  in  the  design  of  motor  cars  to  meet  various 
needs  were  so  diverse  that,  progress  was  necessarily  made  along 
many  divergent  paths,  and  the  questions  as  to  which  of  a  variety 


MOTOR    CARS  273 

Prof.  Archibald  Barr. 

of  systems  of  providing  for  any  one  of  the  functions  of  the  machine 
was  best,  could  only  be  answered  for  one  type  of  car  at    a  time, 
and  then  only  when  all  the  conditions  to  be  accomplished  by  the 
car  were  kept  in  view.     Broadly,  he   supposed  cars   might  be 
divided  into  (a)  heavy  freight  carrying  vehicles ;  (b)  pleasure  and 
business  carriages ;  and  (c)  racing  machines.     It  was  to  the  second 
of  these  specially  that  Mr  Govan's  paper  referred,  namely,  such 
cars  as  were  used  in  place  of  private  carriages  or  cabs  or  traps. 
Of  these  again  the  paper  dealt  more  particularly  with  cars  of 
moderate  size,  and  any  observation  of  his  upon  the  paper  would 
have  reference  only  to  cars  of  moderate  size,  power,  and  speed, 
such,  for  example  as  might  cost  from  £300  to  ^500,  according  to 
present  rates.     His  experience  of  motor  cars  was  very  limited,  but 
he  had  studied  the  problems  involved  in  their  construction.     On 
page  246  the  author  raised  the   question  of  **  efficiency  *'  of  the 
engme  *'  per  pound  weight."     He  did  not  think  that  that  was  a 
question  of  first  importance  to  the  purchaser  or  user  of  a  car. 
What  the  purchaser  had  to  consider  (assuming  a  certain  average 
weight  to  be  carried,  in  the  shape  of  passengers  and  luggage,  and 
a  certain  mileage  per  annum)  was  what  details  of  construction 
would  lead  to  the  greatest  efficiency  in  terms  of  interest  on  original 
cost,  depreciation  and  cost  of  repairs  on  the  one  hand,  and  on  the 
other  greatest  comfort  in  travelling  both  with  respect  to  smoothness 
of  running,   and  freedom   from   annoying    breakdowns.     When 
considered  in  these  connections,  he  could  not  see  that  the  securing 
of  a  minimum  weight  of  engine  per  horse  power  should  bulk 
at  all  largely  in  the  mind  of  an  intending  purchaser.     Certainly 
it  was  not  as  the  author  stated  ''  the  most  important  factor  in 
motor  car  design."     Taking  the  cost  of  a  car  at,  say,  £400,  and 
allowing  interest  at  5  per  cent  and  a  depreciation  of  15  per  cent, 
exclusive  of  tyres  (not  an  excessive  allowance),  then  the  annual 
fixed  charges  would  be  £80,  and  even  if  no  driver  was  kept  the 
cost  of  supplies  and  repairs  could  not  be  taken  at  less  than,  say, 
£30.    A  very  modest  estimate  of  the  annual  cost  of  running  a 
moderate  sized  car  was  therefore  £110.    The  weight  of  such  an 


274  MOTOR    CARS 

Prof.  Axtthibald  Barr. 

empty  car  as  was  under  consideration  would  be,  say,  1800  Ibe,  and 
adding  for  tliree  occupants  other  400  lbs.  gave  a  total  weight  of 
2200  lbs,  to  carry.  Now  Mr  Govan  put  the  weight  of  the  two- 
cyclinder  engines,  running  at  fifteen  hundred  revolutions  per 
minute,  at  194  lbs.  say  200  lbs.  If  the  engine  were  designed  to 
give  the  same  power  at  one  thousand  revolutions  per  minute  the 
weight  would  not  probably  be  more,  than  300  lbs.  or  6  per  cent 
extra  on  the  total  load  to  carry.  To  provide  for  this  5  per  cent 
extra  power  might  be  required  which  would  hardly  at  all  add  to 
the  total  weight.  For  the  same  efficiency  of  engine  then  the  petrol 
bill  would  be  increased  perhaps  5  per  cent,  and  since  the  whole 
bill  for  petrol  for  a  year  would  probably  not  exceed  £20,  the  extra 
cost  for  carrying  the  slow  running  engine  might  be  about  £1  per 
annum.  He  would  be  inclined  to  spend  that  extra  to  have  an 
engine  running  at  one  thousand  revolutions  per  minute  instead  of 
fifteen  hundred,  and  would  expect  an  excellent  return  in  the 
reduction  of  depreciation,  and  risk  of  breakdowns.  In  any  case 
the  cost  was  very  small  compared  with  the  total  cost  of  keeping 
and  running  a  car.  On  page  258  the  author  stated  that  "  The 
speed  at  which  the  engine  shaft  is  running  when  giving  off  full 
power  practically  determines  the  weight  of  the  whole  car."  He 
failed  to  see  that  that  was  so.  Certainly  a  high  speed  of  engine 
would  not  lighten  the  car  body — a  considerable  part  of  the  whole 
weight — nor  materially  the  weight  of  the  frame,  wheels,  springs, 
main  axles,  steering  gear,  and  many  other  parts.  It  afifected  the 
transmission  gear ;  but  when  it  was  remembered  that  the  speed, 
even  in  the  case  of  the  slowest  running  engine  must  be  greatly 
reduced  before  the  wheels  were  reached,  he  could  not  see  that  it 
would  greatly  affect  even  the  weights  of  the  transmission  gear. 
The  author  should  modify  such  a  sweeping  statement  as  that 
quoted.  Though  the  figures  assumed  might  not  be  accepted  as  a 
good  average  (they  were  he  considered  on  the  lenient  side  as  a 
criticism  of  the  author's  contention),  they  would  suflice  to  show 
that  the  weight  of  the  engine  per  horse  power  was  hardly  the 
most  important  question  from  the  user's  point  of  view.     He  should 


MOTOR    CARS  275 

Prof.  Archibald  Barr. 

therefore  be  disposed  to  choose  a  much  slower  engine  speed  than 
the  fifteen  hundred  revolutions  per  minute  advocated  in  the  paper. 
The  question  of  chain  drive  versus  live  axle  opened  up  a  large 
question  for  discussion,  and  he  thought  it  could  not  yet  be  definitely 
decided.  In  making  a  rough  estimate  of  the  annual  cost  of  a  car, 
he  omitted  the  cost  of  tyres.  The  author  correctly  said  that  the 
tyre  bill  was  one  of  the  biggest  items  in  the  running  costs  of  a  car. 
It  was  the  most  important  question  when  speaking  of  cars  other- 
wise of  good  sound  construction.  When  one  heard  of  anything 
up  to  twenty  punctures  in  a  day,  of  burst  tyres  causing  nasty 
accidents,  of  long  detentions  on  country  roads  in  bad  weather,  of 
appointments  missed,  and  all  the  other  ills  that  pneumatic  tyres 
were  liable  to  bring  to  their  owners,  not  to  speak  of  something 
like  doubled  cost  of  keeping  and  running  a  car,  it  should  take  a 
great  deal  of  persuasion  to  induce  any  one  of  the  ''moderate 
motorist "  type  to  accept  a  car  with  pneumatic  tyres.  No  doubt 
pneumatic  tyres  have  been  greatly  improved  of  late,  and  probably 
country  roads  may  be  made  better,  and  loose  stones,  broken 
glass,  nails,  and  other  like  objects,  for  which  air  tubes  seem  to 
exercise  a  wonderful  attraction,  would  be  abolished ;  but  speaking 
to-day  of  conditions  as  they  were  found,  alike  as  regards  economy 
and  comfort,  solid  tyres  were  greatly  preferred.  The  chief  objec- 
tion to  their  use  was  that  they  undoubtedly  involved  a  stronger 
and  heavier  design  of  car  in  some  features,  such  as  wheels,  springs, 
frames,  and  so  forth.  But  even  if  the  car  as  a  whole,  would,  for 
the  same  security,  require  to  be  one-and-a-half  times  heavier  than 
a  car  for  like  duty  fitted  with  pneumatic  tyres,  the  extra  cost  of 
the  car,  and  of  the  more  powerful  engine  required  to  drive  it,  and 
the  extra  cost  of  petrol  to  run  it,  would  only  amount  to  a  fraction 
of  the  extra  cost  of  maintenance  of  pneumatic  tyres.  From  the 
point  of  view  of  commercial  efficiency,  therefore,  he  was  convinced 
that  for  cars  equally  well  designed  for  the  two  kinds  of  tyrea 
respectfully,  the  solid  tyres  were  to  be  preferred,  No  doubt,  the 
bicycle  was  responsible  for  the  vogue  of  pneumatic  tyres  in  a  very 
large  measure  ;  but  cars  were  mounted  on  springs  while  bicyles. 


276  MOTOR   CARS 

Prof.  Axchibftld  Ban. 

as  a  rule,  were  not,  which  made  a  vast  difference  ;  and  if  motorists 
looked  into  the  cost  of  maintenence  as  well  as  the  initial  cost,  they 
would  conclude  in  favour  of  solid  tyres,  even  though  they  might 
not  have  had  the  experience  of  what  it  meant  to  have  a  burst  tyre 
in  a  blizzard  on  a  country  road  twenty  miles  from  home.  All 
would-be  motorists  of  moderate  means  should  read  the  delightful 
reminiscences  of  Major  Watson,  in  his  book  on  the  Modest  Man's 
Motor.  The  Institution  was  fortunate  in  having  a  paper  presented 
on  the  subject  of  motor  cars  at  this  time,  and  Mr  Govan  deserved 
the  best  thanks  of  the  Members  for  bringing  forward  the  subject 
for  discussion. 

Mr  A.  S.  BiGGART  (Member  of  Council)  was,  over  30  years  ago, 
as  a  boy,  deeply  interested  in  a  steam  motor  car  made  in  a  small 
engineering  shop  for  a  friend  in  Ayrshire.  The  crude  article  of 
those  days  had  been  replaced  by  the  well  designed  and  well  made 
car  of  the  present  day.  So  far  as  his  observations  went,  he  thought 
there  was  a  large  field  still  open  for  pleasure  cars,  but  the  field 
open  to  vehicles  for  commercial  purposes  was,  in  his  opinion,  very 
much  greater.  The  subject  was  a  very  wide  one,  and  he  trusted 
that  in  the  future  other  papers  equally  as  good  as  Mr.  Govan's, 
would  be  read  before  the  Institution.  For  some  time  he  had  been 
directly  interested  in  the  work  of  a  steam  motor  wagon.  This  had 
been  used  for  transporting  material  from  a  quarry  to  the  railway 
station  and  other  centres.  In  a  case  of  this  kind  the  quantities 
available  for  transport  was  large,  so  that  full  and  regular  loads 
could  be  got.  The  result  of  the  working  of  this  wagon  for  a  very 
considerable  time  was  that,  the  rate  of  carriage  had  been  reduced 
from  one  shilling  to  five  pence  per  ton ;  after  allowing  10  per  cent,  for 
depreciation,  interest  on  capital,  and  an  item  for  upkeep  which  more 
than  covered  the  cost  of  any  little  repair.  The  wagon  had  worked 
to  everyone's  entire  satisfaction,  and  he  might  almost  add  without 
the  slightest  hitch  since  it  began  work  some  years  ago.  He  quite 
agreed  with  Mr  Govan  that  the  local  road  and  other  authorities 
have  to  their  own  hurt,  as  well  as  that  of  the  country,  kept  back 
the  development  of  all  kinds  of  cars  for  many  years,  and  had  these 


MOTOR    CARS  277 

,  MrA.8.Biggart. 

same  bodies  their  own  way  still,  there  was  little  doubt  that  they 
would  inflict,  on  the  country  districts  especially,  further  injury. 
Objections  had  been  raised  to  the  wagon  he  had  mentioned  passing 
over  some  of  the  roads  and  bridges.  The  local  authorities  main- 
tained that  some  of  the  bridges  were  too  light  for  its  eight  tons, 
while  at  the  same  time  they  considered  them  strong  enough  for 
their  own  fifteen  ton  road  roller  to  pass  regularly  over.  Further 
they  got  an  engineer  to  report  on  the  matter,  and  suggested  that 
the  loads  should  be  limited  to  something  like  two  tons  and  the 
speed  to  that  of  a  few  miles  an  hour  while  passing  over  these 
bridges;  notwithstanding  that  very  shortly  before  road  metal 
was  rolled  into  the  road  of  one  of  the  bridges  with  a  heavy  road 
roller  weighing  some  fifteen  tons.  Given  fair  conditions  there  was 
little  doubt  that  many  remote  districts  in  the  country  might  be 
brought  near  to  the  centres  of  industry  and  even  themselves  be- 
come more  prosperous  by  the  use  of  motor  cars.  As  feeders  for 
railways  and  in  the  hundred  and  one  services  they  were  adapted 
for,  there  was  a  great  future  before  them,  and  if  Mr  Govan's  advice 
was  taken  to  heart,  there  was  little  doubt  that  Glasgow  would  in 
the  future  be  one  of  the  centres  of  the  motor  manufacturing 
industry.  The  discussion  would  probably  turn  on  the  merits  of 
steam,  petrol,  and  the  probable  great  future  field  here  for  elec- 
tricity. So  far  as  his  experience  went  he  did  not  think  there  was 
anything  yet  that  had  been  found  so  reliable  as  the  steam  car,  and 
while  it  had  many  inconveniences  he  still  thought  there  was  a 
great  future  for  it. 

Mr  Bamkin  Kennedy  (Member)  considered '  Mr  Govan's  paper 
of  interest  as  placing  before  the  Institution  the  details  of  an  up-to- 
date  auto  car,  with  special  reference  to  one  particular  type.  It 
was  to  be  regretted  that  the  author  had  not  treated  the  subject  in 
a  more  general  manner.  The  fashionable  or  conventional 
auto  cars  were  necessarily  all  much  alike  in  details,  so  that  a  full 
description  of  one  sufficed  to  fmrnish  pretty  clear  ideas  of  the 
construction  of  others.  It  seemed  a  pity  that  a  new  industry 
should  be  so  much  trammelled  by  **  fashion."     There  were  no 


278  MOTOR    CARS 

Mr  Bsnkin  Kennedy. 

jess  than  fifteen  debatable  points  in  the  construction  of  fashion- 
able auto  cars.  He  had  no  intention  of  referring  to  all  these 
points,  but  would  allude  briefly  to  the  gear  for  the  transmission  of 
power.  The  numerous  parts  of  a  motor  car's  gearing  w^hen  spread 
out  was  striking  in  its  complexity.  First  there  was  the  clutch ; 
then  the  gear  box,  to  provide  the  different  speeds  and  reverse 
motions  ;  and  finally,  a  differential  gear  box,  in  order  to  allow  of 
different  road  wheel  speeds.  Speaking  of  auto  cars  in  general, 
fitted  with  all  these  gears,  it  was  plain  that  it  was  only  a  matter  of 
time  when  the  wheels  would  wear  loose  in  fit  and  become  noisy  ; 
and  he  would  like  to  draw  attention  to  other  systems  of  power 
transmission  on  auto  cars,  which,  although  not  fashionable,  should 
not  detract  from  their  interest  to  engineers,  more  particularly  to 
cars  which  had  been  called  petro-electric-cars,  having  petrol  motors 
with  electric  transmission  of  the  power.  Instead  of  all  this  mass 
of  gear  wheels,  shafts,  clutches,  levers,  and  bearings,  a  dynamo 
was  fitted  to  the  engine,  the  armature  forming  the  fly-wheel,  and 
two  electric  motors  fed  by  the  dynamo  were  geared  by  single 
reduction,  or  chain  gear,  to  the  driving  wheels.  A  controller, 
like  that  on  an  electric  tram-car,  controlled  the  speed  and  reversing, 
and  also  performed  the  steering  by  varying  the  relative  speeds  of 
the  two  driving  motors.  This  system  had  been  tried  in  practice 
on  road  vehicles  with  qualified  success,  and  the  want  of  entire 
success  was  not  far  to  seek  in  the  cars  tried,  as  the  crude  design 
of  the  electrical  transmission  was  painfully  obvious.  The  whole 
result  of  electrical  transmission  depended  upon  absolutely  correct 
design  and  construction  of  the  electrical  machinery',  and  for  motor 
car  purposes  the  common  dynamo  and  motor  was  not  well  suited 
for  the  work.  It  required  a  special  design  by  an  expert.  This 
had  been  properly  carried  out  by  the  North-Eastem  Bailway  Com- 
pany in  the  petro-electric-cars,  now  running  over  its  system, 
and  clearly  demonstrated  in  a  ver}'  practical  manner  that  electric 
transmission  could  be  successfully  applied.  Of  course,  the 
machinery  for  a  large -powered  car  like  that  used  on  a  railway  was 
not   suitable  for  small   road  cars ;  but  by  carefully  considering 


MOTOR    CARS  279 

Mr  Bankixi  Kennedy. 

the  conditions,  dynamo-electric  machinery  for  smaller  cars  could 
be  made  to  perform  the  work  satisfactorily.  Briefly,  the  dynamo 
was  multipolar,  with  an  armature  of  the  gramme  ring  slotted  core 
type,  large  in  diameter,  and  running  at  a  high  angular  velocity, 
and  taking  the  place  of  the  usual  fly-wheel  and  clutch.  By  a 
special  winding  of  the  armature  no  separate  commutator  was 
required,  as  the  armature  conductors  formed  the  commutator. 
The  machine  was  thus  reduced  to  its  simplest  elements.  As  the 
power  had  not  to  be  transmitted  a  distance  of  more  than  a  yard 
or  two,  very  low  electric  pressure  could  be  adopted — from  20  volts 
to  30  volts,  good  substantial  conductors,  switches  and  fuses,  and 
other  electric  fittings  being  used.  A  few  cells  of  a  secondary 
battery  was  provided  for  ignition,  and  also  for  starting  the  engine, 
the  dynamo  acting  as  a  motor  for  a  few  revolutions.  The  motors 
were  of  the  same  design  as  the  dynamos.      The  steering  of  the 


Fig.  33. 


280  MOTOR    CARS 

Mr  Bankin  Kennedy. 

vehicle  could  be  controlled  by  an  electric  switch,  so  that  when 
running  straight  both  motors  were  of  the  same  speed  and  power, 
but  to  swerve  or  go  round  in  a  circle  the  outer  motor  was  made  to 
run  faster  and  the  inner  motor  slower,  or  vice  versa.  Some 
gearing  was,  of  course,  required,  either  side  chains  or  spur-wheels, 
between  the  motors  and  the  driving  wheels  ;  but  the  substitution 
of  electric  for  wheel  transmission  very  obviously  did  away  with,  at 
one  sweep,  all  the  gears — steering  gear,  diflFerential  gear,  speed 
and  reverse  gears.  Further,  the  engine  and  dynamo  might  be 
supported  on  springs  as  well  as  the  motors,  as  shown  in  Fig8. 
33  and  34,  a  side  view  and  plan  respectively  showing  one  motor. 


h  n 


ro 


^^/ 


Fig.  34. 


MOTOR    CARS  281 

Mr  Bukin  Kennedy. 

Now,  if  the  engine  and  motors  were  properly  borne  on  springs, 
there  was  not  the  same  necessity  for  pneumatic  tyres  on  the 
wheels  of  the  car.  It  was  due  to  the  necessarily  rigid  connection 
of  the  frames,  the  engines,  and  the  gearing,  that  pneumatic  tyres 
were  indispensible  on  mechanically-geared  auto  cars. 

Mr  GovAN  (in  reply)  said  it  would  be  quite  impossible  for  him 
to  deal  with  the  whole  of  the  points  that  had  been  raised,  but  he 
would  deal  with  them  in  the  best  manner  possible  in  the  time  at 
his  disposal.  The  first  of  the  correspondence  read  dealt  with  steam, 
and  it  had  been  generally  admitted  by  all  the  speakers  that  it  was 
quite  impossible  in  one  paper  on  motor  cars  to  deal  with  the  whole 
of  the  different  methods  of  power  application  to  road  vehicles. 
His  paper,  as  it  stood,  was  merely  an  introduction  of  the  subject 
of  motor  cars  to  the  Members  of  the  Institution.  Regarding  the 
application  of  steam,  there  had  been  many  attempts  at  making 
steam-propelled  vehicles,  but  unfortunately  none  of  them  could 
really  be  considered  as  commercial  successes.  There  was  the  loco- 
mobile which  was  in  the  ascendency  three  years  ago,  and  to  which 
the  judges  at  the  trials  which  were  made  at  the  Glasgow  Exhibi- 
tion went  out  of  their  way  to  give  two  special  gold  medals  because 
of  the  possibilities  which  they  thought  were  contained  in  the  steam 
vehicle.  To-day  such  cars  were  no  longer  sold ;  at  least,  if  they 
were  sold  it  was  in  very  small  numbers  and  at  a  greatly  reduced 
price.  Further,  there  was  the  fact  that  the  Loco-Mobile  Company 
of  America  had  continued  to  the  best  of  its  ability  to  try  and 
improve  its  system  and  had  latterly  adopted  a  petrol-driven 
vehicle  to  manufacture  at  their  works.  He  thought  that  more 
would  be  obtained  from  practical  fact  than  from  going  into  all  the 
theory  of  the  matter.  The  chief  points  Professor  Barr  seemed  to 
object  to  were  the  high  speed  engine  and  the  pneumatic  tyres.  If 
the  paper  were  read  carefully  it  would  be  seen  that  the  whole 
argument  in  favour  of  high  speed  in  general  was  brought  out  in  the 
comparisons  he  gave,  but  he  would  like  in  passing  to  say  that,  the 
statement  that  the  speed  at  which  the  shaft  was  rotating  when 
giving  the  maximum  power  practically  determined  the  weight  of 


282  MOTOR    CARS 

Mr  GoTin. 

the  remaining  parts  of  the  chassis.  It  simply  came  about  in  this 
way,  that  speed  meant  power,  and  if  one  kept  down  the  weight  of 
the  engine,  the  weight  of  the  gearing  and  the  wheels,  and  com- 
hined  that  with  pneumatic  tyres — another  point  in  motor  cars  that 
was  full  of  controversy — the  whole  combination  was  brought  down 
to  a  light  weight.  It  was  apparent  that  the  lighter  the  car  the  less 
would  be  the  wear  on  the  tyre,  and  to-day  that  was  the  biggest 
cost  item  in  running  a  vehicle  on  the  roads.  Another  point  he 
would  like  to  refer  to  was  that  an  idea  existed  that  20  miles  an 
hour  was  fast  enough.  He  thought  it  was  almost  out  of  place  to 
come  before  the  Members  of  the  Institution  for  the  purpose  of 
trying  to  advocate  high  speeds.  Everyone  knew  the  price  that 
was  being  paid  for  high  speeds  both  on  the  high  seas,  and  on 
railways.  Speed  was  a  matter  that  people  got  used  to  as  time 
advanced.  With  regard  to  statements  about  20  punctures  a  day, 
that,  of  course,  was  overdrawn.  He  might  say  that  in  the  last  5000 
miles  he  had  driven  he  had  not  had  one  puncture.  It  would  be 
admitted  that  the  pneumatic  t3rre  was  gradually  getting  better  and 
means  were  being  taken  to  try,  as  far  as  possible,  to  mitigate  the 
puncture  evil.  One  of  the  methods  was  a  leather  tread  vulcanised 
to  the  rubber  and  filled  with  studs,  and  this  promised  in  a  large 
measure  to  do  away  with  the  chance  of  a  puncture.  Vehicles  to 
which  pneumatic  tyres  were  fitted  were  as  a  rule  capable — dropping 
the  legal  limit — of  travelling  between  30  and  40  miles  an  hour, 
and  the  fact  that  these  cars  were  designed  and  run  successfully 
at  that  speed  showed  in  the  first  place  the  possibilities  of  the  pneu- 
matic tyre.  To  run  a  machine  at  20  miles  an  hour  which  was 
capable  of  being  driven  at  30  or  40  miles  an  hour,  magnified  con- 
siderably the  factor  of  the  safety  of  the  vehicle.  When  vehicles 
designed  to  run  20  miles  an  hour  were  fitted  with  solid  tyres  they 
attained  that  speed  but  not  more ;  but  if  the  car  were  made  25  per 
cent  lighter,  fitted  with  pneumatic  tyres,  and  run  at  the  same  rate 
of  speed  the  factor  of  safety  was  very  materially  increased.  Further, 
if  the  tyre  were  designed  to  stand  the  racket  of  running  between 
30  and  40  miles  an  hour,  and  the  speed  was  reduced  to  20  miles 


MOTOR    CARS  283 

MrOoyan. 

there  was  very  little  chanpe  of  puncture.  He  found  that  the  hulk 
of  punctures  were  got  after  the  rate  passed  20  miles  an  hour.  Mr 
Murray  had  made  some  remarks  concerning  a  carburetter  which 
was  used  with  a  gauze  over  the  air  opening  to  strain  the  moisture, 
and  he  might  say  that  this  type  of  carburetter  was  that  chosen  by 
the  Committee  of  the  French  Auto-Mobile  Club,  as  being  the  best 
carburetter  to  test  all  others  by.  Begarding  the  charging  of  accumu- 
lators, it  was  quite  impossible  for  him  to  go  into  every  detail  of 
that  matter,  and  it  was  well  enough  known  that  car  users  very 
rarely  charged  their  own  accumulators.  They  took  them  to  their 
Icx^al  car  man  or  electrician  and  had  them  charged.  As  to  the 
spark  in  the  high  tension  ignition,  it  was  admitted  that  an  advance 
attachment  was  put  on  to  the  magneto-ignition,  and  if  any  advance 
was  to  be  made  at  all,  it  might  as  well  be  made  a  little  bit  further. 
He  believed  that  the  magneto-ignition  would  one  day  hold  the 
field.  He  had  had  very  considerable  experience  in  fitting  the 
magneto-ignition  known  as  the  Sims-Bosch,  which  was  perhaps 
the  best  known  in  the  market,  but  this  could  not  be  considered 
satisfactory  in  the  opinion  of  the  bulk  of  motor  car  users.  Mr 
Sims  had  been  constantly  in  touch  with  Mr  Bosch,  the  inventor  of 
the  system,  and  these  two  gentlemen  had  been  for  years  working 
on  a  high  tension  ignition  which  did  away  with  one  objectionable 
feature  from  which  a  great  deal  of  trouble  seemed  to  arise. 
Governors  could  be  made  now  to  govern  the  engine  practically  at 
any  speed.  Here  again  he  might  say,  the  paper  was  merely  a 
sketch  and  simply  brought  forward  various  points  which  had  given 
trouble  within  the  last  year  or  two.  Eegarding  side  chains,  it  had 
probably  been  noticed  that  during  a  test  with  a  Napier  car  in  which 
an  attempt  was  made  to  run  2,000  miles  from  John  o'  Groats 
to  Land's  End  and  back,  and  over  devious  routes,  the  chain- 
driven  gear  failed  in  climbing  very  steep  and  rough  roads 
in  the  Highlands,  which  he  had  known  to  be  negotiated 
with  live  axle  cars  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  users  of  those  cars 
The  question  of  iron  tyres  simply  brought  him  back  to  what  he 
had  already  said.     People  desiring  maximum  comfort  could  only 


284  MOTOR   CARS 

MrOovan. 

obtain   it  from   pneumatic  tyres,   not   from   iron  or  solid  tyres. 
Small  batteries  for  cars  could  now  be  got  that  would  run  1,000 
miles  without  recharging,  and  when  this  could  be  done  and  a  spare 
battery  could  be  carried,  also  if  a  car  user  could  get  in  touch  with 
one  who  was  able  to  charge  the  batteries  properly,  there  did  not 
seem  to  be  much  objection  on  this  score  to  high  tension  ignition. 
Mr  Coats  raised  the  question  of  the  application  of  friction  clutches 
to  the  gear.     He  scarcely  followed  what  he  meant,  but  he  would 
describe  what  he  thought  he  meant.     There  was  a  disc  on  the 
main  shaft  and  an  attachment  which  was  made  to  slide  along  the 
face  of  the  disc.     When  this  was  moved  the  speed  was  accelerated 
or  slackened  as  the  case  might  be.     The  difficulty  appeared  to  be 
that  it  required  continual  adjustment  so  as  to  get  a  sufficient  grip 
on  the  disc.     He  submitted  that  the  device  was  not  a  practicable 
one.     It  had  been  tried  both  on  the  Continent  and  in  America^  but 
without   success.     It  was  his  opinion  that  the  adoption  of  high 
speeds  and  pneumatic  tyres  and  the  reduction  of  weight  were  the 
only  means  of  gaining  greater  economy  and  more  efficiency,  and, 
further,  probably  a  reduction  in  the  price  of  the  car  to  the  public, 
which  was  a  thing  it  was  crying  out  for.     He  thanked  the  Members 
of  the  Institution  present  for  the  manner  in  which  they  had  received 
his  paper, 

The  Chaikman  (Mr  E.  Hall-Brown,  Vice-President)  said  they 
were  all  very  much  indebted  to  Mr  Govan  for  his  paper,  which 
had  led  to  such  an  interesting  discussion.  The  French,  as  Mr 
Govan  had  remarked,  had  taken  a  lead  in  this  matter.  Frenchmen 
had  been  at  it  for  a  long  time  and  had  made  great  strides,  but  now 
that  the  industry  in  their  own  neighbourhood  was  assuming  such 
great  proportions,  he  hoped  the  Institution  might  look  upon  this 
paper  as  the  first  of  a  series  on  motor  cars.  He  proposed  a  hearty 
vote  of  thanks  to  Mr  Govan. 

The  vote  of  thanks  was  carried  by  acclamation. 


CONVERSAZIONE   AND   EXHIBITION. 


On  the  evening  of  Friday,  16th  October,  1904,  a  Conversazione 
was  held  in  the  St.  Andrew's  Halls,  Glasgow.  About  800  ladies 
and  gentlemen  attended,  and,  in  the  absence  of  the  President, 
were  received  by  Mr  James  Gilchrist,  Vice-President,  Miss 
Gilchrist,  and  the  Members  of  the  Council. 

During  the  first  part  of  the  evening  a  promenade  conceit 
was  given  in  the  Grand  Hall,  and  after  nine  o'clock  dancing 
commenced,  the  Kent  Hall  having  been  reserved  for  refresh- 
ments. A  cinematograph  display  took  place  at  intervals  during 
the  concert  and  between  the  dances. 

A  most  interesting  feature  of  the  entertainment  was  the 
exhibition  of  models  and  apparatus  connected  with  engineering 
and  shipbuilding,  displayed  in  the  Berkeley  Hall.  An  exhibit 
of  considerable  interest  was  shown  by  Messrs  Kelso  &  Co., 
Glasgow,  who  had  on  view  a  section  of  a  modern  battleship  used 
for  instructional  purposes  on  board  H.M.S.  **  Britannia,"  and 
various  models  of  boat-lowering  apparatus  and  devices  for  housing 
lifeboats.  Messrs  Kelvin  &  James  White  showed  a  varied 
collection  of  their  well-known  electrical  specialities  for  use  on 
board  ship.  These  included  electrical  measuring  and  testing 
instruments,  and  the  latest  form  of  Lord  Kelvin's  ship's  compass^ 
in  which  the  compass  card  is  illuminated  by  electric  light  from 
below.  Messrs  W.  C.  Martin  &  Co.  illustrated,  by  model  and  other- 
wise, the  installation  of  electric  light  on  board  ship.  Messrs  John 
Brown  &  Co.,  Clydebank,  showed  a  model  of  the  T.S.S  **  Moskva," 
built  by  them  for  the  Russian  volunteer  fleet ;  and  Messrs  William 
Denny  &  Bros.,  Dumbarton,  exhibited  a  model  of  the  T.S.  yacht 
"  Lysistrata."  Messrs  Craig  &  Donald,  Johnstone,  showed  a 
shearing  and  notching  machine  ;  while  Messrs  Schaffer  &  Buden- 
berg  had  on  view  a  large  collection  of  their  specialities.  These 
and  other  exhibits  attracted  considerable  attention,  and  promoted 
the  success  of  the  evening. 

24 


THE   -JAMES   WATT"   ANNIVERSARY   DINNER. 


The  **  James  Watt  "  Anniversary  Dinner  under  the  auspices  of 
the  Institution  was  held  in  the  Windsor  Hotel,  St.  Vincent  Street, 
Glasgow,  on  Saturday  evening,  23rd  January,  1904.  There  was  a 
large  and  representative  gathering,  the  company  numbering  up- 
wards of  320  gentlemen.  Mr  James  Gilchrist,  Vice-President  of 
the  Institution,  occupied  the  chair,  and  the  croupiers  were  Mr 
B.  Hall-Brown,  A.  W.  Sampson,  and  James  Weir.  The  Chairman 
was  supported  by  The  Hon.  The  Lord  Provost,  Sir  John  Ure 
Primrose,  Bart. ;  The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Inverclyde;  The  Marquis 
of  Graham;  Captain  J.  G.  Heugh,  R.N.,  D.S.O. ;  Colonel  A.  B. 
Grant,  V.D.;  Dr.  John  Macintyre ;  Mr  Robert  K.  Gray,  President, 
Institution  of  Electrical  Engineers,  London  ;  Provost  Kennedy, 
Partick ;  Mr  John  Ward ;  Deacon -Convener  Goldie  ;  Mr  Thomas 
Kennedy;  Mr  John  G.  Kerr,  LL.D, ;  Mr  Andrew  Lamberton, 
President,  West  of  Scotland  Iron  and  Steel  Institute;  Prof.  A. 
Barr,  D.Sc. ;  Dr.  F.  Gracie;  Engineer-Commander  W.  E.  Onyon, 
R.N. ;  Mr  Alexander  Gracie ;  Mr  Robert  Harvey ;  Mr  R.  T. 
Moore,  B.Sc. ;  Mr  George  M*Farlane  ;  Provost  M*Farlane,  Dum- 
barton; Mr  J.  E.  Harrison,  President,  Glasgow  Association  of 
Students  I.C.E. ;  Mr  J.  G.  Dunlop ;  Provost  Findlay,  Motherwell; 
Mr  W.  A.  Chamen,  President,  Glasgow  Section  Institution  of 
Electrical  Engineers  ;  Mr  Alexander  Cleghorn  ;  Mr  Richard 
Ramage  ;  Mr  A.  C.  Patrick  ;  and  Mr  Edgar  W.  Richards. 

Apologies  for  Absence  were  intimated  from  The  Duke  of  Argyll ; 
Lord  Blythswood  ;  Lord  Overtoun  ;  Sir  Digby  Murray,  Bart. ;  Sir 
William  White,  K.C.B.;  Sir  John  Durston  K.C.B.;  Sir  James 
Williamson;  Colonel  J.  M.  Denny,  M.P. ;  Mr  J.  Parker  Smith, 
M.P. ;  and  Professor  J.  Hudson  Beare. 

After  dinner  the  loyal  toasts  were  given  from  the  chair  and  duly 
honoured. 


ANNIVERSARY  DINNER  287 

Mr  John  Ward. 

Mr  John  Wahd  proposed  **  The  Imperial  Forces."  He  re- 
marked that  Ihe  necessity  for  the  sufficiency  and  the  efficiency  of 
the  Imperial  forces  was  now  recognised  as  above  and  beyond  all 
party  politics.  The  engineering  branch  of  the  Navy  demanded 
and  deserved  better  treatment  than  it  had  hitherto  received  from 
the  Admiralty.  In  the  fighting  of  the  future  this  branch  would 
have  to  be  more  relied  upon,  and  no  grievance  under  which  it 
suffered  should  be  left  unremedied.  The  lessons  of  the  South 
African  war,  which  had  been  learned  at  great  cost,  had  revealed 
defects  in  our  Army  system.  These  had  been  admitted,  and  he 
regarded  with  satisfaction  the  determination  of  the  new  War 
Minister  to  have  them  removed. 

Captain  J.  G.  Heugh,  R.N.,  D.S.O.,  in  replying,  said  that  the 
Navy  had  never  been  in  so  efi&cient  a  condition  as  it  was  at  present. 
The  finest  fighting  machines  that  the  world  had  ever  seen  had 
been  built  on  the  Clyde.  He  thought  that  the  Clyde  shipyards 
might  go  one  better  and  give  their  assistance  in  manning  the 
Navy.  Fully  400  men  from  the  various  shipyards  and  elsewhere 
had  already  joined  the  Naval  Volunteers.  He  hoped  that  the  per- 
sonnel of  this  branch  of  the  Navy  would  be  greatly  increased  by 
men  from  the  yards  in  which  the  ships  were  produced. 

Colonel  A.  B.  Grant,  V.D.,  who  also  acknowledged  the  toast, 
remarked  that  there  was  good  reason  to  hope  that  what  the  War 
Minister  meant  to  do  for  army  reform  would  be  on  thoroughly 
practical  lines. 

The  Chaibman  (Mr  James  Gilchrist)  said  that  for  many  years — 
he  might  safely  say  for  half-a-century — the  toast  of  **  The  Memory 
of  James  Watt "  had  been  given  the  position  of  greatest  prominence 
at  the  "  James  Watt "  dinner.  A  few  years  ago  it  was  thought 
that  the  practice  of  making  it  the  principal  toast  might  be  dis- 
continued, and  consequently,  for  several  years,  it  was  not  included 
in  the  list.  But  the  committee  in  charge  of  the  dinner  arrange- 
ments were  of  opinion  that  it  was  appropriate  that  the  memory  of 
James  Watt  should  be  at  least  formally  honoured.  He  was  not 
going  to  revive  the  custom  of  delivering  an  address  upon   the 


288  THE  "  JAMES   WATT  " 

The  Marquis  of  Oraham. 

character  and  the  work  of  Watt ;  he  simply  asked  that  his  name 
should  onHhat  occasion  be  remembered. 

The  toast  was  honoured  in  silence. 

The  Marquis  of  Graham  proposed  *'The  City  of  Glasgow." 
Alluding  to  the  claim  of  Glasgow  as  the  second  city  of  the  Empire, 
his  Lordship  said  he  had  been  wondering  what  city  came  before 
it,  and  he  had  come  to  the  conclusion  that  if  it  were  second  at 
all  it  was  second  to  none.  The  character  of  the  great  municipal 
institutions  justified  pride  in  their  city. 

Lord  Provost  Sir  John  Ure  Primrose,  Bart.,  acknowledged  the 
toast.  He  shared  Lord  Graham's  view  that  in  the  main  Glasgow 
rightly  claimed  to  occupy  a  very  forward  place  among  the  muni- 
cipalities of  the  Empire.  He  believed  there  was  a  strong  and 
sound  civic  spirit  underlying  the  citizens.  We  had  made  many- 
adventures  and  advances  in  municipal  government,  but  it  seemed 
to  him  appropriate  that  on  an  occasion  when  they  were  celebrating 
the  memory  of  one  who  rendered  great  service  to  Glasgow,  to  the 
world,  and  to  humanity,  he  should  suggest  that  there  was  a  pro> 
blem  before  them  as  a  community  which  had  arisen  as  the  result  of 
the  introduction  of  the  steam  engine.  The  smoke-laden  atmos- 
phere of  Glasgow  was  a  reproach.  Steps  were  being  taken  to 
purify  the  Clyde,  and  remove  the  reproach  due  to  the  condition  of 
the  river.  Surely  science  was  not  so  barren,  and  intellects  were 
not  so  inept  that  something  could  not  be  done  to  remove  the 
smoke  pall  from  an  otherwise  beautiful,  and,  he  would  add,  stately 
city.  He  confessed  that  as  a  manufacturer  in  the  city  he  had 
looked  with  dismay  at  the  chimney  stack  attached  to  the  works  of 
his  firm,  and  as  one  who  had  tried  to  preach  the  gospel  of  purity 
and  beauty  he  had  felt  it  incumbent  upon  him  to  avail  himself  of 
the  inventions  of  many  inventors  to  mitigate  that  nuisance.  He 
confessed,  further,  that  it  had  always  been  a  restraining  influence 
upon  the  governing  body  of  the  city  in  adventuring  upon  drastic 
legislation  dealing  with  the  matter,  that  it  had  to  be  borne  in 
mind  that  it  was  from  the  industrial  undertakings  that  the  citizens 
derived  their  material  well-being.     About  three  weeks  ago  another 


ANNIVERSARY  DINNER  289 

Lord  FroTost  Primvoae. 

inventor,  who  claimed  that  he  had  discovered  a  means  of  annihi- 
lating the  smoke  nuisance,  came  the  way  of  his  firm.  After  full 
consideration  they  adapted  to  one  of  their  marine  type  of  boilers  a 
patent  furnace,  and  it  had  worked  for  two  or  three  weeks  without 
producing  a  vestige  of  smoke,  with  economy  in  full,  and  with  the 
possibihty  of  expansion  in  the  production  of  power,  ^o  him  these 
results  had  been  astounding,  and  if  in  every  other  detail  equally 
satisfactory  results  were  realised,  he  claimed  for  the  inventor  that 
he  had  inaugurated  a  new  era  alike  as  regarded  the  abatement  of 
smoke  and  consumption  of  coal  for  power  production  both  on  land 
and  sea.  It  remained  for  those  who  were  interested  in  the  in- 
vention to  carry  it  out  in  fullness ;  but  with  a  trial  extending  over 
two  or  three  weeks,  working  night  and  day,  without  smoke  from  a 
chimney  that  was  formerly  an  abomination,  he  thought  there  was 
good  ground  for  being  extremely  hopeful  that  a  means  could  be 
found  of  removing  a  foul  blot  from  communal  life. 

Lord  Invebcltde  proposed  "  Engineering  and  Shipbuilding 
Industries."  Going  back  for  only  a  comparatively  brief  period,  it 
was  remarkable,  he  said,  to  note  the  developments  that  had  taken 
place  in  these  industries.  In  Williamson's  book  dealing  with  the 
memories  of  James  Watt,  it  was  pointed  out  as  marvellous  that  in 
1855  ships  were  being  built  of  such  a  size  that  they  cost  from 
£40,000  to  £120,000.  Now  we  had  ships  costing  ten  times  the 
smaller  sum,  and  in  many  cases  more  than  five  times  the  larger 
sum.  One  was  almost  inclined  to  wonder  where  this  develop- 
ment was  going  to  stop.  As  a  shipowner  he  was  almost  inclined 
to  say  to  the  shipbuilders  and  the  engineers — "  Will  you  never 
give  us  peace ;  are  we  to  have  no  rest ;  is  there  to  be  no  time 
when  we  may  feel  that  we  have  reached  something  like  finality  in 
connection  with  our  ships  ?  "  One  no  sooner  thought  he  had  come 
to  the  end  in  some  particular  direction,  than  some  shipbuilder  or 
engineer  came  forward  with  a  proposal  that  one  must  do  some- 
thing better  than  his  neighbour.  Standing  almost  at  the  threshold 
of  a  new  century,  one  could  not  help  looking  backwards  and 
forwards.     Looking  back,  it  was  interesting  to  find  that  at  one 


290  THE   "  JAMES   WATT  " 

Lord  Inrerolyde. 

time  such  a  thing  as  a  steamer  with  a  brick  funnel  was  built  on 
the  Clyde.  In  connection  with  the  question  of  propulsion,  no  less 
an  authority  than  Henry  Bell  came  to  the  conclusion  that  the 
best  development  of  speed  was  to  be  got  by  having  two  paddle 
wheels.  We  had  now  long  got  past  the  stage  of  paddles,  and  long 
past  the  sta^^e  of  single  screws.  Engineers  were  now  considering 
whether  they  should  be  satisfied  with  twin  screws.  He  had  very 
great  doubt  in  his  own  mind  whether,  before  long,  they  would  not 
find  themselves  with  screws  all  round  the  ship.  The  develop- 
ments of  the  past  fifty  years  made  one  wonder  as  to  what  might 
be  accomplished  within  the  next  fifty  years.  One  of  the  great 
topics  of  the  day  was  the  question  whether  turbine  machinery  was 
going  to  take  the  place  of  the  reciprocating  engine  in  marine  work. 
Many,  no  doubt,  thought  that  that  was  bound  to  come.  If  so, 
unfortunate  shipowners  would  have  to  put  away  most  of  their 
ships  into  the  scrap  heap,  or  they  would  find  that  they  were  out- 
paced or  out-classed.  In  connection  with  the  question  of  turbines, 
it  was  interesting  to  recognise  how  it  was  connected  with  the 
three  countries  of  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland.  As  they  knew, 
the  practical  adapter  of  turbine  machinery  was  an  Irishman,  his 
works  were  in  England,  while  the  practical  carrying  out  of  the 
turbine  engine  as  adapted  to  steamers  was  associated  with  the 
Clyde.  It  was  satisfactory  to  know  that  the  first  steamer  of  the 
Transatlantic  t}^e  that  was  to  be  fitted  with  turbines  was  owned 
by  a  well-known  Scottish  firm.  But  it  was  not  only  in  connection 
with  marine  engines  that  development  was  taking  place.  It  was 
to  be  found  also  in  the  matter  of  docks.  No  harbour  in  this 
country  or  in  other  countries  was  standing  still.  The  Clyde 
Trustees  had  found  that  they  had  to  extend  their  progress 
in  providing  dock  accommodation  and  in  deepening  the  river. 
As  practical  men,  they  would  agree  with  him  that  the  Clyde 
Trustees  could  not  stand  still.  They  must  be  prepared  for 
even  greater  things  in  the  future.  Ever>'  great  port  in  the 
country  was  increasing  its  dock  accommodation.  Only  the 
other  day  Liverpool  voted  a  verj'  large  sum   for  building  larger 


ANNIVERSARY  DINNER  291 

Lord  Inverdyde. 

docks,  and  it  already  had  more  docks  than  any  other  port  in  this 
country.  On  the  other  side  of  the  Atlantic,  New  York  was  doing 
exactly  the  same  thing.  The  harbour  authorities  there  were  pre- 
paring plans  and  were  going  ahead  with  docks  to  accommodate 
vessels  800  feet  in  length.  That  showed  that  they  were  looking 
forward  in  connection  with  the  steamship  trade  of  the  future.  In 
connection  with  all  engineering  enterprises  on  shore,  development 
was  also  taking  place.  At  the  present  time  railway  companies 
were  face  to  face  with  very  great  problems.  Only  quite  lately 
they  thought  that  their  developments  in  speed  and  in  the  accom- 
modation of  the  public  were  to  be  upon  former  lines,  but  there  was 
no  doubt  now  that  they  must  be  prepared  to  consider  the  question 
of  electrical  traction.  Electricity  was  apparently  going  to  play  a 
very  important  part  indeed  in  all  developments  of  engineering 
work.  It  was  impossible  to  see  where  progress  was  to  end  in  that 
direction.  An  important  question  in  the  future  was  the  consump- 
tion of  fuel.  Whether  as  shipbuilders,  engineers,  shipowners,  or 
rail  way  men,  they  would  have  to  consider  this  question,  upon 
which  everything  seemed  to  him  to  hang — whether  they  were  to 
get  an  increased  power  with  a  smaller  consumption,  or  in  what 
direction  they  were  to  find  economy.  As  a  shipowner,  there  was 
one  other  matter  in  connection  with  which  it  seemed  to  him  there 
must  be  great  developments — namely,  the  question  of  stoking  at 
sea.  It  was  quite  impossible,  he  thought,  for  matters  to  go  on  as 
at  present  on  ships  carrying  such  very  large  quantities  of  coal  as 
they  had  to  do  for  long  voyages.  There  was  a  great  fortune  in 
store  for  the  inventor  who  could  produce  a  mechanical  stoker 
which  would  meet  the  requirements  of  the  case. 

The  Chaibman,  in  replying,  spoke  of  the  great  advances  that 
had  been  made  in  all  departments  of  shipbuilding  and  engineering 
science,  and  claimed  a  large  share  of  the  credit  for  the  inventors 
of  the  workshop  plant,  by  which  shipbuilders  and  engineers  were 
enabled  to  produce  work  of  the  highest  class.  Unfortunately  a 
large  number  of  workmen  were  not  so  enthusiastic  as  their  em- 
ployers were  to  do  everything  in  their  power  to  keep  work  within 


^92  ANNIVERSARY  DINNER 

Mr  Jamei  Gilchrist 

our  own  shores.  If  they  would  put  their  shoulders  to  the  wheel 
with  the  same  indomitable  spirit  that  characterised  their  forebears, 
one  would  hear  far  less  about  ships  being  built  abroad  at  much 
lower  prices  than  they  could  be  built  at  home.  Speaking  of 
the  large  class  of  ships  that  were  now  being  built,  be 
remarked  that  the  Clyde  Trustees  knew  pretty  well  what  they 
were  about  He  felt  quite  satisfied  that  if  Lord  Inverclyde's 
firm  placed  one  of  their  huge  floating  palaces  on  the  upper  reaches 
of  the  river,  the  Lord  Provost  would  see  his  way  to  advise  his 
colleagues  in  the  Trust  to  make  a  waterway  that  would  carry  her 
to  the  sea. 

During  the   evening   an  interesting  programme   of  vocal  and 
instrumental  music  was  submitted. 


MINUTES      OF      PEOCEEDINGS. 
FORTY-SKVENTH  SESSION. 


The  First  Genekal  Meeting  was  held  in  the  Hall  of  the 
Institution,  207  Bath  Street,  Glasgow,  on  Tuesday,  27th  October, 
1903,  at  8  p.m. 

Mr  James  Gilchrist,  Vice-President,  occupied  the  chair. 

After  the  Chairman's  opening  remarks,  the  Minutes  of  the 
Annual  General  Meeting,  held  on  28th  April,  1903,  were  read, 
confirmed,  and  signed  by  the  Chairman. 

The  new  Members  elected  at  the  previous  Meeting  were  duly 
admitted. 

ANNUAL  report  OF  THE  COUNCIL. 

The  Chairman  said  the  Council  had  pleasure  in  submitting  the 
Annual  Report  and  Treasurer's  Statement,  and  called  upon  Mr 
Thomas  Kennedy,  Hon.  Treasurer,  to  move  their  adoption. 

Mr  Kennedy  commented  upon  the  financial  result  of  the  past 
year,  and  suggested  that  the  cost  of  future  awards  of  Books 
should  be  borne  by  the  Medal  Funds. 

He  moved  the  adoption  of  the  Council  Eeport  and  Treasurer's 
Statement,  and  the  motion  was  unanimously  accepted. 

LIBRARY   AND   READING   ROOM. 

Mr  John  Weir  called  attention  to  the  limited  hours  during 
which  the  Library  and  the  Beading-room  were  available  to  Members 
and  considered  that  both  should  be  kept  open,  during  the  winter 
months,  every  lawful  day  till  10  p.m. 

PREMIUMS   OF   BOOKS. 

The  awards  made  at  the  Annual  General  Meeting  of  28th  April, 
1903,  were  presented  as  follows,  viz. : — 

1  To  Mr  William  Brown,  for  his  paper  on  "  Dredging  and 
Modem  Dredge  Plant." 


294  MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS 

2  To  Mr  A.  Mabshall  Downie,  B.Sc,  for  his  paper  on  *'  The 
Design  and  Construction  of  Fly-wheels  for  Slow-speed  Engines  for 
Electric  Lighting  and  Traction  Purposes  "  ;  and 

3.  To  Mr  J.  FosTEK  King,  for  his  paper  on  •*  Kudders." 

Thereafter,  a  paper  was  read  by  Mr  F.  J.  Eowan  on  "  Super- 
heated Steam." 

A  paper,  by  Mr  John  Eiekie.  on  '*  Improvements  in  Valve- 
Gears,"  was  read  by  the  Secretary. 

The  following  Candidates  were  duly  elected  : — 

AS   MEMBERS. 

Anderson,  Alfred  Walter,  Foander,  Blackness  Foundry,  Dandee. 

Arrol,  Thomas,  Engineer,  23  Doune  Terrace,  Kelvinside,  Glasgow. 

Arrol,  William,  Engineer,  23  Doune  Terrace,  Kelvinside,  Glasgow. 

BURNSIDE,  William,  Engineer,  8  Armadale  SStreet,  Dennistoun,  Glasgow. 

Dron,  Alexander,  Engineer,  59  Elliot  Street,  Glasgow. 

GouDiK,  Robert,  Engineer,  39  West  Campbell  Street,  Glasgow. 

Hynd,  Alexander,  Engineer,  Federal    Supply  &  Cold  Storage  Co.,  of 

Soath  Africa,  Ltd.,  Durban,  S.A. 
Kelso,  Matthew  Glen,  Engineer  and  Model  maker,  47  Oxford  Street, 

Glasgow. 
LowsoN,  James,  Electrical  Engineer,  10  West  Campbell  Street,  Glasgow. 
Martin,   William  Crammond,    Electrical  Engineer,  10  West  Campbell 

Street,  Glasgow. 
MoYES,  John  Young,  Engineer,  12  Rathven  Street,  Glasgow. 
Whitehead,  Alexander  Cullen,  Engineer,  Messrs  Whitehead  Bros., 

Engineers,  Johannesburg,  S.A. 

From  Associate  M ember b, 
McLellan,  Alexander,  Civil  Eninneer,  16  Robertson  Street,  Glasgow. 
Smith,  James  A  ,  Engineer,  Union  Bank  House,  Virginia  Place,  Glasgow. 

From  Students. 
Anderson,   George  Carrick,  Electrical  Engineer,  13  Balmoral  Drivf, 

Cambuslang. 
Black,  John  W.,  Electrical  Engineer,  IO^a  West  Regent  Street,  Glasgow. 
Blair,  Archibald,  Chief  Draughtsman,  21  Havelock  Street,  Dowanhill, 

Glasgow. 
Brown,  David  A.,  Engineer,  67  St.  Vincent  Crescent,  Glasgow 
C ALDER,  John,   Engineer,    Manager,   18   St.  Austin's   Place,    West  New 

Brighton,  New  York  City,  U.S.A. 


MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS  295 

Cameron,  Hugh,  Engineer,  40  Camperdown  Road,  Scotstonn,  Glasgow. 
Campbell,  Angus,  Engineer  Surveyor,  90  Soathgrove  Road,  Sheffield. 
Cabslaw,  William  H.  Jan.,  Engineer,  Parkhead  Boiler  Works,  Glasgow. 
FiNDLAY,  Louis,  Consulting  Engineer,  50  Wellington  Street,  Glasgow. 
Fraser,  J.  IMBRIB,  Founder,  13  Sandyford  Place,  Glasgow. 

GOURLAT,  Robert  Cleland,  Assistant  Manager,  Caledonia  Engine  Works, 
Paisley. 

Henderson,  Charles  A.,  Engineer,  The  British  Westinghonse  Manufac- 
turing Co.,  Ltd.,  Trafford  Park, Manchester. 

Innes,  William,  Electrical  Engineer,  11  Walmer  Terrace,  Glasgow. 

Lauder,  Thomas  H„  Assistant  Steel  Works  Manager,  38  Chappel 
Terrace,  Parkhead,  Glasgow. 

Leslie,  John,  Ship  Draughtsman,  Struan,  Victoria  Drive,  Scotstounhill, 
Glasgow. 

LORIMER,  Alexander  Smith,  Engineer,  Glasgow  Locomotive  Works, 
Poimadie,  Glasgow. 

Maccallum,  Patrick  F.,  Engineer,  93  Hope  Street,  Glasgow. 

Macfarlane,  Duncan,  Eogiueer,  5S  Hydepark  Street,  Glasgow. 

McHouL,  John  Boyd,  Engineering  Draughtsman,  2  Windsor  Terrace,  Lang- 
side,  Glasgow, 

McIntosh,  John,  Shipyard  Manager,  5  Douglas  Terrace,  Paisley. 

Millar,  Thomas,  Naval  Architect,  Walker  Shipyard,  Newcastle-on-Tyno. 

Miller,  Robert  Faulds,  Civil  Engineer,  109  Bath  Street,  Glasgow. 

Osborne,  Hugh,  Electrical  fingineer,  31  Broomhill  Terrace,  Partick. 

Paterson,  Jambs  V.,  Naval  Architect,  c/o  International  Mercantile  Marine 
Co.,  8C5-307  Walnnt  Street,  Philadelphia,  U.S.A. 

Raphael,  Robert  Alexander,  Engineer,  Assistant  Works  Manager, 
150  Renfrew  Street,  Glasgow. 

Russell,  James  E.,  Engineer,  16  Roxburgh  Street,  Hillhead,  Glasgow. 

Ssath,  William  Young,  Naval  Architect,  121  St.  Vincent  Street,  Glasgow. 

Tod,  Peter,  Engineer,  Messrs  E.  H.  Williamson  &  Co.,  Lightbody  Street, 
Liverpool. 

Turnbull,  Campbell,  Consulting  Engineer,  190  West  George  Street, 
Glssgow. 

Turnbull,  Jambs,  Engineer,  Basford  House,  Seymour  Grove,  Manchester. 

Turnbull.  William  L.,  Consulting  Engineer,  190  West  George  Street, 
Glasgow. 

Watt,  R.  D.,  Engineer,  c/o  Messrs  Butteriield  &  ,Swire,  French  Bund, 

Shanghai. 

AS  ASSOCIATE  MEMBERS. 

Cleghorn.  George,  Engineering  Draughtsman.  2  Clelland  Place,  Ibrox, 
Govan. 


296  MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS 

Ferguson,  Daniel,  Enjiineer,  27  Oswald  Street,  Glasgow. 

From,  StMdenti. 
Agnew  .William  Henry,  Engineering  Dranghtsman,  Messrs  Laird  Bros. 

Ltd.,  Birkenhead. 
Arbuthnott,  Donald  8.,  Civil  Engineer,  65^Renfield  Street,  Glasgow. 
Arundel,  Arthur  S.  D.,  Mechanical  Engineer,  Penn   Street   Works, 

Boston,  London,  N. 
Bennett,  Duncan,    Marine   Engineer,  9    Leslie   Street,    PoUokshields, 

Glasgow. 
Berry,  Davidson,  Electrical  Eas^eer,  21  Grange  Terrace,    Langside, 

Glasgow. 
Dekkk,  Kristian  Stoltz,  Shipyard  Manager,  Bergen,  Norway. 
DiACK,  James  A.,  Engineer,  4  Rosemonnt  Terrace,  Ibrox,  Govan. 
Edmiston,  Alexander  A.,  Engineer,  Ibrox  Hoase,  Govan. 
France,  James,  Master  of  Works,  8  Hanover  Terrace,  Kelvinsido,  Glasgow. 
Horn,  Peter  Allan,  Engineering  Draughtsman,  29  Kegent  Moray  Street, 

Glasgow. 
Hutchison,  Robert,  Structural  Draughtsman,  e/o  Messrs  Bums  &  Co., 

Ltd.,  Howrah,  Bengal,  India. 
Irvine,  Archibald  B.,  Marine  Engineer,  3  Newton  Terrace,  Glasgow. 
Johnston,  Robert,  Engineering  Draughtsman,  c/o  Mac  Vicar,  20  Rothesay 

Gardens,  Partick. 
Johnstone,  Alexander  C.  ,  Structural  Danghtsman,  167  Langside  Road, 

Croeshill,  Glasgow. 
Jones,  Thomas  C,  Marine  Engineer,  17  Kent  Avenue,  Jordanhill,  Glasgow. 
McGiLVRAY,  John  Alexander,  Lecturer  in  Engineering,  565  Govan  Road, 

Govan. 
MclNTYRE,  James  N.,  Stalheim,  South  Brae  Drive,  Scotstounhill,  Glasgow*. 
Mackintosh,  R.D.,  Engineer,  P.O.  Box  6075,  Johanueeburg,  S.  A« 
Smith,  James,  Draughtsman,  23  Barrington  Drive,  Glasgow. 
Steele,  David  John,  Electrical  Engineer,  41  Albert  Drive,  PoUokshields, 

Glasgow. 
Taylor,  John  F.,  Engineeiing  Draughtsman,  28  Roslea  Drive,  Dennistoon, 

Glasgow. 
Whitelaw,    Andrew    H.,     B.Sc.,     Engineer,    74    Dundonald     Road, 

Kilmarnock. 
Woods,  Joseph,  Civil  Engineer,  58  Dudley  Road,  Bford,  Essex. 

associates. 
Cayzer,  Sir  Charles  W.,  M.P.  Shipowner,  Gartmore,  Perthshire. 
Dawson,  David  C,  Shipowner,  12  York  Street,  Glasgow. 


MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS  297 

Hope,  Andrkw,  Shipowner,  50  Wellington  Street,  Glasgow. 
Oyertoun,  The  Kt  Hon.  Lord,  Overtonn,  Dambartonshire. 
Sloan,  Robert  Bell,  Shipowner,  60  Wellington  Street,  Glasgow. 

STUDENTS. 

Applxby,  John  Herbert,  Apprentice  Engineer,  183  Balshagray  Avenue, 

Partick. 
Freer,  Robert  M'Donald,  Electrical  Engineer,  14  India  Street,  Glasgow. 
Houston,  David  S.,  Engineer,  4  Abbotsford  Place,  Glasgow. 
McCracken,  William,  Apprentice  Engineer,  9  Danes  Drive,  Scotstonn, 

Glasgow. 
McMillan,  Duncan,  Engineer,  174  Paisley  Road  West,  Glasgow. 
MoRLVY,  Thomas  6.,  B.Sc.,  Engineer,  5  Walmer  Terrace,  Ibrox,  Glasgow. 
Smith,  James,  Jud.  ,  Engineer,  Darley,  MilDgavie. 
Williamson,  Edward  H.,  Apprentice  Engineer,  214  Langlands  Road, 

Sonth  Go  van. 


The  Second  General  Meeting  was  held  in  the  Hall  of  the 
the  Institution,  207  Bath  Street,  Glasgow,  on  Tuesday,  24th 
November,  1903,  at  8  p.m. 

Prof.  J.  H.  Biles,  LL.D.,  Vice-President,  occupied  the  chair. 

The  Minutes  of  the  First  General  Meeting,  held  on  27th 
October,  1903,  having  been  printed  in  the  billet  calling  the 
Meeting,  were  held  as  read,  and  signed  by  the  Chairman. 

The  new  Members  elected  at  the  previous  Meeting  were  duly 
admitted. 

The  Chairman  said  he  occupied  the  chair  that  evening  in  the 
absence  of  the  President,  who,  he  was  glad  to  say,  was  improving 
very  much  in  health.  He  felt  sure  that  all  present  were  desirous 
that  their  good  wishes  for  a  speedy  recovery  should  be  conveyed 
to  the  President,  and  this  he  should  have  pleasure  in  doing. 

Thereafter  the  discussion  on  Mr  F.  J.  Rowan's  paper  on 
**  Superheated  Steam  "  was  begun  and  adjourned. 

The  discussion  on  Mr  John  Ribkie's  paper  on  *•  Improve- 
ments in  Valve-Gears  "  was  begun  and  concluded. 

On  the  motion  of  the  Chairman,  Mr  Riekie  was  awarded  a  vote 
of  thanks  for  his  paper. 


298  '  MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS 

A  paper  by  Mr  Banein  Kennedy  on  "Marine  Propellers 
with  'Non-reversible  Engines  and  Internal  Combustion  Engines," 
was  read  by  the  Secretary. 

The  following  candidates  were  duly  elected : — 

AS  MEMBERS. 

Anderson,  Alexander,  Locomotive  Engineer,  176  Baigray  Hill,  Spring- 
burn,  Glasfifow. 
Bryan,  Matthew  Reid,  Locomotive  Engineer,  1  Royal  Terrace,  Springbora, 

Glasgow. 
Day,  Charles,  Engineer,  Manager,  Hantly  Lodge,  Ibrdxbolm,  Glasgow. 
MclNTOSH,  Thomas  William,  Engineer,  Manager,  58  Hydepark  Street. 

Glasgow. 
Niblson,  Johs7  Frederick,  Electrical  Engineer,  Messrs  John  Brown  & 

Co.,  Ltd.,  Clydebank. 
Wii^ON,    William  Cheetham,    Chief  Draughtsman,   122  Baigray  Hill, 

Springbnrn,  Glasgow. 

From    StuderU. 
Bowman,   William   David    Engineer,    21  Kersland  Terrace,    Billhead, 

Glasgow. 

AS  associate  members. 
Mitchell,  Alexander  Robertson,  Engineering  Draughtsman,  KillH>wie 

Cottafres,  Kibowie  Hill,  Clydebank. 
Stephen.    David    Belford,    Engineering    Draughtsman,    14    Whitevale 

Street,  Dennistoun,  Glasgow. 

From  Students, 
Menzies,  George,  Engineer,  20  St.  Vincent  Crescent,  Glasgow. 

AS  A  student. 
CoRMACK,  Jambs   Alexander,  Engineer,   149    Hill   Street,    Gamethill, 

Glasgow. 


The  Third  General  Meeting  was  held  in  the  Hall  of  the 
Institution,  207  Bath  Street,  Glasgow,  on  Tuesday,  22nd 
December,  1903,  at  8  p.m. 

Mr  E.  Hall-Brown,  Vice-President,  occupied  the  chair. 

The  Minutes  of  the  Second  General  Meeting,  held  on  24th 
November,  1903,  having  been  printed  in  the  billet  calling  the 
Meeting,  were  held  as  read,  and  signed  by  the  Chairman. 


MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS  299 

The  new  Members  elected  at  the  previous  Meeting  were  duly 
admitted. 

Thereafter  the  discussion  on  Mr  F.  J.  Rowan's  paper  on 
**  Superheated  Steam  "  was  resumed  and  again  adjourned. 

The  discussion  on  Mr  Rankin  Kennedy's  paper  on  '*  Marine 
Propellers  with  Non-Reversible  Engines  and  Internal  Combustion 
Engines'*  was  begun  and  adjourned. 

A  paper  by  Mr  J.  Millen  Adam  on  **An  Inquiry  Regarding 
the  Marine  Propeller  "  was  read 

The  following  candidates  were  duly  elected: — 

AS  MEMBERS. 

Davie,  William,  Engineer,  50  Lennox  Avenue,  Scotstonn,  Glasgow. 
Perrier,  Hugh,  Chief^Enfrineering  Dranghtaman,  48  Daisy  Street,  Govan- 

hill,  Glasgow. 
Forrester,  John,  En^neer,  41  Bothwell  Street,  Glasgow. 
Hendin.    Alexander   James,  Asi^istant   Chief  Ship  Draughtsman,    14 

Hamilton  Terraee,  Partick,  Glasgow. 
MacDonald,  William,  Engineer,  48  Dalhonsie  Street,  Glasgow. 
Wilson,  John,  Engineer,  256  Scotland  Street,  Glasgow. 

From  Associate  Members, 
Crighton,  John,  Assistant  Shipyard  Manager,  Claes  de  Vrieselaan  137, 

Rotterdam. 

From  Students. 
Brown,  John  Pollock,  Civil  Engineer,  2  Parkgrove  Terrace,  Glasgow,  W. 
Cochrane,  James.  Chief  Draughtsman,  Engineer's  Office,  Dooks,  Cape 

Town. 
McLean.  John,  Chief   Mechanical    Engineer,    Lower    Barraca,    Valetta, 

Malta. 
Russell,  Alexander  C,  Assistant  Chief  Draughtsman,  655  Hawthorn 

Street,  Springbum,  Glasgow. 

AS  associate  members. 
Johnstone,  John  (^avin,  B.Sc,  Naval  Architect,  Condorrat  Manse,  Croy 

Station. 
Urb.  Sebastian  G.  M.,  Engineer,  514  St  Vincent  Street,  Glasgow. 
ITtting,  Samuel,  Engineer,  29  Keir  Street,  Pollokshields,  Glasgow. 

From  Students, 
Knox,  Alexander,  Assistant  Superintendent  Engineer,  44  Garden  Reach, 
Calcutta. 


300  MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS 

Millar,    John   Simpson,   Chief   Draughtsman,    22    Rothesay   Gardens, 

Pardck. 
Mitchell,  Robert  Monteith,  Engineer,  24  Howard  Street,  Bridgeton, 

Glasgow. 
Morgan.  Andrew,  Engineer,  20  Minerva  Street,  GLmkow. 
Stirling,    Andrew,   Engineering   Draughtsman,  3   Greenvale   Terrace, 

DnmhartoD. 

AS  students. 
Clover,   Mat^  Apprentice  Ship  Draaghtsman,   587  Sanchiehall   Street, 

Glasgow. 
Hodoart,  Matthew,  Apprentice  Engineer,  Linnsbom,  Paisley. 
Johnston,  Hector,  Apprentice  Engineer,  206  Lncania  Place,  Soath  Grovan. 
Kinross,  Cecil  Gibson,  Apprentice  Engineer,  4  Park  Terrace,  Goran. 
McKean,  J  AMES,  Apprentice  Engineering  Draughtsman,  3  Buchanan  Terraoe» 
Paisley. 


The  Fourth  General  Meeting  was  held  in  the  Hall  of  the 
Institution,  207  Bath  Street,  Glasgow,  on  Tuesday,  26th 
January,  1904,  at  8  p.m. 

Mr  James  Gilchrist,  Vice-President,  occupied  the  chair. 

The  Minutes  of  the  Third  General  Meeting,  held  on  22nd 
December,  1903,  having  been  printed  in  the  billet  calling  the 
Meeting,  were  held  as  read,  and  signed  by  the  Chairman. 

The  Chairman  introduced  Dr.  John  Macintyre,  F.R.S.E.,  who, 
on  the  invitation  of  the  Council,  had  consented  to  lecture  on 
**  Radium  and  its  Properties." 

Thereafter  Dr.  Macintyre  delivered  his  lecture,  and  on  the 
the  motion  of  the  Chairman  was  awarded  a  vote  of  thanks. 

The  following  candidates  were  duly  elected : — 

as  MEMBERS. 

Booth,  Robert,  Engineer,  Glengelder,  Cowey  Road,  Durban,  Natal. 
Clark,  William,  Engineer,  23  Royal  Exchange  Square,  GUsgow. 
Gray,  William,  Naval  Architect,  6  Lloyd's  Avenue,  London.  E.G. 
Monroe.  Robert,  Engineer,  Eastbrook  House,  Dinas  Powis,  Glam. 
Morton,  Thomas  M.  G.,  Engineer,  Errol  Works,  Errol,  Perthshire. 
Richardson,  Andrew,  Engineer,  Soho  Engine  Works,  Paisley. 


MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS  301 

From  S^udenU. 
Stabk,  James,  CiTil  Engineer,  Penang,  Straite  Settlement 

AS  ASSOCIATE  MRHBEBS. 

Burns,  William,  Ship  Dranghtenuuk,  10  Qaeen  Sqaare,  Glasgow, 
TosTEE,  Etbnor,  Engineer,  3a  Harvie  Street,  Paisley  Road  W.,  Glasgow. 

From  Studenti, 
Ross,  John  Richmond,  Engineer,  Messrs  Balfour,  Lyon  &  Co.,  Valparaiso. 
Symington,  James  R.,  Civil  Engineer,  Messrs  Butterfieid  &  Swire,  Hong» 
Kong. 

AS    STUDENTS. 

Baird,  James,  Mechanical  Draughtsman,  30  St.  Andrew's  Drive,  Pollok- 

shields,  Glasgow. 
Fraser,  John  Alexander,  Apprentice  Engineer,  969  Govan  Road,  Govan. 


The  Fifth  General  Meeting  of  the  Institution  was  held  in  the 
Hall  of  the  Institution,  207  Bath  Street,  Glasgow,  on  Tuesday, 
23rd  February,  1904,  at  8  p.m. 

Mr  E.  Hall-Brown,  Vice-President,  occupied  the  chair. 

The  Minutes  of  the  Fourth  General  Meeting,  held  on  26th 
January,  1904,  having  been  printed  in  the  billet  calling  the 
Meeting,  were  held  as  read,  and  signed  by  the  Chairman. 

The  new  Members  elected  at  the  two  previous  meetings  were 
duly  admitted. 

Thereafter  the  discussion  on  Mr  F.  J.  Rowan's  paper  was 
resumed  and  concluded. 

On  the  motion  of  the  Chairman,  Mr  Bowan  was  awarded  a 
vote  of  thanks  for  his  paper. 

The  Chairman  moved  a  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr  Rankin  Kennedy 
for  his  paper  on  "  Marine  Propellers  with  Non-Reversible  Engines 
and  Internal  Combustion  Engines." 

The  discussion  on  Mr  J.  Millen  Adam's  paper,  on  **  An  Inquiry 
regarding  the  Marine  Propeller,"  was  begun  and  adjourned. 

A  paper  by  Mr  Charles  Day,  on  '*  Experiments  with  Rapid 
Cutting  Steel  Tools,"  was  read. 

25 


S02  MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS 

The  following  candidates  were  duly  elected : — 

AS  MEMBERS. 

Gill,  Wiluam  Nelson»  Engioeer,  11  Kenland  Street,  HiUhead,  Glasgow. 
McGallum,  David  Broadfoot,  Engineer,  Aldersyde,  Radyr,  near  Cardiff. 
Reid,    William    Paton,    Looomotive   Engineer,    35    Dnneam    Street, 

Glasgow,  W. 
Stewart,  James,  Engineer,  Dnnolly,  Holmfanldhead  Drive,  South  Govan. 

Fmm  StvdenU, 

Jackson,  Wiluam  Stenhouse,  Naval  Architect,  109  Hope  Street,  Glaegow. 
Robertson,    Alexander,  Engineer  and  Shipbailder,  8  Damley  Road, 

PoUokshieldB,  Glasgow. 
ScoBiE,  Alexander,  Consnlting  Engineer,  58  Weet  Regent  Street,  Glasgow. 

AS  associate  members. 

Lowe,  James,  Engineer,  33  Nithsdale  Road,  Glasgow. 
Lyons,  Lewis  James,  Naval  Architect,  4  St.  James  Terrace,   HfUheed, 
Glasgow. 

From  Students, 

FiNDLATER,  James,  Enffineer,  124  Pollok  Street,  Glasgow,  S.S. 
Lamb,  Stuart  D.  R.,  Civil  Engineer,  St.  Enoch  Station,  Glasgow. 
MuiR,  Andrew  A.,  Engineer,  189  Renfrew  Street,  Glasgow. 
Ralston,  Shirley  Brooks,  Ship  Draaghtsman,  34  Gray  Street,  Glasgow. 

as  an  associate. 

Clark,  Robert,  Shipowner,  21  Bothwell  Street,  Glasgow. 


The  Sixth  General  Meeting  of  the  Institution  was  held  in 
the  Hall  of  the  Institution,  207  Bath  Street,  Glasgow,  on  Tuesday, 
22nd  March,  1904,  at  8  p.m. 

Professor  J.  H.  Biles,  LL.D.,  Vice-President,  occupied  the 
chair. 

The  Minutes  of  the  Fifth  General  Meeting,  held  on  23rd 
February,  1904,  having  been  printed  in  the  billet  calling  the 
Meeting,  were  held  as  read,  and  signed  by  the  Chairman. 

The  Secretary  read  a  letter  from  the  American  Society  of 
Civil  Engineers,  as  follows  : — 


MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS  303' 

Office  of  the  Secretary, 

220  West  57th  Street,  New  York, 

February  loih,  1^04. 

To  the  President  and  Secretary, 
Institution  of  Engineers  and  Shipbuilders   in    Scotland, 
207  Bath  Street,  Glasgow,  Scotland. 

Dear  Sirs, 

I  am  directed  by  the  Committee  in  charge  to  extend  a  cordial 
iiiTitation  to  the  Members  of  the  Institution  of  Engineers  and  Shipbuilders 
in  Scotland,  to  participate  in  an  International  Engineering  Congress  to 
be  held,  under  the  auspices  of  the  American  Society  of  Civil  Engineers, 
at  the  Universal  Exposition  at  St.  Louis,  Missouri,  U.S.A.,  October  3rd 
to  8th,  1904,  the  plan  and  scope  of  which  are  set  forth  in  some  detail 
in  the  enclosed  circular  of  "Preliminary  Announcement." 

The  Committee  hopes  that  the  Members  of  your  organisation  will, 
quite  generally,  become  members  of  the  Congress,  and  participate  in  its 
proceedings,  either  in  person,  or  by  written  communications,  forwarded 
to  the  undersigned,  on  any  of  the  subjects  which  have  been  chosen  for 
consideration. 

Yours  respectfully, 

CHAS.  WARREN  HUNT, 
Secretary, 

The  Secretary  read  a  petition  in  fayoiir  of  the  adoption  of 
the  Metric  Weights  and  Measures  from  the  Secretary  of  the 
Decimal  Association,  Oxford  Court,  Cannon  Street,  London,  E.G. 

The  new  Members  elected  at  the  previous  meeting  were  duly 
admitted. 

The  following  Nominations  for  Oiiice-Bearers  (Sessions  1904-07 
were  then  made : — 

President,  Mr  Archibald  Denny.  Vice-Presidents,  Messrs  W.  A. 
Chamen,  George  McFarlane,  F.  J.  Eowan,  and  John  Ward. 
Members  oj  Council  from  Class  of  Members,  Messrs  Andrew  Fisher, 
James  Gilchrist,  D.  C.  Hamilton,  J.  D.  Harrison,  J.  Foster 


304  MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS 

King,  Fred.  Lobnitz,  David  Mabshall,  D.  A.  Matheson,  Andeb- 
SON  RoDGEB,  and  James  Weib.  Memhera  of  Covndl  frmn  Assodaie 
Class,  Messrs  W.  A.  Kinghobn  and  Thomas  Whimsteb. 

The  discussion  on  Mr  J.  Millen  Adam's  paper  on  *'  An  Inquiry 
regarding  the  Marine  Propeller,"  was  resumed  and  concluded. 

On  the  motion  of  the  Chairman,  Mr  Adam  was  awarded  a  vote 
of  thanks  for  his  paper. 

The  discussion  on  Mr  Chables  Day's  paper  on  '<  Experiments 
with  Bapid  Cutting  Steel  Tools,"  w^as  resumed  and  concluded. 

On  the  motion  of  the  Chairman,  Mr  Day  was  awarded  a  vote 
of  thanks  for  his  paper. 

A  paper  by  Professor  Magnus  Maclean,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  on  '*The 
Hewett  Mercury  Vapour  Lamp,"  w^as  read. 

On    the    motion   of    the   Chairman,  Professor    Maclean   was 
awarded  a  vote  of  thanks  for  his  paper. 

Thereafter  a  paper  by  Mr  John  G.  Johnstone,  B.Sc,  on  "The 
Dses  of  the  Integraph  in  Ship  Calculations  "  was  held  as  read. 
The  following  Candidates  were  duly  elected : — 
AS  membkbs. 
Allo,  Oscar  Edward,  Electrical  Engineer,  100  Both  well  Street,  Glasgow, 
Cousins,  John  Booth,  Engineer,  75  Bachanan  Street,  Glasgow. 
Hamilton,  Robert  Smith,  Engineer,  Flemington,  Maxwell  Park  Gardens, 

Pollokshields,  Glasgow. 
Kbrr,  John,  Engineer,  10  Wellmeadow,  Blairgowrie. 
Yardlev,  Robert  William,  Engineer,  Lochinvar,  Victoria  DriTo,  Soots- 
tonnhill,  Glasgow. 

From  Students, 
Wannop,  Charles  H.,  Chief  Dranghtsman,  Messrs  A.  Stephen  &  Son, 
LinthoQse,  Glasgow. 

as  associate  members. 
Boyd,  James,  Engineer,  20  Albert  Drive,  Crossbill,  Glasgow. 
Johnson,  Herbert  August,  Mechanical   Engineer,  41   James   Street^ 

Holdemess  Road,  Hull. 
Wilson,  Charles  A.,  Mechanical  Engi&eer,  36  Bank  Street,  Hillhead, 

Glasgow. 

From  Students. 

Spkrry,  [Austin.   Naval  Architect,  2353  Larkin  Street,  San  Francisco^ 

Cal.,  U.S.A. 


MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS  305 

AS  ASSOCIATES. 

fiowMAN,  Fbedrrick  Gboroe,  Machinery  Merchant,  21  Kersland  Terrace, 

Hillhead,  Glasgow. 
GsAHAM,  The  Meet  Honourable  The  Marquis  of,  Buchanan  Castle,  Glasgow. 
Henderson,  John,  Assistant  Secretary,  Messrs  John  Brown  &  Co.,  Ltd., 

Clydebank. 
Ikykecltde,  The  Kight  Honourable  Lord,  Castle  Wemyss,  Wemyss  Bay. 
MacBratne,  David  Hope,  Shipowner,  119  Hope  Street,  Glasgow. 

At  Students, 
Bill,  H.  L.  Ronald,  Apprentice  Engineer,  Redargan,  Drumoyne  Drive, 

GoTan. 
Crichton,  Jamks.  B.Sc.,  Apprentice  Engineer,  c/o  Granger,  24  St.  Vincent 

Crescent,  Glasgow. 
Dickie,  David  Walker,  Student  of  Naval   Architecture,  60  Sardinia 

Terrace,  HiUhead. 
DoRNAN,  John  D.,  Apprentice  Engineer,  21  Minerva  Street,  Glasgow. 
Hallkt,  Matthew  White,  Student  of  Naval  Architecture,  43  Lawrence 

Street,  Partick,  Glasgow. 
Henderson,  John  Alexander,   Student  of  Naval  Architecture,   IS 

Rothesay  Gardens,  Partick,  Glasgow. 
HoTT,  Charles  S.,  B.A.,  Student  of  Naval  Architecture,  6  Parkgrove 

Terrace,  Glasgow. 
McClelland,  Harold  Robinson,  Apprentice  Engineer,  8  Park  Terrace, 

Govan. 
McDonald,  Claude  Knox,  Student  of   Naval  Architecture,  Lennozvale 

Maryland  Drive,  Craigton,  Glasgow. 
Parr,  Fredrik,  Student  of  Naval  Architecture,  16  Eton  Place,  Hillhead, 

Glasgow. 
Williamson,  George  Taylor,  Student  of  Naval  Architecture,  Craig- 

hamet,  Greenock. 
Work,  John  C,  Student  of  Naval  Architecture,  6  Parkgrove  Terrace, 

Glasgow. 


The  Annual  General  Meeting  of  the  Institution  was  held  in 
the  Hall  of  the  Institution,  207  Bath  Street,  Glasgow,  on  Tues- 
day 26th  April,  1904,  at  8  p.m. 
Mr  James  Gilchrist,  Vice-President,  occupied  the  chair. 
The  minutes  of  the   Sixth  General  Meeting,  held  on   22nd 


306  MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS 

Maroh,   1904,   having  been   printed   in    the    billet    calling    the 
Meeting,  were  held  as  read,  and  signed  by  the  Chairman. 

Messrs  Angus  Murray  and  William  McWhirter  were  ap- 
pointed to  act  as  Scrutineers  on  the  ballot  for  the  appointment  of 
Office-Bearers;  and  Messrs  James  Coats,  Sinclair  Couper, 
Alexander  Kay,  James  Lano,  James  Richmond,  and  John  Biekie 
were  appointed  assistant  Scrutineers. 

The  hew  members  elected  at  the  previous  meeting  were  duly 
admitted. 

Thereafter  the  question  of  signing  a  Petition  in  favour  of  the 
adoption  of  the  Metric  Weights  and  Measures  by  this  country 
was  considered.  A  motion  that  the  Petition  read  at  the  previous 
Meeting  be  signed,  and  an  amendment  that  the  words,  *'a 
Decimal  System  of,"  be  substituted  for  the  words,  **  the  Metric," 
were  put  to  the  Meeting,  and  on  a  show  of  hands  the  motion 
was  carried.  A  motion  that  the  Petition  be  not  signed  was 
put  before  the  house  and  lost.  The  Petition,  as  follows,  was 
then  signed  in  presence  of  the  Meeting  :  -^ 

HOUSE  OF  LORDS.  Session  1904. 

TO  the  Right  Honourable  the  Lords  Spiritual  and  Temporal 
in  Parliament  assembled. 

THE  PETITION  of  the  Institution  of  Engineers  and  Ship- 
builders in  Scotland. 

^^ttmbls  ^httutth  :— 

THAT  in  the  opinion  of  your  Petitioners  the  adoption  of  the  Metric 
Weights  and  Measures  by  this  Country  is  highly  necessary :  — 

(ist.)  BECAUSE  it  has  already  been  adopted  by  nearly  all 
the  civilised  Countries. 

(«nd.)  BECAUSE  it  would  materially  assist  Education  by 
facilitating  the  teaching  of  Arithmetic,  and  setting  free  a 
considerable  amount  of  time  which  could  be  devoted  to 
more  useful  subjects  than  the  learning  and  practising  of 
our  complicated  and  confused  Tables  of  Weights  and 
Measures. 


MINUTES    OF   PROCEEDINGS  307 

(3rd.)  BECAUSE,  as  our  Consuls  frequently  reiterate,  we 
lose  Trade  in  consequence  of  our  Weights  and  Measures 
not  being  understood  in  other  Countries,  and  because  the 
adoption  of  the  Metric  Weights  and  Measures  would 
obviate  the  present  necessity  for  manufacturing  on 
one  basis  for  export  trade  and  on  another  for  home 
trade. 

(4th.)  BECAUSE  the  Colonies  desire  the  change,  but  feel 
that  the  lead  must,  on  account  of  inter-colonial  trade, 
be  taken  by  the  Mother  Country. 

(5th.)  BECAUSE  it  would  lead  to  the  abolition  of  a  large 
number  of  anomalous,  customary,  or  local,  but  illegal. 
Weights  and  Measures,  still  largely  used  in  various  parts 
of  the  Country.  These  irregular  Weights  and  Measures 
are  chiefly  objectionable  because  they  give  facilities  to 
dishonest  traders  to  take  advantage  of  purchasers  who 
are  not  acquainted  with  them. 

THAT  numerous  demonstrations  of  the  desire  for  the  change  have 
been  made  by  resolutions  and  petitions  of  Public  Bodies,  Insti- 
tutions, Chambers  of  Commerce,  Trades  Unions,  Retail  Trade 
Organisations,  Manufacturers,  Engineers,  and  Teachers. 

THAT  a  Select  Committee  of  the  House  of  Conunons  in  1895  re- 
ported in  favour  of  the  compulsory  adoption  of  the  Metric 
Weights  and  Measures  within  two  years. 

THAT  your  Petitioners  are  much  disappointed  that,  although  eight 
years  have  elapsed  since  then,  no  steps  have  been  taken  to  give 
effect  to  this  recommendation  of  the  Committee. 

THAT  by  reason  of  the  fierce  competition  for  foreign  trade,  the  need 
for  the  change  is  even  more  serious  now  than  in  1895. 

THAT  there  are  indications  that  the  Metric  Weights  and  Measures 
will  before  long  be  adopted  by  the  United  States,  one  of  the 
main  arguments,  likely  to  influence  that  result,  being  the  facility 
it  Would  give  for  successful  competition  with  this  country  in  trad- 
ing with  countrie3  using  the  Metric  System,  especially  in  the 
Republics  of  South  America. 


308  MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS 

THAT     the    Colonial     Premiers    at    the     CoronaUon     Conference 
resolved : — 

"That  it  is  advisable  to  adopt  the  Metric  Weights  and 
"Measures  for  use  within  the  Empire  and  the  Prime 
"Ministers  urge  the  Governments  represented  at  this 
"  Conference  to  give  consideration  to  its  early  adoption." 

Sour  l^ttitiimerjs  ihtnfou  ^ms  '-— 

That  a  Bill  may  be  passed  for  the  compulsory  adoption  of 
Metric  Weights  and  Measures  as  recommended  by  the 
Select  Committee  of  the  House  of  Commons  of  1896. 

Jlnb  Simr  |9tiittx)ntr»  toill  ebtr  Pntp. 


Signed  on  behalf  of  the  Members 
of  the  Institution  of  Engineers 
and  Shipbuilders  in  Scotland. 


James  Gilchrist, 

Chairman. 
Edward  H.  Parker, 

Secretary. 


The  discussion  on  Mr  John  G.  Johnstone's  paper,  on  "The 
Uses  of  the  Integraph  in  Ship  Calculations/'  was  begun  and  con- 
cluded. 

On  the  motion  of  the  Chairman,  Mr  Johnstone  was  awarded 
a  vote  of  thanks  for  his  paper. 

The  following  papers  were  read : — On  •*  Some  Modem  Appli- 
ances Connected  with  Bailway  Crossings  and  Points,"  by  Mr 
Owen  R.  Williams,  B.Sc.  ;  and  on  "  Motor  Cars,"  by  Mr 
Alexander  Govan. 

The  Scrutineers  submitted  their  report,  and  the  Chairman 
announced  that  the  following  gentlemen  had  been  duly  elected : — 
President — Mr  Archibald  Denny;  Vice-Presidents — Mr  W.  A. 
Chamen  and  Mr  John  Ward  ;  Members  of  Council  from  Class  of 
Members —Mr  James  Gilchrist,  Mr  D.  C.  Hamilton,  Mr  Fred. 
LoBNiTz,  Mr  D.  A.  Matheson,  and  Mr  James  Weir  ;  Member  of 
CauncUfrom  Class  of  Asmdates — Mr  W.  A.  Kinghorn. 


MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS  309 

The  following  candidates  were  duly  elected  :— 

AS  MEMBERS. 

Arnot,  William,  Engineer,  21  Havelock  Street,  Partick,  Glasgow. 
GONSTANTiNB,   EzEKiEL    Grayson,    Engineer,    53   Deansgate    Arcade, 
Bfaneheeter. 

as  an  associate  member. 
Gilchrist,  Jambs,  B.Sc.,  Civil  Engineer,  Caledonian  Kailway  Company, 
Boebanan  Street,  Glasgow. 

AS  students. 

Cbisholm,  James  Albert,  Engineer,  Dranghtaman,  63  St  George's  Road, 

Glasgow. 

Gardner,  Harold  Thornbt,  Apprentice  Civil  Engineer,  Thomcliffe, 
Skelmorlie. 

Graham,  John,  Ship  Dranghtsman,  16  Snmmerfield  Cottages,  Whiteinch. 

KiRBY,  William  Hubert  Tate,  Apprentice  Engineer,  36  Dnncan  Avenae, 
Scotstonn,  Glasgow. 

Sellers,  Frederick  Wreford  Bragoe,  Draughtsman,  34  Sardinia 
Terraee,  Hillhead,  Glasgow. 

Semple,  John  Scott,  Dranghtsman,  Coral  Bank,  Bertro-Hill  Road, 
Shettleaton. 

Taylor,  John  Douglas,  Draughtsman,  Jeanieslea,  Oxhill  Road,  Dum- 
barton. 


An  Extraobdinaby  General  Meeting  was  held  in  the  Hall  of 
of  the  Institution,  207  Bath  Street,  Glasgow,  on  Tuesday,  3rd 
May,  1904,  at  8  p.m. 

Mb  E.  Hall-Brown,  Vice-President,  occupied  the  Chair.  The 
Minutes  of  the  Annual  General  Meeting  held  on  Tuesday,  26th 
April,  1904,  having  been  printed  in  the  billet  calling  the  Meeting, 
was  held  as  read,  and  signed  by  the  Chairman. 

The  new  Members  elected  at  the  previous  Meeting  were  duly 
elected. 

The  following  awards  were  made  for  papers  read  during  the 
Session  1902-03  :— 

(1)  A  Premium  of  Books  to  Mr  Konbad  Andebsson  for  his 


810  MINUTES    OF    PROCEEDINGS 

paper  on  Steam  Turbines :  With  special  reference  to  the  de  Laval 
Type  of  Turbine." 

(2)  A  Premium  of  Books  to  Dr  J.  Bkuhn  for  his  paper  on  "  Some 
points  in  connection  with  the  Riveted  Attachments  in  Ships." 

Mr  W.  J.  Luke  then  exhibited  two  Integraphs  and  explained 
their  properties. 

Thereafter  the  discussion  on  the  paper  by  Mr  Owen  R.  Williams* 
B.Sc.,  on  "  Some  Modern  Appliances  Connected  with  Railway 
Crossings  and  Points/'  was  begun  and  concluded. 

On  the  Motion  of  the  Chairman,  Mr  Williams  was  awarded  a 
vote  of  thanks  for  his  paper. 

The  discussion  on  Mr  Alexander  Govan's  paper  on  *•  Motor 
Cars  "  was  then  proceeded  with  and  concluded. 

On  the  Motion  of  the  Chairman,  Mr  Govan  was  awarded  a  vote 
of  thanks  for  his  p^per. 

The  following  Candidates  were  duly  elected : — 
AS  a  life  member. 
Maclean,  Andrew,  Shipbuilder,  Messrs  Barclay,  Carle  &  Co.,  Whiteineh. 

AS  MEMBERS. 

Hillhouse,    Percy   Archibald,   B.Sc.,    Naval   Architeor,    Whitworth, 

Bosby. 

Kennedy,  Rankin,  Consulting  Engineer,  20  Oakwood  Drive,  Ronndhay, 
Leeds. 

Rose,  Joseph,  Consulting  Engineer,  "  Westoe,"  ScotBtounhill,  Glasgow. 

From  atudents. 
Cunningham,    Peter    Nisbet,  Jun.,  Draughtsman,   Easter   Kennyhill 

House,  Cumbernauld  Road,  Glasgow. 
Henderson,   Harry   Esdon,   Chief  Draughtsman,   82    Curzon    Road, 

Waterloo,  near  Liverpool. 
Lorimer,    Henry    Dubs,    Steel    Manufacturer,    Kirklinton,    Langside, 

Glasgow. 
Neill,  Hugh,  Engineer  Surveyor,  99  Clarence  Drive,  Hyndland,  Glas^w. 
Rodger,  Anderson,  Jun.,  Ship  Draughtsman,  Glenpark,  Port-Glasgow. 
Steven,  John  A.,  Engineer,  12  Royal  Crescent,  Glasgow. 

AS  AN  associate  MEMBER. 

Coleman,  Henry  Charles,  Assistant  Superintendent  Engineer,  Isaac 
Peral  25,  Cadiz,  Spain. 


icNtrrES  or  proceedings  Sll 

JV*w»  Stiidsntg, 

Blatr,  ARCHtBALu,  Engineer,  25  Peel  Street,  Partick,  Glasgov'' 
Butler,  James  S.,  21  Hamilton  Terrace,  W.,  Partick,  Glaflgow. 
Pekqus,  ALr-^XANDKR,  7  IbroiL  Place,  Ibrox,  Glasgow. 
McCULLOCH,    John,    EDgixteeritig    Draughteman,    49    Arlington    B treat, 

Gla^ow. 
Morrison,  A.,  DratigbtamaB,  AH- Na- Craig,  Greeuock. 

As  Students. 
Jenkins,   Garnet  Edward,   Student   of  Engineering,    N.B.R    Station, 

Bpringbum,  Olaagow. 
SlKPSONj  Adam,  Engineering  Drangbtsraan,  13  Kapert  Street,  Glaagow/W. 


REPOBT  OF  THE  COUNCIL. 


Session  1902-1903. 


On  the  occasion  of  the  Opening  Meeting  of  the  Forty-Seventh 
Session,  the  Council  has  pleasure  in  presenting  to  the  Members 
the  following  report  of  the  progress  and  work  of  the  Institution 
during  the  past  twelve  months. 

The  changes  which  have  taken  place  in  the  Roll  are  shown  in 
the  following  statement : — 


Session  190M902. 
Honorary  Members,         8 


Session  1902-1903. 
9 


Members,            ...  961  ;  ...  ...  962 

Associate  Members,  —  i  ...  ...  46 

Associates,          ...  90  \  ...  ...  81 

Graduates,           ...  338  |  ...  ...  — 

Students,  ...        —  ...  ...         287 

i 

1397       I  1385 

His  Majesty  the  King  conferred  the  honour  of  Knighthood  upon 
Mr  John  Shearer,  a  Member  of  the  Institution. 

The  Council  records  with  regret  the  deaths  of  the  following 
gentlemen  : —  Members — William  Aitchison,  Glasgow ;  Thomas 
Arthur  Arrol,  Glasgow ;  Thomas  Davison,  Glasgow ;  John 
Dempster,  Glasgow ;  Charles  E.  Diibs,  Glasgow ;  William  Foulis, 
Glasgow;  James  M.  Gale,  Glasgow;  William  Hastie,  Greenock; 
John  Hodgart,  Paisley;  Matthew  Holmes,  Lenzie;  Guybon Hutson, 
Glasgow ;  Eobert  M*Master,  Glasgow ;  James  Neilson,  C.B.,  Moss- 
end  ;  Andrew  Paul,  Dumbarton ;  Thomas  B.  Seath,  Rutherglen ; 
William  Simons,  Tighnabruaich ;  James  M.  Thomson,  Glasgow ; 
John  Turnbull,  Jun.,  Glasgow ;  and  James  Cowan  Woodbum, 
Glasgow.    Associates — John  Bryce,  Dunoon ;  James  Eitchie,  Glas- 


REPORT   OF  COUNCIL  315 

gow  ;  and  Hugh  Wallace,  Glasgow.     Graduate — Andrew  M*Vitae,. 
Glasgow. 

rhe  Meetings  held  during  the  Session  were  nine  in    number^ 
at  which  the  following  papers  were  read  and  discussed : — 

"Steam  Turbines:  with  Special  Reference  to  the  de  Laval 
Type  of  Turbine,"  by  Mr  Eonrad  Andersson. 

"  Some  Points  in  connection  with  the  Riveted  Attachments 
m  Ships,"  by  Mr  J.  Bruhn,  D.Sc. 

"Circulation  in  Shell  Boilers,"  by  Mr  William  Thomson. 

"  The  Dynamic  Balance  of  the  Connecting-Rod,"  by  Mr  C- 
A.  Matthey. 

"  Notes  Relating  to  the  de  Laval  Steam  Turbine,  the  Wire- 
drawing Calorimeter,  and  the  Superheating  of  Steam  by 
Wiredrawing,"  by  Professor  W.  H.  Watkinson. 

"  Speed  Control  by  Electric  Motors  when  Driven  from 
Constant-Pressure  Mains,"  by  Mr  W.  B.  Sayers. 

"  Tools  and  Gauges  in  the  Modem  Shop,"  by  Mr  H.  F.  L. 
Orcutt. 

"  Experimental  and  Analytical  Results  of  a  Series  of  Tests 
with  a  Pelton  Wheel,"  by  Mr  Wm.  Campbell  Houston, 
B.Sc, 

"The  Old  Quay  Walls  of  Glasgow  Harbour,  *  by  MrW.  M. 
Alston. 

The  Meetings  held  by  the  Students  were  five  in  number. 
The  Session  was  opened  by  an  address  from  Mr  A.  J.  Kay, 
President  of  the  Section,  and  at  the  subsequent  meetings  the 
undermentioned  papers  were  read  and  discussed: — 

"  Some  Points  in  Corliss  Gears,"  by  Mr  G.  E.  Windeler. 
'*  Steam-Ship  Pipe  Arrangements,"  by  Mr  A.  Dunlop. 
**  The  Balancing  of  Engines,",  by  Mr  T.  C.  Jones. 
The  Silver  Medal  for  the  best  paper  read  in  this  Section  was 
awarded  to  Mr  T.  C.  Jones. 


314  REPORT   OF  COUNCIL 

Board  of  Trade  Cotisultative  Committee. 

The  Institution  was  represented  on  this  Committee  by  Mr 
James  Denny,  Mr  John  Duncan,  Mr  James  Hamilton,  and  Mr 
James  Weir. 

The  Committee  met  in  London  in  the  months  of  February, 
April,  and  July,  and  dealt  with  various  matters  put  before  it 
by  its  Constituents;  many  of  these  were  discussed  with  the 
Board  of  Trade.  Among  the  subjects  submitted  to  the  Board  of 
Trade  by  the  Committee,  and  now  under  consideration  of  the 
Board,  and  your  Committee,  are  the  following : — 

Use  of  high  tensile  steel. 

Uniformity  of  rules  for  shells  of  boilers. 

Boiler  fittings. 

Testing  of  materials. 

Use  of  corticine  in  lieu  of  thin  planking  for  decks. 

Measurement  of  engine-room  spaces. 

Verbal  approval  of  boiler  designs. 

Several  other  points  relating  to  measurement  of  tonnage. 

It  will  be  remembered  that  the  Board  of  Trade  have  agreed  to 
the  Committee's  request  ''  That  the  incomplete  declaration  of  the 
surveyor  at  the  port  of  building,  so  far  as  it  goes,  shall  not  be 
called  in  question  by  a  surveyor  at  another  port  to  which  the 
vessel  may  be  transferred  before  the  certificate  is  completed, 
except  in  respect  to  any  defect  showing  up  in  the  passage." 

Lloyd's   Technical    Committee, 

The  Institution  was  represented  on  the  Technical  Committee  of 
Lloyd's  Register  of  Shipping  by  Mr  Sinclair  Couper,  Mr  John 
Incrlis,  LL.D.,  Mr  Richard  Ramage,  and  Mr  James  Rowan. 

The  usual  meetings  of  the  Committee  were  held  in  London 
during  the  months  of  November,  1902,  and  March,  1903,  and  the 
Institution's  representatives  took  part  in  the  discussion  and  settle- 
ment of  the  various  matters  in  connection  with  the  following 
subjects : — 


REPORT   OF  COUNCIL  315 

1.  Alterations  of  rules  as  regards  face  angles  to  web  frames  and 

side  stringers. 

2.  „                 ,,  ,,       diamond'plate  attachments  of  do. 

3.  „                ,,  ,,       riveting-  of  plate  edges  in  large 
steamers. 

4.  ,,                 „  ,,       double  bottom  scantlings. 

5.  ,,                 ,,  and  tables  for  rivets  and  riveting. 

6.  New  rules  for  burning  and  carrying  of  liquid  fuel. 

7.  Tube  plates  of  combustion  chambers. 

8.  Complete  new    rules  and  tables   for  wood,  composite,   and 

steel  yachts. 

9.  Discussion  of  proposal  for  testing  rivets  and  rivet  material  on 

makers'  premises. 

10.  Discussion  of  proposal  for  requiring  steering*  and  derrick  chains 

to  be  tested  at  a  proving  house. 

11.  Discussion  of  proposal  for  testing  all  smiths' iron  for  classed 

vessels. 

Board  of  Governors  of  The  Glasgoio  School  of  Art, 

The  Institution  was  represented  on  the  Board  of  Governors  of  the 
Glasgow  School  of  Art  by  Mr  James  MoUison,  who  reports  that — 

The  Glasgow  School  of  Art  continues  to  progress  apace.  The 
number  of  students  who  attended  diu-ing  the  Session  1902-3  was 
1,336,  an  increase  of  338  on  the  previous  session. 

The  benefits  of  this  School  as  the  central  institution  for  higher 
education  in  art  for  Glasgow  and  the  surrounding  districts,  are 
being  largely  taken  advantage  of,  and  numerous  day  school 
teachers  from  the  counties  of  Lanark,  Eenfrew,  Dumbarton, 
Argyle,  Stirling,  and  Ayr  have  been  receiving  instruction. 

A  graduated  course  of  instruction  has  been  mutually  agie^El 
upon  between  the  Governors  and  School  Board,  and  approved  h\ 
the  Scotch  Education  Department,  whereby  students  commencing 
in  the  day  schools,  and  passing  through  the  Evening  Continuation 
Classes,  can  enter  the  School  of  Art  for  higher  instruction. 
Special  attention  is  given  to  the  teaching  of  applied  design  and 
the  training  of  art  craftsmen.       The  importance  of  this  matter 


[^ 


316  REPORT   OF  COUNCIL 

cannot  be  too  highly  estimated,  considering  the  foreign  competi- 
tion this  country  has  now  to  face.  Over  600  craftsmen, 
representative  of  the  various  mechanical  and  manufacturing 
industries  throughout  the  district,  received  instruction  during  the 
session. 

The  Governors  are  authorised  by  the  Scotch  Education  Depart- 
ment to  grant  certificates  and  diplomas  for  higher  work.  Special 
prizes  are  also  given  by  the  Glasgow  Institution  of  Architects  and 
other  Glasgow  societies. 

Board  of  Governors  of  The  Glasgow  a/nd  West  of  Scotland 
Technical  College, 

The  Institution  was  represented  on  the  Board  of  Governors  of 
the  Glasgow  and  West  of  Scotland  Technical  College  by  Mr 
James  Weir,  who  reports  that — 

No  new  feature  of  outstanding  interest  was  introduced  into  the 
programme  of  studies  during  the  past  year,  as  the  Grovemors  felt 
that  any  important  development  should  be  deferred  until  they 
were  in  possession  of  the  new  buildings  now  in  course  of  erection. 
The  building  operations  have  been  carried  on  as  rapidly  as  wa& 
expected,  and  the  first  section  is  now  considerably  above  foundation 
level.  It  is  estimated  that  the  total  expenditure,  exclusive  of 
equipment,  will  be  not  less  than  £210,000,  and,  of  this  sum,  pro- 
mises of  donations  and  grants  amounting  to  £182,382  have  been 
received. 

Eeference  should  be  made  to  the  visit  of  King  Edward  and 
Queen  Alexandra,  which  took  place  on  14th  May  last,  on  which 
occasion  the  memorial  stone  of  the  new  building  was  laid  by  His^ 
Majesty.  Invitations  to  the  ceremony  were  issued  to  all  sub- 
scribers to  the  building  fund,  and  to  representatives  of  public 
bodies,  including  the  Council  and  officers  of  the  Institution. 

The  students  of  last  session  were  as  follows : — Day  students, 
652 ;  evening  students,  4,424 ;  pupils  of  Allan  Glen's  School,  602 
— a  total  of  5,678.  Of  this  number,  1,283  of  the  evening  students^ 
were  employed  in  engineering  or  shipbuilding  works.      Of    the 


REPORT  OF  COUNCIL  317 

day  students,  the  large  majority  were  those  who  intended  to  make 
engineering  their  profession,  and  practically  the  whole  of  those 
taking  the  full  course  of  instruction  in  mechanical  and  electrical 
engineering  are  studying  under  the  so*called  "sandwich" 
system,  the  summer  months  being  spent  in  the  workshops 
and  the  winter  given  to  College  classes. 

The  Oovemors  have  been  gratified  to  note  the  increasing 
mterest  in  this  system  taken  by  many  of  the  large  employers  in 
the  neighbourhood.  Several  firms  have  sent  selected  apprentices 
to  the  College,  and  are  recognizing  the  time  spent  in  College  as 
part  of  the  period  of  apprenticeship.  In  some  cases  the  wages  of 
the  apprentices  are  being  paid  during  their  attendance  at  College, 
subject,  of  course,  to  satisfactory  reports  upon  their  progress  and 
work. 

During  last  session  a  special  committee  for  the  superintendence 
of  the  Chemical  and  Metallurgical  Departments  of  the  College  was 
established,  and  certain  representative  manufacturers  in  the 
difPerent  branches  of  the  chemical  industry  joined  the  committee 
on  the  invitation  of  the  Governors.  A  proposal  to  establish  a 
similar  committee  for  the  engineering  side  of  the  College  is  now 
under  consideration,  and  it  is  expected  that,  during  the  ensuing 
session,  this  committee  will  be  fully  constituted.  These  com- 
mittees, which  will  have  full  executive  powers,  subject  to 
the  general  control  of  the  Governors,  are  intended  to  bring  the 
College  into  the  closest  possible  contact  with  the  employers,  and 
to  provide  a  channel  through  which  the  employers  may  make 
known  their  views  regarding  the  manner  in  which  the  College  can 
best  aid  the  industries  concerned. 

The  Council  desires  to  express  the  thanks  of  the  Institution 
to  these  gentlemen  for  their  services  on  these  bodies. 

The  "James  Watt'  Dinner  was  held  in  the  Windsor  Hotel, 
Glasgow,  on  Saturday  evening,  18th  January,  1903,  and  was  well 
attended  by  members  and  their  friends. 

The  surplus  revenue  for  the  Session  ending  30th  September, 
1903,  as  shown  by  the  Treasurer's  Statement  appended  hereto,  is 
£133  lis  6d. 


91S 


TREASURER  S   STATEMENT 


TREASURERS 
INCOME  AND  EXPENDITURE  ACCOUNT 

GENERAL 


ORDINARY  INCOME. 

I.  AnnucU  SubicnpHons  received-- 

Members, £1621  10  0 

AsaocUte  Members,       ...  14    0  0 

Associates,  ^.         .  .         112  10  0 

Graduates,  140  10  0 


II.  Ari'ears  ofSiibscripHona  recovered,  less  est^tensest 

III.  Sales  of  Transactions,     ... 

IV.  Interests  and  Jienis- 

Interest  on  ClvdeTmst  Mortgages 

for  £400, less  Uz,  ..  ...  £13    2  11 

Stndents'  Institution  G.E.,  for  use 

of  Library,  ...  ...    11  18    0 

Interest  on  Deposit  Receipts,  less 

Income  Tax,         ...  ...      6    3    1 

Interest  on  Glasgow  Corporation 

Loan, 7    9    0 


1902-1903. 


t901'190t 


88  10 

0 

£2S38  10    0 

42  1 

1 

S6    1    6 

11  U 

3 

SO  21    0 

11    8  10 
11  16    0 
5    e    6 

38  13    0 


[B8    ?    3] 


£1980  18    4 


£16BS    9    9 


TREASURER  S  STATEMENT 


319. 


STATEMENT. 

FOR  YEAR  ENDING  30th  SEPTEMBER,  1903. 
FUND. 


'  ORDINARY   EXPENDITURR 

1902-1908. 

1901-1909, 

I.  GeHeral  Esmetues^ 

Secretary's  Salary £400    0    0 

Clerk's  Salary 60    0    0 

Iiiatitntioii's  proportion  of  net  cost 
ofniauiteDaDceofBni]dings,etc  213    7    3 
.    Interest  on  Medal  Funds,     ...       *      '      ' 

.    Library  Books,            29    2    1 

BindinK  Periodicals  and  Papers,      11  19  10 
Stationery  and  Postages,  etc.,         54    5    0 
Office  Expenses,         ...           ..       32    1    0 
Advertisinff,  losurance,  etc.,  ...        2  12    6 
TravelliDg  Expenses,                ...       5    9    2 

£806  16  10 

711  13    7 
16    1     7 

£300    0    0 
66  18    0 

108    8    6 
6  17    3 
32  16  10 
28  17    2 
48  13  11 
34    8  10 
6    6    6 

[623    6  11] 

394    4    6 

186    3    9 

74  16    7 

16    3    6 

14  14    ^ 

[684    2    9] 

6    2    6 

11.  "^  Transactions"  ExpensM^ 

Printing  and  Binding,                £429    4    3 

Lithography,               169    6    3 

Postages,      74    4    1 

Reporting,     ...            ...           ...    23  10    0 

Delivery  of  Annual  Volnme,  ...    16  10    0 

in.  ^toordf— Premiums  for  Papers, 

EXTRAORDINARV  EXPENDITURE. 

Honorarium  to  Secretary,          ...          £100    0    0 

Library  Catalogue 117  la  10 

Articles  of  Association, 89    7    6 

Sondriw,     4  11    6 

311  14  10 
133  11    6 

1 

70    8    9 
240    9  10 

Surplus  carried  to  Balance  Sheet,        

1 

£1980  18    4 

£1623    9    9 

320 


treasurer's  statement 

BALANCE   SHEET,  AS  AT 


LIABILITIES. 

L  General  Capital   Ac- 
count— 
As  at  let  Oct.,  190S,       ...        £4588     8    3 

.  Entry  money, 60    0    0 

.Saiplos    from  Re- 
venue,    133  11    6 


II.  Life     Mwiber^ 

Subicriptions,    ... 

III.  Sundn/  Creditors, 

IV.  SvbseriptioHs  paid  in  advance, 

V,  Medal  Funds^ 

Marine  Engineering— 
Balance   as    at 

Ist  Oct.  1902.    £561  10    2 
Interest  received 
during  .year,  17  12  10 

Railway  Engineering — 
Balance    as    at 

Ist  Oct.,  1902,    £344  16    9 
Interest  received 
during  year,  10  19    4 

Graduated — 

Balance    as    at 

Ist  Oct.,  1902.      £23  13    9 

Cost  of   medal, 
£17s6d;  less 
interest    re- 
ceived during 
year,  ISs  7d,  0  11  11 


As  atftOth 
Sept, 
1903. 


4766  19  9 

50    0  0 

27    1  6 

56    10  0 


£569    3    0 


355  16    1 


23    1  10 


AsatSOth 
Sept., 
1909. 


£U8S    8    S 

(included  in 

0  10    0 

£S2  10  0 


651  10    i 


S44  16    9 


948    0  11 

gS  IS    9 
[9fiO    0     8] 

£5848  12    2 

£5536    S    11 

treasurer's  statement 
30th  SEPTEMBEK,  1903. 


321 


ASSETS. 

I.  SeritabU  Property— 

Total  Coet,  £7(»4  16    3 

Of  which  one-half  belongs  to  the 
Institution, 

II.  Funuturt  and  FiiUngs— 

Valaed  at,  say 

III.  Books  in  Library— 

Valaed  at,  say 

IV.  InveHmemU— 

Clyde  Trust  Mort^;age, 
Glasgow  Corporation,... 

V.  Medal  Fwida  Investments— 
Clyde  Trast  Mortgage, 


400    0    0 
200    0    0 


£903    0    0 


On  Deposit  Receipt  and  Interest,    17  7  8 

VI.  Arreaa-s  of  Subscriptions— 
Session  1902.1903— 

Members,            ...     £108  0  0 

Associates,          ...           4  10  0 

Students, 5  0  0 


£127  10    0 


Previous  sessions- 
Members,    £29  10  0 
Associates,      2  0  0 
Students,         8  0  0 


39  10    0 


Total,  £166    0    0 

Valued  at,  say 

VII.  Swndry  Debtors— 

VIII.  Cash- 

In  Bank,  on  Deposit  Receipt 

and  Interest, 
On  Current  Account, ... 
In  Secretary's  hands, 


£130  19  8 
13  4  0 
20    2    9 


As  at 

30th  Sept., 

1903. 


£3M7    8    1 


65  10    0 


500    0    0 


600    0    0 


920    7    8 


As  at 
SOihSepU 

1909. 


£3647    8    1 


es   10    0 


500    0    0 


400    0    0 


90S    0    0 


50    0    0 
1     0    0 


164    6    5 
£5848  12    2 


50 


68    7    8 


£5536    8  11 


Glasgow,  21st  October^  1903,— An^Mi  and  certified  correct. 

David  Black,  C.A.,  Auditor. 


3^2 


TREASURER  S   STATEMENT 


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o 
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CO 

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o 

EH 
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^<*« 

© 

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«rt 

REPORT  OF  THE   LIBRARY  COMMITTEE. 


The  additions  to  the  Library  during  the  year  include  53  volumes 
by  purchase ;  11  volumes  and  1  pamphlet  by  donation ;  while 
148  volumes  were  received  in  exchange  for  the  Transactions  of 
the  Institution.  Of  the  periodical  publications  received  in  ex- 
change, 26  were  weekly,  and  24  monthly.  Sixty-two  volumes 
were  bound  during  the  year. 

The  new  Library  Catalogue  was  completed  in  April,  1903,  and 
copies  may  be  had,  free  of  cost,  on  application  to  the  Secretary 
or  Sub-Librarian. 

As  the  proceedings  of  the  most  important  engineering  societies 
are  to  be  found  in  the  Library  of  the  Institution,  the  Committee 
begs  to  draw  the  attention  of  Members  to  the  existence  of  this 
particular  section. 

The  Institution  possesses  a  complete  set  of  the  Abridgments  of 
Specifications  of  Patents  dating  from  1617,  which  is  available  for 
reference  purposes  in  the  Library. 

Donations  to  the  Library. 

Alexander,  T.  and  Thomson,  A.  W.  Elementary  Applied  Mechan- 
ics, 1902.     From  the  Authors. 

County  of  Lanark — Report  on  the  Administration  of  the  Rivers 
Pollution  Prevention  Acts.  1903.  From  the  Medical  Ofl&cer 
of  the  County. 

Index  Key  showing  Abridgment  Classes  and  Index  headings  to 
which  Inventions  are  assigned  in  the  Official  Publications 
of  the  Patent  Office.     1899.     From  the  Patent  Office. 

Lloyd's  Register  of  Shipping  (2  vols.) ;  and  1  volume  of  Rules  and 
Regulations.  1902-03.  The  same  for  1903-04.  From 
Lloyd's  Committee. 


324  REPORT  OF  THE  LIBRARY  COMMITTEE 

Manchester  Steam-Users'  Association.  Memorandum  by  Chief 
Engineer,  1902,     Pamphlet.    From  the  Association. 

Sothem,  J.  W.  Examination  Drawing  Cards  for  Marine  En- 
gineers.   From  the  Author. 

Books  added  to  the  Library  by  Purchase, 
Arrhenius,  Svante.     Text-Book  of  Electro  Chemistry.     Translated 

by  John  McCrae.     1902. 
Atkinson,  Philip.     Power  Transmitted  by  Electricity  and  Applied 

by  the  Electric  Motor.     3rd  edition.     1902. 
Bolland,  Simpson.     EncyclopsBdia  of  Founding  and  Dictionary  of 

Foundry  Terms  used  in  the  Practice  of  Moulding.      New 

York.     1894. 
Bolland,  Simpson.     The  Iron  Founder.     New  York.     1901. 
Blount,  B.     Practical  Electro  Chemistry.     Westminster.     1901. 
Brannt,  William  T.      (Editor).      Metal  Workers'  Hand-Book  of 

Receipts  and  Processes.     Philadelphia.     1900. 
Brannt,  William  T.  (Editor),  Metallic  Alloys.  New  Edition.  1896. 
Brassey's  Naval  Annual,  1903. 
Brearley,  Harry  and  Ibbotson  Fred.     Analysis  of  Steel- Works 

Material.     1902. 
Christie,  William  Wallace.      Chimney  Design  and  Theory.      2nd 

Edition.     New  York.    1902. 
Denny,  G.  A.      Deep-Level  Mines  of  the  Band  and  their  Future 

Development.     4to.     1902. 
Donaldson,  William.     Principles  of  Construction  and  Efficiency  of 

Water-Wheels.    1876. 
Donkin,  Bryan  and  Kennedy,  A.  B.  W.      Experiments  on  Steam- 

Boilers.    4to.     1897. 
Dron,  R  W.     Coal  Fields  of  Scotland.     1902. 
Dye,  Frederick.     Lighting  by  Acetylene.     1902. 
Eissler,  M.    Hydro-Metallurgy  of  Copper.     1902. 
Ganot,  Adolphe.     Elementary  Treatise  on  Physics.     16th  edition. 

1902. 
Geikie,  Sir  Archibald.    Text-Book  of  Geology.    3rd  Edition.    1893. 


REPORT «>F  THE  LIBRARY  COMMITTEE  326 

Grimshaw,  Bobert.     Modem  Workshop  Hints.     1902. 

Herbert,  T.  E.    Telephone  System  of  the  British  Post  Office :  a 

Practical  Handbook.     2nd  Edition.     1901. 
Hood,  Charles  and  Dye,   Frederick.      Practical  Treatise    upon 

Wanning  Buildings  by  Hot  Water,   and  upon  Heat  and 

Heating  Appliances  in  General.     3rd  Edition.     1897. 
Jenkins,  Bhys.    Motor  Gars  and  the  Application  of  Mechanical 

Power  to  Boad  Vehicles.     1902. 
Kap,  Gisbert.      Dynamos,  Motors,  Alternators,  and  Botary  Con- 
verters. 3rd  Edition  :  Translated  by  H.  H.  Simmons.  1902. 
Kinealy,  J.  H.     Elementary  Text-Book  on  Steam  Engines  and 

Boilers.     3rd  Edition.     New  York.     1901. 
Kirk,  Edward.     The  Cupola  Furnace  :  a  Practical  Treatise  on  the 

Construction  and  Management  of  Foundry  Cupolas.     Phila- 
delphia.    1899. 
Larkin,  James.     The  Practical  Brass  and  Iron  Founder's  Guide. 

New  Edition.     Philadelphia.     1892. 
Middleton,  B.  E.,  Chadwick  Osbert,  and  Bogle,  J.  du  T.      Treatise 

on  Surveying.     Part  II.     1902. 
Middleton,  B.  E.  and  Chadwick  Osbert.      Treatise  on  Surveying. 

Vol.  I.     1899. 
Naylor,  W.     Trades  Waste  :  its  Treatment  and  Utilization.     1902. 
Neilson,  Bobert  M.     The  Steam  Turbine.     1902. 
Niaudet,  Alfred.     Elementary  Treatise  on  Electric  Batteries.     7th 

Edition :  Translated  by  L.  M.  Fishback.     New  York.   1900. 
Parkinson,  Bichard  M.     Light  Railway  Construction.     1902. 
Parr,  6.  D.  A.     Electrical  Engineering  Testing.     1902. 
Parr,  G.  D.   A.      Practical  Electrical  Testing  in   Physics  and 

Electrical  Engineering.     1901. 
Pollen,  W.  W.  F.     Steam  Engineering ;  a  Treatise  on  Boilers, 

Steam,  Gkis  and  Oil  Engines,  and  Supplementary  Machinery. 

Manchester.     No  date. 
Bhodes,  W.  G.      Elementary  ^Treatise  on  Alternating  Currents. 

1902. 
Bobinson,  W.     Gas  and  Petroleum  Engines.    2nd  Edition.     1902. 


326  REPORT  OF  THE  LIBRARY  COMMITTEE 

Sadtler,  Samuel  P.     Handbook  of  Industrial  Organic  Chemistry. 

3rd  Edition.     Philadelphia.     1900. 
Seddon,  H.  C.      Builders  Work  and  the  Building  Trades.     3rd 

Edition.      1897. 
Sewell,  Tyson.     Elements  of  Electrical  Engineering.     1902. 
Sexton,  A.  H.    Metallurgy  of  Iron  and  Steel.    Manchester.     1902. 
Steinmetz,  Charles  P.       Theory  on   Calculation  of  Alternating 

Current  Phenomena.     3rd  Edition.     New  York.     1900. 
Thomson,    Sir  William  (Baron  Kelvin).      Popular  Lectures  and 

Addresses.     Vol.  II. — Geology  and  General  Physics.    1894. 
Thompson,  S.  P.     Design  of  Dynamos.     1903. 
Toothed  Gearing  :    a  Practical  Handbook  for  Offices  and  Work- 
shops,    By  a  Foreman  Pattern  Maker.     1892. 
Watt,  Alexander.     Electro-Plating  and  Electro-Refining  of  Metals 

New  edition.     1902. 
Webb,  Herbert  L.     Practical  Guide  to  the  Testing  of  Insulated 

Wires  and  Cables.     New  York.     1899, 
West,  Thomas  D.     American  Foundry  Practice.     10th  Edition. 

New  York.     1901. 
West,  Thomas  D.     West's  Moulders*  Text-Book  :  being  Part  II. 

of  American  Foundry'  Practice.     8th  Edition.     New  York. 

1900. 
Wharton,  Sir  William  J.  L.      Hydrographical  Surveying.      2nd 

Edition.     1898 
Whitelaw,  John.     Surveying  a«  Practised  by  Civil  Engineere  and 

Surveyors.     1902. 
Wood,  Francis.     Sanitary  Engineering.     1902. 
Year-Book  of  Scientific  and  Learned  Societies.     1902. 


REPORT  OF  THE  LIBRARY  COMMITTEE  ^27 

The  InstiiutioH  Exchanges  Tramadions  wUh  the  following 
Societies,  etc. : — 
A.berdeen  Association  of  Civil  Engineers,  Aberdeen. 
American  Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers,  New  York. 
American  Institute  of  Mining  Engineers,  New  York. 
American  Philosophical  Society,  Philadelphia. 
American  Society  of  Civil  Engineers,  New  York. 
American  Society  of  Mechanical  Engineers,  New  York. 
Association  des  Ing^nieurs  des  Ecoles  Speciales  de  Gand,  Belgium. 
Association  Technique  Maritime,  Paris. 
Austrian  Engineers'  and  Architects'  Society,  Wien. 
Bristol  Naturalists'  Society,  Bristol. 

British  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  London. 
British  Corporation  for  the  Survey  and  Registry  of  Shipping,  Glasgow. 
Bureau  of  Steam  Engineering,  Navy  Department,  Washington. 
Canadian  Institute,  Toronto. 
Canadian  Society  of  Civil  Engineers,  Montreal. 
Edinburgh  Architectural  Association,  Edinburgh. 
Engineering  Association  of  New  South  Wales,  Sydney. 
Engineering  Society  of  the  School  of  Practical  Science,  Toronto. 
Engineers'  and  Architects'  Society  of  Naples,  Naples. 
Franklin  Institute,  Philadelphia,  U.S.A. 
Geological  Survey  of  Canada,  Ottowa. 
Hull  and  District  Institution  of  Engineers  and  Naval  Architects, 

Hull. 
Institute  of  Marine  Engineers,  London. 
Institution  of  Civil  Engineers,  Loudon. 
Institution  of  Civil  Engineers  of  Ireland,  Dublin. 
Institution  of  Electrical  Engineers,  London. 
Institution  of  Junior  Engineers,  London. 
Institution  of  Mechanical  Engineers,  London. 
Institution  of  Naval  Architects,  London. 
Institution  of  Naval  Architects,  Japan. 
Iron  and  Steel  Institute,  London. 
Liverpool  Engineering  Society,  Liverpool. 


328  REPORT  OF  THE  LIBRARY  COMMITTEE 

Literary  and  Philosophical  Society  of  Manchester,  Manchester. 

Lloyd's  Begister  of  British  and  Foreign  Shipping,  London. 

Magyar  M^rnok  es  ifepitesz-Egylet,  Budapest. 

Manchester  Association  of  Engineers,  Manchester. 

Midland   Institute  of  Mining,    Civil,   and   Mechanical    Engineers, 

Barnsley. 
Mining  Institute  of  Scotland,  Hamilton. 
North -East    Coast    Institution    of    Engineers    and    Shipbuilders, 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
North  of  England  Institute  of  Mining  and  Mechanical  Engineers, 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Patent  Office,  London. 
Eoyal  Dublin  Society,  Dublin. 
Boyal  Philosophical  Society  of  Glasgow. 
Boyal  Scottish  Society  of  Arts,  Edinburgh. 
Sanitary  Institute  of  Great  Britain,  London. 
Schi£Fbautechnischen  Gesellschaft,  Berlin. 
Scientific  Library,  U.S.  Patent  Office,  Washington,  U.S.A. 
Shipmasters'  Society,  London. 
Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  U.S.A. 
Soci6t6  d'Encouragement  pour  rindustrie  Nationale,  Paris. 
Soci^t^  des  Ing^nieurs  Civils  de  France,  Paris. 
Soci^t^  des  Sciences  Physiques  et  Naturelles  de  Bordeaux,  Bordeaux. 
Soci6t6  Industrielle  de  Mulhouse,  Mulhouse. 
Society  of  Arts,  London. 

Society  of  Arts,  Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology,  Boston. 
Society  of  Engineers,  London. 

Society  of  Naval  Architects  and  Marine  Engineers,  New  York,  U.S.A. 
South  Wales  Institute  of  Engineers,  Cardiff. 
Technical  Society  of  the  Pacific  Coast,  San  Francisco,  U.S.A. 
West  of  Scotland  Iron  and  Steel  Institute,  Glasgow. 

Copies  of  the  Transactions  are  forwwrded   to  the  foUowing 
CoUegeSy  Libraries^  eta,: — 

Advocates'  Library,  Edinburgh. 


REPORT  OF  THE  LIBRARY  COMMITTBE 

Bodleian  Library,  Oxford. 
British  Mnseum,  London. 
Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  U.S.A. 
Coatbridge  Technical  School,  Coatbridge. 
Dumbarton  Free  Public  Library,  Dumbarton. 
Glasgow  and  West  of  Scotland  Technical  College,  Grlasgow. 
Glasgow  University,  Glasgow. 
Mercantile  Marine  Service  Association,  Liverpool 
M*Gill  University,  Montreal. 
Mitchell  Library,  Glasgow. 

Polytechnic  School  of  Engineering,  Ghizeh,  Egypt. 
Eoyal  Naval  College,  Greenwich. 
Southampton  Public  Library,  Southampton. 
Stevens  Institute  of  Technology,  Hoboken,  U.S.A. 
Stirling's  Library,  Glasgow. 
Trinity  College,  Dublin. 
Underwriters  Kooms,  Glasgow, 
do.  Liverpool. 

University  College,  London. 
University  Library,  Cambridge. 
Yorkshire  College,  Leeds. 

Publications  Received  periodically  in  Exchange  for  Institution 
Transactions : — 

American  Machinist. 

American  Manufacture  and  Iron  World. 

Automobile  Club  Journal. 

Automotor  Journal. 

Gassier's  Magazine. 

Cold  Storage  and  Ice  Trades  Eeview. 

Colliery  Guardian. 

Contract  Journal. 

Electric  Club  Journal. 

Electrical  Magazine. 

Electrical  Review. 


330  REPORT  OF  THE  LIBRARY  COMMITTEE 

Engineer. 

Engineering. 

Engineering  Magazine. 

Engineering  Record. 

Engineering  Review. 

Engineering  Times. 

Engineers'  (razette. 

Indian  Pjngineering. 

Iron  Age. 

Iron  and  Coal  Trades'  Review. 

Iron  and  Steel  Trades'  Journal. 

Ironmonger. 

Journal  de  I'Ecole  Polytechnic. 

L'Industria. 

Light  Railway  and  Tramway  Journal. 

Machinery. 

Machinery  Market. 

Marine  Engineer. 

Marine  Engineering. 

Mariner  and  Engineering  Record. 

Mechanical  Engineer. 

Mechanical  Review. 

Mechanical  World. 

Nature. 

Nautical  Gazette. 

Page's  Magazine. 

Petroleum  World. 

Portefeuille  Economique  des  Machines. 

Practical  Engineer. 

Revue  Industrielle. 

Science  Abstracts. 

Scottish  Electrician. 

Shipping  World. 

Stahl  und  Eisen. 

Steamship. 


REPORT  OF  THE  LIBRARY  COMMITTEE  331 


Street  Railway  World. 

Technics. 

The  Engineering  Press  Monthly  Index  Review. 

The  Indian  and  Eastern  Engineer. 

Tramway  and  Railway  World. 

Transport. 


The  Library  is  closed  for  the  Summer  Holidays  from  the  11th 
July  till  31st  July  inclusive. 

Except  during  holidays  and  Saturdays,  the  Library  is  open  each 
lawful  day  from  Ist  May  till  30th  September  inclusive,  from  9.30 
A.M.  till  5  P.M.  On  Saturdays  the  Library  is  open  from  9.30  A.M. 
till  1  P.M. 

On  the  Ist  October  and  thereafter  throughout  the  Winter  Session 
the  Library  will  be  open  each  lawful  day  from  9.30  a.m.  till  8  P.M., 
except  on  Meeting  Nights  of  the  Institution  and  Royal  Philosophical 
Society,  when  it  is  open  till  10  p.m.,  and  on  Saturdays,  when  it  is 
closed  at  2  p.m. 

Members  have  the  privilege  of  consulting  the  Books  in  the 
Library  of  the  Royal  Philosophical  Society. 

The  use  of  the  Library  and  Reading  Room  is  open  to  Members, 
Associates,  Associate  Members,  and  Students. 

The  Portrait  Album  lies  in  the  Library  for  the  reception  of 
Members'  Portraits.  Members  are  requested  when  forwarding 
Portraits  to  attach  their  Signatures  to  the  bottom  of  Carte. 

The  Library  Committee  are  desirous  of  calling  the  attention  of 
Readers  to  the  "  Recommendation  Book,"  where  entries  can  be  made 
of  titles  of  books  suggested  as  suitable  for  addition  to  the  Library. 

A  List  of  the  Papers  read  and  Authors'  Names,  from  the  First 
to  the  Thirty-Third  Sessions,  will  be  found  in  Vol.  XXXIIL  of  the 
Transactions. 


332  REPORT  OF  THE  LIBRARY  COMMITTEE 

As  arranged  by  the  Council,  a  Begister  Book  for  Students 
lies  in  the  Library  for  the  inspection  of  Members,  the  object  being  to 
assist  Students  of  the  Institution  in  finding  suitable  appointments. 

WiiiLiAM  Brown, 
Han,  Librarian  and  Convener, 


Annual  Subscriptions  are  due  at  the  commencement  of  each 
Session :  viz.  : — 

Members,  £2;  Associate  Members,  £1;  associates,  £1    10s; 

Students,  10s  ;    Life  Members,  £25 ;  Life  Associates,  £20. 

Membership  Application  Forms  can  he  Jiad  from  the  Secretary  w 
from  the  Sub'Libra7'ian,  at  the  Eooms^  207  Bath  Street, 

The  Council,  being  desirous  of  rendering  the  transactions  of 
the  Institution  as  complete  as  possible,  earnestly  request  the 
co-operation  of  Members  in  the  preparing  of  Papers  for  reading 
and  discussion  at  the  General  Meetings. 

Early  notice  of  such  papers  should  be  sent  to  the  Secretary,  so 
that  the  dates  of  reading  may  be  arranged. 

Copies  of  the  reprint  of  Vol.  7  containing  a  paper  on  *<  The  Loch 
Katrine  Water  Works,"  by  Mr  J.  M.  Gale,  C.E.,  may  be  had  from 
the  Secretary ;  price  to  Members,  7/6. 

Members  of  this  Institution,  who  may  be  temporarily  resident 
in  Edinburgh,  will,  on  application  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Royal 
Scottish  Society  of  Arts,  at  his  office,  117  George  Street,  l>e 
furnished  with  billets  for  attending  the  meetings  of  that  Society. 

The  Meetings  of  the  Royal  Scottish  Society  of  Arts  are  held 
on  the  2nd  and  4th  Mondays  of  each  month,  from  November 
till  April,  with  the  exception  of  the  4th  Monday  of  December. 


'.\  .X"      1  '     I      t-  s. 


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OBITUAEY. 


Hcmorary  Member. 

James  Mobris  Gale,  Engineer-in-Chief  to  the  Glasgow  Water 
Commissioners,  died  at  his  residence,  Daldrishaig,  Aberfoyle,  on 
7th  September,  1903.  He  was  a  native  of  Ayr  where  he  was  bom 
in  the  year  1830.  Having  finished  the  first  part  of  his  education 
at  the  local  Academy  he  came  to  Glasgow  in  1844,  and  entered  the 
office  of  his  elder  brother,  Mr  William  Gale,  who  was  at  that  time 
engineer  to  the  Gorbals  Water  Company.  While  employed  with 
his  brother  Mr  Gale  attended  the  engineering  classes  of  Professor 
W.  J.  Macquom  Rankine,  at  the  Glasgow  University,  and  studied 
mathematics  under  Professor  Laing  in  Anderson's  College.  For 
eight  years  be  occupied  the  position  of  Assistant  Engineer  to  his 
brother,  and  during  that  period  gained  considerable  experience  for 
bis  future  work.  At  the  age  of  twenty-four  he  was  entrusted  with  the 
construction  of  the  Balgray  Reservoir,  the  largest  of  the  reservoirs 
connected  with  the  Gorbals  Water  Works.  About  the  same  time 
Mr  Gale  planned  a  scheme  for  an  enlargement  of  the  Gorbals  water 
supply,  which  was  considered  as  an  alternative  supply  to  that  of 
Locli  Katrine.  This  scheme  was  not  adopted,  but  the  engineers 
consulted  by  the  Corporation  of  Glasgow  on  the  subject,  Messrs 
Stephenson  and  Brunei,  referred  to  it  in  the  following  manner  : — 
"After  careful  consideration  of  all  the  circumstances  and  an 
examination  of  the  country,  we  have  come  to  the  conclusion  that 
the  extension  of  the  present  Gorbals  Water  Works,  as  proposed  by 
Mr  Gale,  is  the  only  plan  which  complies  with  the  requisite  con- 
cUtions  of  quality  and  quantity,  and  in  our  opinion  it  is  the  only 
scheme  which  can  be  usefully  considered  in  comparison  with  the 
proposed  appropriation  of  the  waters  of  the  lakes."  When,  in  1885, 
the  Glasgow  Corporation  obtained  an  Act  of  Parliament  for  the 
iotroduction  of  a  new  supply  of  water  from  Loch  Katrine,  Mr 

27 


334  OBITUARY 

Gale  acted  as  engineer  on  the  city  section  of  the  scheme  under  Mr 
J.  F.  La  Trobe  Bateman  by  whom  the  scheme  was  devised  and 
carried  out.  On  its  completion  in  1859  Mr  Gale  was  appointed 
engineer-in-chief,  and  from  that  time  onwards  till  the  close  of  1902, 
when  he  retired  through  failing  health,  he  had  entire  charge  of  the 
works.  In  1882  it  was  found  that  a  fresh  supply  of  water  would 
soon  be  required,  and  three  years  later  an  Act  was  obtained  giving 
powers  to  construct  another  aqueduct,  calculated  to  carry  from 
Loch  Katrine  an  equal  supply  of  water.  Mr  Gale's  scheme  for 
doubling  the  supply  included  the  raising  of  the  boundaries  of  the 
loch,  and  a  new  reservoir  at  Graigmaddie.  The  work  of  construc- 
tion was  commenced  in  1886,  and  completed  in  ten  years.  Besides 
his  work  for  the  city  of  Glasgow  he  rendered  able  assistance  to  the 
Local  Authorities  of  Dumbarton,  Port-Glasgow,  Kilmarnock,  and 
Hamilton,  in  connection  with  the  respective  water  supplies  to 
those  burghs.  In  1863  he  read  a  paper  before  the  Institution  on 
the  Glasgow  Water  Works.* 

Mr  Gale  joined  the  Institution  as  a  Member  in  1858;  was 
elected  a  Member  of  Council  for  session  1863-4 ;  became  a  Vice- 
president  for  sessions  1864-6 ;  and  filled  the  office  of  President  for 
sessions  1867-9.  For  twenty-three  years  he  served  the  Institution 
as  Treasurer,  and  in  recognition  of  his  valuable  services  gratui- 
tously rendered  to  the  Institution,  he  was  elected  an  Honorary 
Member  in  1902. 


Members, 
William  Allan  was  a  native  of  Dundee,  where  he  was  bom  in 
November,  1837,  and  when  only  ten  years  of  age,  through  his 
father's  adversity,  he  had  to  seek  a  living  as  best  he  could  in  an 
engineering  shop  in  that  city.  Of  his  early  career  very  little  is 
known,  but  his  advance  in  life,  the  outcome  of  many  sterling 
qualities,  was  extremely  rapid.  In  1861  he  became  chief  engineer 
of  a  blockade  runner  during  the  American  Civil  War.   Mr  Allan  was 

•  See  Vol.  viL  p.  21. 


OBITUARY  335 

madeaprisonerof  war  andwas  confined  in  a  prison  at  Washington 
for  six  weeks,  during  which  time  he  suffered,  with  other  prisoners, 
scandalous  privations.  On  his  return  to  this  country  he  found 
employment  in  a  hoiler  works  at  Carlisle,  and  thereafter,  in  the 
North-Eastem  Marine  Engine  Works,  Sunderland,  finally  becoming 
manager  of  the  latter  establishment.  Leaving  the  North-Eastem 
Company  in  1887,  he  started  the  Scotia  Engine  Works,  of  which 
he  was  managing  director  up  to  the  time  of  his  death.  He  was 
practically  speaking  a  self-taught  man,  and  notwithstanding  that 
he  possessed  little  or  no  knowledge  of  mathematics,  thermo- 
dynamics, or  the  laws  of  heat,  yet  he  was  in  the  fi'ont  rank  as  a 
manufacturer  of  marine  engines  and  boilers. 

His  importance  in  the  public  eye  is  shown  by  his  nomination 
to  a  Justiceship  of  the  Peace,  and  a  Deputy  Lieutenancy  of  the 
County  of  Durham,  and  his  election  as  Member  of  Parliament  for 
Gateshead  in  1893  was  a  remarkable  testimony  to  his  popularity. 
He  described  himself  as  an  ''advanced  radical,"  but  although 
possessing  advanced  political  views,  it  did  not  prevent  him  from 
attaining  a  prominent  position  in  the  ranks  of  the  Commons,  where 
be  was  one  of  the  figures  that  attracted  considerable  attention. 
His  outspokenness  on  Naval  matters  was  alike  a  source  of  delight 
to  Members  of  the  House  and  strangers.  He  was  a  persistent 
advocate  of  the  use  of  the  Scottish  boiler  as  against  boilers  of  the 
water-tube  type  of  whatever  kind,  and  it  was  principally  due  to 
his  criticisms  that  the  appointment  of  the  Boiler  Commission  was 
due.  Mr  Allan  was  Treasurer  of  the  Byron  Society,  and  as  a 
recreation  wrote  songs  and  poems.  His  **  Book  of  Poems,"  a  copy 
of  which  he  presented  to  the  Library  of  the  Institution,  had  a 
considerable  sale. 

In  1902  Mr  Allan  was  knighted,  and  he  thoroughly  deserved  the 
honour.  Sir  William  Allan  became  unwell  on  Christmas  Day,  1903, 
and  passed  away  at  his  residence,  Scotland  House,  Sunderland, 
from  heart  trouble,  on  the  28th  December,  1903. 

Sir  William  Allan  joined  the  Institution  as  a  Member  in  1869. 


336  OBITUARY 

Chables  Collie  was  bom  at  Aberdeen,  and  served  his  time  as 
a  boiler  maker.  For  many  years  he  was  foreman  with  Archibald 
Hutcheson,  engineer  and  ironfomider,  Glasgow.  In  1873  he 
started  in  business  for  himself.    He  died  in  October  1903. 

Mr  Collie  became  a  Member  of  the  Institution  in  1898. 


W.  T.  CouRTiER-DuTTON,  Chief  Surveyor  to  the  British  Corpora- 
tion Registry,  was  born  in  the  Isle  of  Man  in  1848,  and  died  at  his 
residence,  Moraig,  Helensburgh,  on  the  last  day  of  1903. 

He  commenced  the  serious  business  of  life  in  the  office  of  a 
Liverpool  solicitor,  but  the  law  not  proving  to  his  taste  he  became 
a  premium  apprentice  with  Messrs  Thomas  Vernon  &  Sons, 
shipbuilders,  Liverpool,  and  remained  in  their  service  until  1874, 
when  he  left  the  post  of  manager  to  that  firm  to  undertake  the  duties 
of  Surveyor  to  the  old  Underwriters  Registry  for  Iron  Vessels.  He 
was  subsequently  transferred  from  the  Mersey  to  the  Clyde,  and 
was  principal  Surveyor  for  the  Clyde  district  until  the  absorption 
of  the  Registry  by  Lloyd's  in  1886,  when  he  became  one  of  the 
Staff  of  the  latter  Registry.  Mr  Courtier-Dutton  was  appointed 
Chief  Surveyor  to  the  British  Corporation  in  1892,  shortly  after 
the  death  of  Professor  Jenkins,  bringing  to  the  assistance  of  that 
Society  the  benefit  of  ripe  experience,  and  mature  judgment.  He 
took  a  great  interest  in  the  work  of  the  Engineering  Standards 
Committee ;  of  which  he  was  a  valued  member,  and  made  himself 
popular  and  esteemed  by  all  who  came  into  contact  with  him,  by 
his  rare  combination  of  courtesy  and  dignity,  supported  by  the 
knowledge  born  of  wide  experience. 

Mr  Courtier-Dutton  became  a  Member  of  the  Institution  in  1896. 


Samuel  Cbawford  was  bom  at  Paisley  in  1838.  He  served  an 
apprenticeship  at  wood  and  iron  shipbuilding,  and  assisted  at 
turning  the  frame  of  the  first  iron  vessel  built  on  the  Forth  and 


OBITUARY  337 

Clyde  Canal,  at  Maryhill.  As  a  young  man  he  entered  the  Govern- 
ment Service  when  iron  shipbuilding  was  in  its  infancy,  and  was 
made  *'  leading  hand."  He  was  subsequently  engaged  in  succession, 
as  foreman,  with  Messrs  Bobert  Napier  &  Sons,  Govan;  The 
Fairfield  Shipbuilding  and  Engineering  Co.,  Govan ;  and  Earle's 
Shipbuilding  Co.,  Hull.  Betuming  again  to  the  Clyde  he  became 
shipyard  manager  with  Messrs  J.  &  G.  Thomson,  Clydebank,  and 
remained  connected  with  that  firm  for  nearly  twenty  years. 

Mr  Crawford  left  Clydebank  to  associate  himself  with  Messrs 
John  Scott  &  Co.,  Kinghom,  of  which  firm  he  was  the  principal 
for  upwards  of  eight  years.  Later  he  laid  out  and  started  the 
shipyard  and  graving  dock  at  Garston,  near  Liverpool,  for  the 
Garston  Graving  Dock  and  Shipbuilding  Co.  At  the  time  of  his 
death,  which  took  place  suddenly  at  Liverpool,  on  27th  December, 
1903,  he  was  engaged  with  one  of  his  sons  in  carrying  on  the 
business  of  consulting  engineers  and  naval  architects,  under  the 
title  of  Crawford  &  Co.  He  took  a  keen  interest  in  municipal 
affairs  and  was  for  many  years  a  Commissioner  of  the  Burgh  of 
Clydebank,  and  was  also  provost  of  the  Boyal  Burgh  of  Einghom. 

Mr  Crawford  joined  the  Institution  as  a  Member  in  1883. 


Charles  Mebson  Davies,  the  second  son  of  Mr  Charles 
Davies,  who  for  17  years  was  an  engineer  on  the  Great  Indian 
Peninsula  Bailway,  was  bom  at  Newton,  Longville,  Bucks, 
on  9th  November,  1849.  He  was  educated  principally  at  Dollar 
Academy,  and  served  an  apprenticeship,  from  1867-1871,  with 
Messrs  Diibs  &  Co.,  locomotive  engineers,  Glasgow,  passing  in 
turn  through  the  following  departments — ^pattern  shop,  fitting  and 
turning  shops,  smithy,  boiler  shop,  erecting  shop,  and  drawing 
office.  In  1873  Mr  Davies  went  to  India  as  mechanical  engineer 
to  Messrs  T.  C.  Glover  &  Co.,  contractors  for  the  construction  of 
the  Bajputana  State  Bailway,  from  Agra  to  Nasirabad,  and  was 
engaged  in  the  erection  of  the  principal  iron  bridges  on  the  line, 
until  appointed  assistant  locomotive  superintendent  of  that  railway. 


338  OBITUARY 

Three  years  later  he  became  looomotive,  carriage,  and  wagon 
superintendent  of  the  Holkar  and  Scindia-Neemuch  State  Bail- 
way,  and  for  a  period  of  six  months,  in  1882,  he  officiated  as 
locomotive,  carriage,  and  wagon  superintendent  of  the  Bajpntana 
State  Bail  way.  A  year  later  he  was  transferred  to  the  Nagpnr 
and  Chhattisgurgh  State  Railway  in  a  similar  capacity. 

He  resigned  his  appointment  and  left  India  in  1891.  Betuming 
to  this  country,  he  accepted  the  position  of  chief  engineer  to 
Messrs  Diibs  &  Go,,  and  filled  that  post  until  his  death,  which 
took  place  on  19th  June,  1904,  at  his  residence,  Leslie  House, 
PoUokshields,  after  a  long  and  painful  illness. 

Mr  Davies  took  out  several  patents  for  tapping  and  drilling 
machines  which  have  been  extensively  and  profitably  used  in 
connection  with  the  construction  of  locomotive  boilers.  By  special 
request,  he  exhibited  at  the  Conversazione  held  in  the  St.  Andrew's 
Halls,  in  October,  1903,  a  varied  selection  of  articles  which  he  had 
designed  and  executed  in  ivory  during  his  leisure,  and  the  exhibit 
evoked  considerable  interest. 

Mr  Davies  joined  the  Institution  as  a  Member  in  1900. 


James  Fbbrieb  was  bom  at  Carnoustie,  Forfarshire,  in  the  year 
1847.  Early  in  his  youth  he  was  apprenticed  to  the  well-known 
firm  of  Messrs  Gourlay  Brothers,  engineers,  Dundee.  After  the  com- 
pletion of  his  apprenticeship  he  went  to  sea  for  a  voyage  or  two  as 
engineer  of  a  Dundee  whaler.  In  the  early  seventies  he  went  to 
China  and  took  service  with  the  China  Steam  Navigation  Company 
and  eventually  became  engineer-in-chief  of  the  extensive  fleet  of 
vessels  owned  by  that  Company.  For  many  years  he  resided  in 
Shanghai  where  he  was  widely  known. 

Mr  Ferrier  retired  from  active  business  in  1900,  and  took  up 
his  residence  in  his  native  town.  He  died  suddenly  on  5th  April 
1903. 

Mr  Ferrier  joined  the  Institution  as  a  Member  in  1896. 


OBITUARY  339 

Samson  Fox  was  bom  at  Bradford  on  the  11th  July,  1838,  and 
at  the  early  age  of  ten  years  worked  at  bis  father's  trade  of  weaving. 
Some  five  years  after  he  was  apprenticed  to  Messrs  Smith,  Beacook, 
and  Tannett,  engineers  and  tool-makers,  Leeds,  and  while  in  the 
employment  of  that  firm  he  became  in  turn  foreman,  traveller,  and 
its  representative  at  the  London  exhibition  of  1862. 

When  twenty-eight  years  of  age  Mr  Fox  commenced  business  as 
a  tool-maker,  and  later  he  joined  a  brother  and  another  partner  in 
starting  the  Silver  Cross  Works,  Leeds.  In  1874  the  Leeds  Forge 
Company  was  established  for  the  manufacture  of  iron,  boilerplates, 
and  forgings,  with  Mr  Fox  as  its  head.  From  small  beginnings  the 
Company  rapidly  developed  until  now  it  gives  employment  to 
2000  workmen. 

Mr  Fox  is  best  known  as  the  inventor  of  the  corrugated  boiler 
furnace,  the  first  patents  for  the  manufacture  of  which  he  took 
out  in  1877.  The  special  machinery  required  for  the  production 
of  these  furnaces  was  devised  by  Mr  Fox,  as  was  also  improved 
machinery  for  manufacturing  boilers ;  and  from  first  to  last  he  took 
out  about  150  patents  for  his  various  inventions.  He  developed 
the  use  of  pressed  steel  for  steel  underframes  for  railway  wagons, 
etc.  In  1888  Mr  Fox  started  works  near  Chicago,  wherein  was 
made  the  first  pressed  steel  cars  used  in  the  United  States.  These 
works  were  purchased  by  an  American  Trust  for  a  very  large  sum. 

Mr  Fox  devoted  a  large  share  of  his  time  to  Municipal  work. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Corporation  of  Leeds  for  several  years, 
and  three  times  in  succession  Mayor  of  Harrogate.  He  was  a 
lover  of  musicy  and  he  presented  to  the  King  (then  Prince  of  Wales) 
£40,000  towards  the  Eoyal  College  of  Music,  Kensington.  He 
was  a  member  of  the  Legion  of  Honour  of  France.  His  death 
took  place  at  his  residence  Daisy  Bank,  Walsall,  on  the  24th 
October,  1903,  the  immediate  cause  of  which  was  blood  poisoning. 

Mr  Fox  joined  the  Institution  as  a  Member  in  1880. 


340  OBITUARY 

Donald  King  was  bom  on  the  4th  June,  1854,  at  StEoUox,  Glas- 
gow. He  entered  the  service  of  the  St.  RoUox  Foundry  Company 
as  an  apprentice  draughtsman,  but  left  soon  after  to  learn  pattern- 
making  at  Messrs  Norman's  establishment,  Keppoch  Hill.  Com- 
pleting his  time  at  the  bench  he  again  entered  the  drawing  office, 
finding  employment  with  Messrs  J.  &  G.  Thomson.  On  the 
establishment  of  the  Anglo-Spanish  Shipbuilding  yard  at  Bilbao,  a 
few  years  ago,  Mr  King  became  head  draughtsman,  and  retained 
that  office  until  the  dissolution  of  the  fiim  of  Martinez,  Eevas, 
Gralmer  &  Co.  Shortly  after  he  was  appointed  consulting 
engineer  to  a  group  of  sugar  refineries  at  Port  Rico.  From  there 
he  went  to  Philadelphia,  and  once  more  returning  to  the  Clyde, 
was  engaged  by  the  Fairfield  Shipbuilding  &  Engineering  Co., 
Govan,  as  a  marine  engine  draughtsman,  a  position  he  occupied 
at  the  time  of  his  death  which  took  place  suddenly,  through  inter- 
nal hemorrhage,  on  the  2l8t  November  1903. 
'.  Mr  King  joined  the  Institution  as  a  Graduate  in  1886,  and 
became  a  Member  in  1894. 


James  D.  MacKinnon,  consulting  engineer,  died  at  Glasgow,  on 
3rd  February,  1904,  after  a  few  days  illness.  Mr  MacKinnon  was 
boim  at  Creich  Manse,  Sutherlandshire,  and  was  educated  at  the 
Public  School,  Bonar  Bridge,  Sutherlandshire,  and  at  Chanonry 
School,  Aberdeen.  He  served  an  apprenticeship  in  the  London 
and  North  Western  Railway  Works  at  Crewe,  from  September  1881 
till  September  1884.  During  that  time  he  worked  in  the  turning 
and  fitting  shops,  locomotive  repairing  and  erecting  shops,  and 
millwrights'  shop.  At  the  expiration  of  his  apprenticeship  he 
obtained  the  "  Ramsbottom"  Scholarship  of  £40  per  annum, 
tenable  for  two  years,  at  the  Owens  College,  Manchester,  While 
at  that  College  he  took  the  second  and  third  year's  complete 
courses  in  engineering,  mathematics,  physics  and  chemistry,  and 
obtained  the  engineering  essay  prize,  open  to  all  the  engineering 
students  of  the  College 


OBITUARY  341 

'  In  August,  1886,  he  returned  to  Crewe,  and  worked  in  the 
millwrights*  shop  till  April,  1887,  when  he  was  offered  and 
accepted  the  demonstratorship  in  the  Whitworth  Engineering 
Laboratory  in  the  Owens  College.  During  the  erection  and  equip- 
ment of  the  laboratory,  he  had  the  advantage  of  assisting  in 
the  working  out  of  the  details  under  Professor  Osborne  Reynolds. 
On  leaving  Owens  College  he  spent  some  time  with  Messrs  Balph 
Horsfield  &  Co.,  Engineers,  Chapel-en-le-Frith.  From  1894  to 
1896  he  assisted  Dr  Archibald  Barr,  professor  of  engineering  at  the 
University  of  Glasgow.  In  1896  he  started  in  business  for  himself 
as  a  consulting  engineer. 
Mr  MacKinnon  joined  the  Institution  as  a  Member  in  1896. 


Mr  James  Buchanan  Mirlees  of  the  firm  of  Mirlees,  Watson 
&  Co.,  Glasgow,  died  at  his  residence,  Redlands,  Kelvinside,  on 
the  16th  November  1903  in  his  eighty-second  year.  He  was  born 
in  Glasgow  and  was  educated  at  the  Grange  School,  Sunderland, 
and  at  Glasgow  University.  He  elected  to  become  an  engineer, 
and  in  association  with  the  late  Mr  William  Tait  and  the  late  Sir 
Benny  Watson  carried  on  for  many  years,  under  the  name  of 
Mirlees,  Tait  and  Watson,  a  business  devoted  almost  entirely  to 
the  manufacture  of  sugar-making  machinery.  The  business  pros- 
pered exceedingly,  and  the  wealth  which  Mr  Mirlees  acquired  was 
generously  shared  by  him  with  every  good  and  benevolent  scheme 
which  came  before  him. 

In  civic  and  public  work  he  took  his  share,  having  been  a 
member  of  the  Town  Council  of  Glasgow  and  for  some  time  Dean 
of  Guild, 

Mr  Mirlees  became  a  Member  of  the  Institution  at  its  founda- 
tion in  1867. 


James  Neilson  who  was  bom  in  1838  was  one  of  a  family  which 
Ifad  beeti  identified  with  the  iron  industry  in  the  West  of  Scotland 


342  OBITUARY 

for  more  than  a  oentury .  His  great  grandunde  Beaumont  Neilaon 
invented  the  hot-blast  process  which  revolutionised  the  mode  of 
manufacturing  iron.  Sixty-nine  years  ago  his  grandfather  John 
Neilson,  built  the  Fairy  Queen,  the  first  iron  steamer  that  sailed  on 
the  Clyde.  Early  in  life  James  Neilson  became  connected  with 
the  coal  and  iron  business  handed  down  in  the  family  by  his 
grandfather,  and  since  its  conversion  into  the  Summerlee  and 
Mossend  Iron  and  Steel  Co.,  he  had  been  managing  director. 

Mr  Neilson  was  closely  connected  with  the  public  life  of  the 
County  and  the  local  affairs  of  the  Middle  Ward  of  Lanarkshire. 
For  several  years  he  was  Chairman  of  the  School  Board  of 
Bothwell  parish ;  and  on  the  establishment  of  the  Lanarkshire 
County  Council  he  was  elected  chairman  of  the  District  Committee. 
He  was  also  chairman  of  the  Lanarkshire  and  Dumbartonshire 
Bailway  Co.,  a  director  of  the  Caledonian  Bailway  Co.,  and  a 
member  of  the  Scottish  Board  of  the  Liverpool  and  London  and 
Globe  Insurance  Co. 

In  the  West  of  Scotland  he  was  best  known  through  his  connec- 
tion with  the  Queen's  own  Yeomanry,  with  which  regiment  he 
was  associated  from  his  youth.  He  began  as  comet,  and  passed 
through  all  the  grades  to  the  position  of  Colonel.  He  received 
the  Honour  of  Companionship  of  the  Bath  on  his  retirement  a 
year  or  two  ago. 

His  death  took  place  at  his  residence,  Orbiston  House,  Bellshill,. 
on  the  6th  October  1903. 

Mr  Neilson  joined  the  Institution  as  a  Member  in  1897. 


John  Wilson  died  at  Bothesay  on  13th  September,  1903,  after 
a  brief  iUness.  Mr  Wilson  was  bom  at  Liverpool,  on  13th 
December,  1821.  Left  an  orphan  at  about  ten  years  of  age  he 
entered  the  Blue  Coat  School  of  his  native  city.  In  1835  he  was 
bound  as  an  apprentice  for  seven  years  with  Messrs  Mather  and 
Dixon,  ironfounders  and  engineers,  Liverpool,  where  many  of  the 
early  locomotives  were  designed  and  built.     His  next  experience 


OBITUARY  843 

was  as  an  engineer  in  the  steamship  "Oreat  Britain/'  which 
sailed  from  Liverpool  in  1846  and  getting  out  of  her  oourse  ran 
ashore  in  Dnndram  Bay,  in  the  North  of  Ireland,  and  lay  there  for 
more  than  twelve  months.  For  the  next  nine  years  Mr  Wilson 
was  employed  in  various  railway  works  in  England.  In  1851  at 
Nine  Elms,  London;  then  at  Edge  Hill,  Liverpool,  where  he 
assisted  in  erecting  the  stationary  engine  for  working  the  incline 
through  the  railway  tunnel;  later,  at  the  Orewe  works  of  the 
London  and  North  Western  Bailway  Co. ;  and  still  later,  as  manager 
with  Messrs  Jackson,  engineers,  Manchester,  where  it  is  said  the 
first  solid  rolled  tyres  for  locomotives  were  made  under  his 
supervision. 

Mr  Wilson's  next  appointment  was  with  Messrs  Sharp,  Stewart 
&  Co.,  Manchester,  where  for  sometime  he  was  erecting  shop  fore- 
man and  saw  the  first  injector  fitted  to  a  locomotive.  At  the  end  of 
1884  he  entered  into  an  agreement  with  Messrs  Neilson  &  Co., 
Glasgow,  to  serve  as  a  manager  in  their  Hydepark  Locomotive 
Works,  at  Springbum,  a  position  he  held  for  twenty  years.  On  his 
retiral,  due  to  ill  health,  he  received  such  recognition  from  the  firm 
and  from  the  employees,  as  showed  him  to  be  a  man  who,  while 
conserving  the  best  interests  of  his  employers,  was  not  unmindful 
of  those  under  his  charge. 

During  his  earlier  years  Mr  Wilson  was  an  active  member  and 
upholder  of  the  engineers^  trade  union  of  the  time.  He  joined  the 
Manchester  Association  of  Engineers  in  1857,  was  a  Vice-President 
m  1858,  and  President  in  1859. 

Mr  Wilson  joined  the  Institution  as  a  Member  in  1870. 


Associates. 

John  Bbown,  son  of  the  late  Capt.  James  Brown,  was  bom  in 
Glasgow  on  the  24th  July,  1854.  He  was  educated  at  the  Glasgow 
University,  and  took  his  degree  of  B.Sc.,  there.  Most  of  his  life  was 


^44 


OBITUARY 


given  up  to  scientific  and  philanthropic  work.     He  died  at   his 
residence,  Somerset  Place,  Glasgow,  on  3rd  April,  1903. 

Mr  Brown  was  a  life  Associate  of  the  Institution  which  he  joined 
in  1876. 


William  Mann  was  bom  at  East  Kilbride  in  June  1853,  and 
received  his  education  there  and  at  the  Olasgow  High  School. 
He  began  his  business  life  at  the  age  of  sixteen  years  with  Mr 
Martine,  Danish  Consul  in  Glasgow.  Ten  years  later  he  started 
in  business  on  his  own  account  as  a  shipping  agent,  and  after  a 
period  of  two  years  accepted  the  position  of  managing  partner  with 
the  firm  of  Messrs  John  Little  &  Co.,  shipowners,  and  remained 
in  that  capacity  for  five  years.  He  then  became  associated  with 
Messrs  Bell  Brothers  &  M'Lelland,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death 
was  managing  partner  of  that  firm. 

Mr  Mann  took  an  active  interest  in  public  affairs  and  was  a 
Justice  of  the  Peace  for  Glasgow  and  Renfrewshire,  and  a  member 
of  the  County  Council  of  Renfrew.  He  died  suddenly  at  White- 
craigs,  GifiEhock,  on  the  29th  May  1904. 

Mr  Mann  became  an  Associate  of  the  Institution  in  1900. 


Students, 


James  G.  Duncan  was  born  in  October,  1877,  at  Port-Glasgow, 
where  he  received  his  education.  He  was  apprenticed  to  the  firm 
of  Messrs  Muir  and  Houston,  engineers,  Kinning  Park,  Glasgow ; 
and  on  the  completion  of  his  apprenticeship  he  accepted  an 
appointment  as  draughtsman  with  the  Tang-Jong  Pagar  Dock  Co., 
Singapore,  where  he  remained  for  three  and  a  half  years.  HI 
health  compelled  him  to  return  to  this  country,  and  he  died  in 
Glasgow  on  the  8th  July,  1904. 

Mr  Duncan  joined  the  Institution  as  a  Graduate  in  1898. 


OBITUARY  345 

BoBBBT  Lowe  was  bom  at  Bothesay  on  21st  May,  1878,  and 
received  his  education  at  the  Academy  in  that  town,  and  at  the  ' 
Technical  College,  Glasgow.  He  served  his  apprenticeship  with 
Messrs  Muir  &  Houston,  engineers,  Kinning  Park,  Glasgow,  and 
thereafter  entered  the  service  of  Messrs  Clark,  Chapman  &  Co., 
Gateshead-on-Tyne.  He  returned  to  Glasgow,  and  took  up  an 
appointment  with  Messrs  Mavor  &  Goulson,  Glasgow,  leaving 
shortly  after  to  join  the  engineering  staff  at  the  General  Post  Office, 
Glasgow. 

He  died  at  Glasgow  on  the  20th  February,  1904. 

Mr  Lowe  joined  the  Institution  as  a  Graduate  in  1901. 


LIST  OF  HONORAEY  MEMBERS,  MEMBERS, 

ASSOCIATE  MEMBERS,  ASSOCIATES, 

AND  STUDENTS 

AT  CLOSE  OF  SESSION  190S-1904. 


HONORARY  MEMBERS. 

DATS  OF  BLBCnOS. 

Kelvin,  Lord,  G.C.V.O.,  O.M.J  P.C.,  LL.D.,  D.C.L.,  NetherhaU, 

liurgB,  1S59 

Brassey,  Lord,  K.G.B.,  D.G.L.,  4  Great  George  street,  Westminster, 

London,  S.W.,  1891 

Blythswood,  Lord,  Blythswood,  Renfrewshire,  1891 

Kennedy,  Professor  A.  B.  W.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  17  Victoria  street, 

London,  S.W.,  1891 

MURBAY,  Sir  DiOBY,  Bart.,  Hothfield,  Parkstone,  Doiset,  1891 

White,  Sir  William  Henry,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S.,  LL.D.,  D.Sc., 

Cedar  Croft,  Putney  Heath,  London,  S.  \¥.,  1894 

Purston,  Sir  A.  J.,  K.C.R,  Westoomlea,  Park  Road,  filackheath, 

London,  S.E.,  1896 

Froude,  R.  £.,  F.R.S.,  Admiralty  Experiment  works,  Gosport,  1897 


MEMBERS. 

DATE  OF  ■LBCnOH. 

Aamumdsen,  Jems  L.,  57  Claasensgade,  2  Sal,  Copenhagen, 

Denmark,  24  Jan.,  1899 

Abercrombie,  Robert  Graham,  Broad  Street  Engine 

Works,  Alloa,  21  Mar.,  1899 

Adam,  J.  Millen,  Ibrox  Iron  works,  Glasgow,  |  ^  ^  ^^'  J|^ 

Adamson,  James,  St.  Qaivox,  Stopford  road,  Upton 

Manor,  Essex,  23  Apr.,  1880 

Adamson,  Peter  Hogg,  2  Thomwood  terrace,  Partiek,         19  Mar.,  1901 

Ails  A  (The  most  Honourable  the  Marquis  of),  Calzean 

castle,  Maybole,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Names  marked  thus  *  were  Members  of  Scottish  Shipbuilders'  Assooiation  at 
Incorporation  with  InatitatioD,  1865. 

Names  marked  thas  t  are  Life  Members, 


MEMBERS  347 

AiTKEN,  H.  Wallace,  147  Bath  Street,  Gla^gow,  |§f  ^  ^J^;|  \^ 

ArroN,  J.   Arthur.    Western   Works,   Hytbe  Road, 

Willesden  Junction,  London,  N.W.,  24  Nov.,  1896 

Alexander,  John,  Engineer,  Barrhead,  19  Mar.,  1901 

Allan,  Robert,  La  Maisonette,  Mount  Cochen,  Jersey,  30  Apr.,  1895 

Alley,  Stephen  £.,  8  Woodside  terrace,  Glasgow,  23  Nov.,  1897 

tALLiOTT,  James  B.,  The  Park,  Nottingham,  21  Dee.,  1864 

Allo,  Oscar  Edward,  100  Bothwell  street,  Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1904 

Alston,  William  M.,  24  Sardinia  terrace,  Hillhead,      (  G.  16  Feb.,  1865 

Glasgow,  (  M.  18  Dec,  1877 

i-AMOS,  Alexander,  Glen  Alpine,  Werris  Creek,  New 

South  Wales,  21  Dec.,  1886 

-fAMOS,  Alexander,  Jun.,  Braeside,  81  Victoria  Street 

(North),  Darlinghurst,  Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  21  Dec,  1886 

Anderson,  Alexander,  176  Balgray  hill,  Springbum, 

GlMgow,  24  Nov.,  1903 

Anderson,    Alfred   Walter,    Blackness    Foundry, 

Dundee,  27  Oct.,  1903 
tANDERSON,  E.  Andrew,  c/o  Clinton,  13  Holmhead 

street,  Glasgow,  21  Feb.,  1899 
Andebson,  F.  Carlton,  c/o  Messrs  G.  HarUnd,  Bowden 

&  Co.,  196  Deansgate,  Manchester,  23  Apr.,  1901 

Anderson,  George  C,  18  Balmoral  drive,  Cambuslang,|^'  27  OcT'  19^ 

Anderson,   J.    Godfrey,    B.Sc.,   c/o  Messrs   James 

Templeton  &  Co.,  Greenhead,  Ghisgow,  1^  Mar.,  1901 

Anderson,  James,  Princes  Dock  Engine  works,  Fairley  )  G.  24  Feb.,  1874 

street,  Govan,  (  M.  23  Nov.,  1880 
tANDEBSON,  James,  Ravelston,   Great  Western  Road, 

Glasgow,  26  Nov.,  1901 

Anderson,  James  H.,  Caledonian  Railway,  Glasgow,  20  Dec,  1892 

Anderson,  Robert,  Clyde  Street,  Renfrew,  26  Jan.,  1897 
Anderson,  William  Martin,   Princes  Dock  Engine 

works,  Fairley  street,  Govan,  18  Dec,  1900 
Anderson,  William  Smith,  Alderwood  East,   Port- 
Glasgow,  21  Nov.,  1899 

ANDREW.S,  H.  W.,  128  Hope  street,  Ghisgow,                      |  ^  |J  g^'  \^ 

AsDKEyvs,   James,  Blythswood  Chambers,    180  West 

Regent  street,  Glasgow,  22  Nov.,  1898 

Angus,  Robert,  Lugar,  Old  Cumnock,  Ayrshire,  28  Nov.,  1860 
Anis,  Professor  Mohamed,  Bey,  Minist^re  des  Travaux 

Publics,  Cairo,  24  Apr.,  1894 

Archer,  W.  David,  47  Croham  road,  Croyden,  Surrey,  20  Dec,  1887 


348  MEMBERS 

Arnot,  William,  21  Havelock  street,  Partiek,  Olasicow,  26  Apr.»  1904 

Arnott,  Hugh  Steele,  99  Clarence  drive,  Hyndland,  /6.  26  Oct.,  1897 

Glasgow,  \M.  22  Jan.,  1901 

Arrol.  Thomas,  23  Donne  terrace,  Kelvinside,  Glas- 
gow, 27  Oct.,  1903 

Arrol,  Thomas,  Jan.,  Oswald  gardens,  Scotstoanhill, 

Glasgow,  20  Nov.,  1894 

t Arrol,  Sir  William,  LL.D.,  M.P.,  Dalmarnock  Iron 

works,  Glasgow,  27  Jan.,  1885 

Arrol,  William,  23  Donne  terrace,  Kelvinside,  Glas- 
gow, 27  Oct.,  1903 

Auld,  John,  Whitevale  foundry,  Glasgow,  28  Apr.,  1885 

Austin,  Wm.  R.,  28  Ardgowan  Street,  Greenock,  23  Feb.,  1897 


Baillie,  Robert,  c/o  Stirling  Boiler  Company,  Limited, 

75  Bath  street,  Glasgow,  20  Nov.,  1900 

Bain,  William  N.,  40  St.  Enoch  square,  Glasgow,  24  Feb.,  1880 

Bain,  William  P.  C,  Lochrin  Iron  works,  Coatbridge,  2S  Apr.,  1891 

Baird,  Allan  W.,  Eastwood  villa,  St  Andrew's  drive, 

PoUokshields,  Glasgow,  25  Oct.,  1881 

Balderston,  James,  Gateside,  Paisley,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Balderston,  John  A.,  Vulcan  Works,  Paisley,  18  Dec.,  1900 

Balfour,  George,  Messrs  J.  G.  White  &  Co.,  Ltd.,  22a 

College  hill,  Cannon  street,  London,  E.C.,  21  Mar.,  1899 

Balling  ALL,  David,  c/o  Messrs.  Richard  Homsby  &  Son, 

Ltd.,  Spittlegate  Iron  Works,  Grantham,  27  Oct.,  1896 

Bamford,  Harry,  M.Sc,  The   University,  Glasgow,  24  Nov.,  1896 

Barclay,  George,  Vulcan  works.  Paisley,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Barman,  Harry  D.  D„  21  University  avenue,  Glas-  /G.  24  Apr.,  1888 

gow,  \M.  24  Oct.,   1899 

Barnett,  J.  R.,  Westfield,  Crookston,  22  Dec,  1896 

Barnett,  Michael  R.,  Engineer's  Office,  Laurel  Bank, 

Lancaster,  22  Nov.,  1887 

Barr,  Professor  Archibald,  D.Sc.,  Royston,  Dowanhill, 

Glasgow,         21  Mar.,  1882 

I  A    28  Oct.     lAAS 
M*.  26  Jwa.*  1^ 

Barrow,  Joseph,  Messrs  Thomas  Shanks  &  Co.,  John- 
stone, 19  Feb.,  1901 

Baxter,  George  H.,  Clyde  Navigation  works,  Dalniuir,  22  Mar.,  1881 

Baxter,  P.  M'L.,  Copland  works,  Govan,  |  g;  ^^^  J^ 

Beardmore,  Joseph  George,  Parkhead  Foige,  Glasgow,  22  Nov.   1898 

Beardmork,  William,  Parkhead  forge,  Ghisgow,  27  Oct.,  1896 


ItEMBBRS  349 

Begbie,    William,     P.O.    Box    459,     JohanneBbnri;, 

Soath  Africa,  15  Jane,  1398 

*tBELL,  David,  19  Eton  place,  Hillhead,  Glasgow. 

Bell,  Imrie,  49  Dingwall  road,  Croydon,  Surrey,  23  Mar.,  1880 

Bell,  Stuart,  65  Bath  street,  Glasgow,  26  Feb.,  1895 

Bell,    Thomas,    Messrs   John   Brown   &    Co.,    Ltd.^  JG.  26  Apr.,  1887 

Clydebank,  IM.  27  Apr.,  1897 
Belu  W.  Rbid,  Transvaal  Department  of  Irrigation  and 

Water  Supply,  Box  78,  Potchefstroom,  Sonth  Africa,  22  Jan.,  1889 

Bennie,  H.  Osbourne,  Clyde  Engine  works,  Cardonald, 

Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Bbrgius,  W.  C,  77  Qaeen  street,  Glasgow,  23  Jan.,  1900 
Beveridge,     Richard     James,    53    Waring    street, 

Belfast,  22  Feb.,  1898 

Biogart,  Andrew  S.,  lochgarvie,  39  Sherbrooke  avenue, )  G.  20  Mar. ,  1883 

Pollokshields,  Glasgow,  {  M.  25  Nov.,  1884 
Biles,  Professor  John  Harvard,  LL.D.,  The  Univer- 
sity, Glasgow,  25  Mar.,  1884 
BiNNEY,  William  H.,  Marine  Superintendent,  Holy- 
head, 26  Jan.,  1897 
BiNNiE,  R.  B.  Jardine,  Camtyne  Works,  Parkhead,  24  Dec.,  1901 
Bird,  John  R.,  10  Morrison  street,  Glasgow,  25  Mar.,  1890 

Bishop,  Alexander,  3  Germiston  street,  Glasgow,  |^'  |*  jj""*'  J^ 

Black,   John   W.,  108a   West   Regent  street,   Glas-  /G.   25  Oct.,  1892 

gow,  \M.  27  Oct.,  1903 

Blair,  Archibald,  21  Havelock  street,  Dowanhill,Gla8-/G.    27  Oct.,  1885 

gow,\M.   27  Oct.,  1903 

Blatb,  David  A.,  Scotland  street  Copper  works,  Glasgow  23  Mar.,  1897 

Blair,  Frank  R.,  Ashbank,  Maryfield.  Dundee.  {^  |^  ^*J;'  J®^ 

Blair,  George,  Jan.,  88  Queen  street,  Glasgow,  |  ^'  ^s  Feb  '  1897 

Blair,  James  M.,  Williamcraigs,  LinlithgowshiTe,  27  Mar.,  1867 

Bone,  William  L.,  Ant  and  Bee  works.  West  Gorton, 

Manchester,  23  Oct.,  1883 

Booth,  Robert,  Glengelder,  Cowey  road,  Durban,  Natal,         26  Jan.,  1904 

Borrowman,  William  C,  Strathmore,  West  Hartle-  )  G.  27  Oct.,  1887 

pool,  { M.  26  Oct.,  1895 

BosT,  W.  D.  Ashton,  Adelphi  house,  Paisley,  25  Jan..  1898 

Bow,  William,  Thistle  works.  Paisley,  27  Jan.,  1891 

Bowman,  William  David,  21  Kersland  terrace.  Hill- )  6.    22  Dec,  1891 

head,  Glasgow,  (  M.  24  Nov.,  1903 

Bowser,  Charles  Howard,  Charles  street,  St.  Rollox, 

Glasgow,  21  Mar.,  1899 

28 


'350  MEMBERS 

Boyd,  William,  The  Thanin  Sulphur  and  Copper  Co., 

Ltd.,  Hebbnm-on-TyDO,  24  Oct.,  i8d9 

Brace,  Geoboe  R,  25  Water  street,  Liverpool,  26  Mar.,  189U 

Brand,    Mark,     B.Sc.,    Barrhill    cottage,    Tweehar,  /G.  24  Jan.,  1888 

Kilsyth,  \M.  21  Apr.,  1903 
Seeing  AN,  W.  D.,  Bams  place,  Clydebank,  22  Jan.,  1901 

Brewer,  J.  Alfred,  249  West  George  street,  Glasgow,         20  Nov.,  1900 
Brier,  Henry,  1  Miskin  road,  Dartford,  Kent,  22  Dec,  1891 

Broadfoot,  James,  Lymehurst,  JordanhUl,  J  ^  |^  J^*'  J|^ 

Broadfoot,  William  R,  Inchholm  works,  Whiteinch,  25  Jan.,  1898 
Brock,  Henry  W.,  Engine  works,  Dumbarton,  30  Apr.,  1895 
*Brock,  Walter,  Engine  works,  Dumbarton,  26  Apr.,  1865 
Brock,  Walter,  Jun.,  Levenford,  Dumbarton,  27  Oct.,  1896 
Broom,  Thomas  M.,  II  Union  street,  Greenock,  25  Apr.,  1893 
Brown,  Alexander  D.,  Dry  Dock,  St  John's,  New- 
foundland, 22  Dec,  1896 

Brown,  Alexander  T.,  18  Glencaim  drive,   Pollok-  J  G.  25  Feb.,  1879 

shields,  Glasgow,  {  M.  27  Oct.,  1891 
*tBR0WN,  Andrew,  London  works,  Renfrew,  16  Feb.,  1869 

Brown,  Andrew  M*N.,  Strathdyde,  Dalkeith  avenue,  J  G.  25  Jan.,  1876 

Dumbreck,  GUu^ow,  {  M.  24  Nov.,  1885 

tBROWN,  David  A.,  41  Roeslyn  crescent,  Edinburgh,      j  ^  ^  Oct '  19^ 

Brown,  Ebenezer  Hall-,  Helen  street  Engine  works, )  G.  18  Dec,  1883 

Govan,  {  M.  26  Feb.,  1895 

Brown,  George,  Garvel  Graving  Dock,  Greenock,  23  Mar.,  1886 

Brown,  J.  Pollock,  1  Broomhill  avenue,  Partick,  Glas-  (O.   18  Dec.,  1894 

gow,  )M.  22  Dec.,  1903 

Brown,  James,  c/o  Messrs.  Scott  &  Co.,  Greenock         |  ^  ^  f^'*  }|^ 

Brown,  James  M'N.,  15  Falkland  Mansions,  Hyndland, 

Glasgow,  26  Jan.,  1897 

Brown,    Matthew   T.,    B.Sc.,  21    Bisham    f^ardens,  )  G.  25  Jan.,  1S81 

Highgate,  London,  N.,  )  M.  18  Dec.,  Id94 

Brown,  Robert,  7  Church  road,  Ibrox,  Glasgow,  18  Feb.,  1902 

Brown,  Walter,  Monkdyke,  Renfrew,  28  Apr.,  1885 

Brown,  William,  MeadowBat,  Renfrew,  }  ^  fj^  j^;'  J^ 

Brown,   William,   Albion   works,    Woodville   street, 

Govan,  21  Dec,   1880 

Brown,  Wiluam,  Messrs  Diibs&  Co.,  Glasgow  Loco- 
motive works,  Glasgow,  17  Dec,  1889 

Brown,  William  Dewar,  25  Mar.,  1890 

Bruhn,  Johannes,  D.8c.,  23  Methuen  park,  Muswell )  G.  24  Oct,  1893 

hill,  London,  N.,  |  M.  22  Feb.,  1898 


MEMBERS  361 

BrVan,  Matthew  Reid,  1  Royal  terrace,  Spriogbum, 

Glasgow,  24  Not.,  1903 

Srysox,   William   Alexander,  16  Charlotte  street, 

Leith,  27  Oct.,  1896 

Buchanan,  John  H.,  5  Oswald  street,  Glasgow,  23  Jan.,  1900 

^UCKWELL,   George  W.,  Board  of  Trade  Surveyor's 

Office,  Barrow-in-Famess,  27  Apr.,  1897 

iUDENBERG,      CHRISTIAN     FREDERICK,     81    WhltWOrth 

Street,  Manchester,  20  Dec,  1898 

SULLARD,  £.  P.,  Jun.,  Bridgeport,  Conn.,  U.S.A.,  29  Oct.,  1901 

Burden,  Alfred  George  Newkey,  c/o  Messrs  Harvey 

&  Co.,  Box  953,  Johannesburg,  South  Africa,  20  Feb.,  1900 

iURNsiDE,   William,  3  Armadale  street,  Dennistonn, 

Glasgow,  27  Oct.,  1903 

)URT,  Thomas,  60  St.  Vincent  crescent,  Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1881 

^UTTERS,  James  Thomas,  Percy  Crane  &  Engine  Works, 

Glasgow,  19  Mar.,  1901 

(UTTERS,   Michael  W.,  20  Waterloo  street,  Glasgow,  24  Oct.,  1899 


'aird,  ARTHUR,  Messrd  Caird  &  Co.,  Ltd.,  Greenock,  27  Oct.,  1896 

Cairo,  Edward  B.,  777  Commercial  road,  Limehoose, 

London,  29  Oct.,  1878 

€aird,  Patrick  T..  Messrs  Caird  &  Co..  Ltd.,  Greenock,  27  Oct.,  1896 

'aird,  Robert,   LL.D.,   Messrs   Caird  &  Co.,    Ltd., 

Greenock,  20  Feb.,  1894 

'alder,  John,  18  St.  Austin's  place.  West  New  Brighton,  (G.  24  Feb.,  1891 

New  York,  U.S.A.,  JM.  27  Oct.,  1903 

'ALDERWOOD,  WiLLiAM  T.,  Stanley  villa,  Kilmailing, 

Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1898 

'alowell,  James,  130  Elliot  street,  Glasgow,  17  Dec,  1878 

/AMERON,  Angus,  175  West  George  street,  Glasgow,  18  Feb.,  1902 

)ameron,  Donald,  7  Bedford  circas,  Exeter.  25  Feb.,  1890 

\VMBR0N,  Hugh,  40  Camperdown  road,  Scotstoun,  Glas-  <G.  25  Oct.,  1892 

gow,  tM.  27  Oct.,  1903 

'ameron,  John  B.,  Ill  Union  street,  Glasgow  24  Mar.,  1885 

'ameron,    William,    Ashgrove,    Whitehaugh   drive, 

Paisley,  25  Mar.,  1890 

AMPBELL,  Angus,  90  Southgrove  road,  Sheffield,  i^   27  oSi*,  1903 

Campbell,  Duncan,  Camtyne  foundry  and  engineering 

works,  Parkhead,  Glasgow,  -23  Jan.,  1900 

'ampbkll,  Hugh,  The  Campbell  Gas  Engine  Company, 

Hali&x,  Yorkshire,  18  Dec,  1900 

AMPBELL,  James,  104  Baih  street,  Glasgow,  18|Dec.,  1900 

AMPBELL,  John,  169  Clapham  road,  London,  S.W.,  21  Jan.,  1890 


352  MEMBERS 

tCAMPBELL,  Thomas,  Maryhill  Iron  works,  Glaa^iow,  20  Not..  1900 

Campbell,  Walter  Hope,  42  Krestcbatik,  Kieif,  South 

KuBBia,  25  Apr.,  1899 

Carev-,  Evelyn  G.,  4  Sannyside  avenue,  Uddingston,  22  Oct.,  1889 

Carl  AW,  Alex.  L.,  11  Finnieston  street,  Glasgow,  24  Dee.,  1895 

Carlaw,  David,  Jun.,  11  Finnieston  street,  Glasgow,  24  Dec.,  1895 

Carlaw,  James  W.,  11  Finnieston  street,  Glasgow,  24  Dec,  189& 

Carmichael,  Angus  T.,  3  Hanrey  street,  Paislev  road, 

W.,  Glasgow,  19  Biar.,  1901 

Carruthers,  John  H.,  Ashton,  Queen  Mary  avenue, 

Crosshill,  Glasgow,  22  Nov.,  1881 

Carslaw,  William  H.,  Jun.,  Parkhead  Boiler  works,  \  G.  23  Dec.,  1890 

Parkhead,  Glasgow,  \  M.  27  Ocu,  190a 

Carver,  Thomas,  A.  B.,  D.Sc.,  118  Napiershall  street, 

Glasgow,  19  Feb.,  1901 

Chalmers,  Walter,  Cathage,  Milngavie,  23  Jan.,   1909 

Chamen,   W.   a.,  76  Waterloo  street,  Glasgow,  22  Feb.,  1898 

Chisholm  Robert,  1  Albany  quadrant,  Springboig, 

Shettleston,  29  Oct.,  1901 

Christie,  John,  CorporationElectricity  Works,  Brighton,  22  Nov. ,  189a 
Christie,  K.  Barclay,  Messrs  M*Lay  &  M*Intyre,  21 

Bothwell  street,  Glasgow,  25  Apr.,  189^ 

Christison,  George,   13  Cambridge  drive,  Glasgow,  22  Feb.,  1898 
Clark,  James  Lester,  Dublin  Dockyard  Company, 

North  wall,  Dublin,  24  Nov.,  1896- 
Clark,    John,   British   India  Steam  Navigation  Co., 

9  Throgmorton  avenue,  London,  E.C.,  23  Jan.,  1883- 

Clark,  William,  208  St.  Vincent  street,  Glasgow,  25  Apr.,  1893 

Clark,  William,  Companhia  Carris  de  Ferro  de  Lisbon, 

Lisbon,  Portugal,  22  Dec,  1896 

Clark,  William,  23  Royal  Exchange  square,  Glasgow,  26  Jan.,  1904 
Clark,  William  Graham,  29  Church  road,  Waterloo, 

Liverpool,  22  Feb.,  1898 
Clarkson,  Charles,  20  Macaulay  road,  Birkby, 

Huddersheld,  27  Oct.,  189£ 

Cleohorn,    Alexander,    10    Whittingehame   drive, 

Keivinside,  Glasgow,  22  Nov.,  1892 

Cleland,  W.  a.,  Yloilo,  Philippine  Islands,  l^'  ^  ^^''  J^ 

Clyne,  James,  Messrs  Clyne,  Mitchell,  &  Co.,  Com- 
mercial road,  Aberdeen,  18  Dec,  1900 

Coats,  Allan,  Jun.,  B.Sc,  Hayfield,  Paisley,  23  Oct.,  190O 

Coats,    James,     362    Maxwell    road,     PoUokshields, 

Glasgow,  21  Dec,  1897 

Cochran,  Jambs  T.,  52  Woodville  gardens,  Langside, 

Glasgow,  26  Feb.,  1884 


MEMBERS  353 

CocBSANE,  Jambs,  RMident  Engineer's  Office,  Harbour  j6.   27  Oct,  1891 
works,  Table  Bay,  Capetown,  IM.  22  Dec.,  1903 

Cochrane,  John,  Grahamston  foundry,  Barrhead,  25  Mar.,  1890 

CocKBURN,  Gboroe,  Cardonald,  near  Glasgow,  25  Oct.,  1881 
CocxBURN,     Robert,     Cambrae    House,    Dumbreck, 

Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1898 
CoLViLLK,  Archibald,  51  Clifford  street,  BeUahooston, 

Govan,  23  Jan.,  1900 

CoLYiLLR,  Archibald,  Motherwell,  27  Oct,  1896 

COLVILLE,  David,  Jerviston  house,  Motherwell,  27  Oct.,  1896 

Connell,  Charles,  Whiteinch,  Glasgow,  j^"  ^  y^^*  \^ 

Conner,  Alexander,  6  Grange  Knowe,  Irvine  road,  /O.  26  Feb.,  1884 

Kilmarnock,  \M.  24  Jan.,  1899 

Conner,    Benjamin,    196    St    Vincent    street,    Glas-  /G.  22  Dec,  1885 

gow,  \M.  26  Oct.,  1897 

Conner,  James,  North  British  Locomotive  Co.,  Ltd.,  /G.  18  Dec.,  1877 

H}depark  works,  Glasgow,  (M.  24  Nov.,  1885 

Conner,  Jamka,  English  Electric  Manufacturing  Co., 

Limited,  Preston,  20  Nov.,  1900 

Const ANTiNE,  Ezekikl  Grayson,  53  Deaosgate  arcade, 

Manchester,  26  Apr..  1904 

CoPELAND,  James,  St  Andrew's,  Bearsden,  17  Feb.,  1864 

CopESTAKE,  S.  G.  G.,  Glasgow  Locomotive  works.  Little 

Govan,  Glasgow,  11  Mar.,  1868 

tCoPLAND,  William  R.,  146  W.  Regent  street,  Glasgow,  20  Jan.,  1864 

CoRMACK,    Prof.    John    Dewar,    B.Sc,    University 

College,  (rower  street,  London,  W.C,  24  Nov.,  1896 

Costioane,  a.  Paton,  Lymekilns,  East  Kilbride,  20  Jan.,  1903 

CouLSON,    W.    Arthur,    47    King   street.    Mile-end, 

Glasgow,  15  June,  1898 

CouPER,  Sinclair,  Moore  Park  Boiler  works,  Govan,  jjj  27  Oct  '  1891 

Cousins,  John  Booth,  75  Buchanan  street,  Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1904 

CouTTS,  Francis,  280  Great  Western  road,  Aberdeen,     (^  24  Jan!'  1899 

Cowan.    David,  Coulport  bouse,    Loch    Long,  Dum- 
bartonshire, 24  Apr.,  1900 

Cowan,   John,    8   Wilton    mansions,    Kelvinside  N., 

Glasgow,  27  Apr.,  1897 

Cowan,  John,  Clydebridge  Steel  Co.,  Ltd.,  Cambuslang,         16   Dec,  1902 

tCowiE,  William,  51  Endsleigh  gardens,  Ilford,  Essex,  20  Feb.,  1900 

Cbaio,  Alexander,  163  West  George  street,  Glasgow,    |^-  ^  ^^;»  \^ 

Craig,  Archibald  Fulton,  Belmont,  Paisley,  25  Jan.,  1«98 


354  MEMBERS 

Craig,  James,  Lloyd's  Reffistry,  14  Croes-ahore  street, }  G.  20  Dec.,  1892 

Greenock,  )  M.21  Dee.,  1897 

Craig,  John,  Broom,  Newton  Mearns,  22  Jan.,  1900 

Cran,  John,  Albert  Engine  works,  Leith,  21  Jan.,  1902 

Crawford,  Jambs,  dO  Ardi^wan  street,  Greenock,  27  Oct,  1896 

Crighton,  J.,  Rotterdamsche  Droogdok,  Maatscbappy, )  G.  23  Nov.,  1897 

^tteidam,  Holland,  )  M.  20  Jan.,  190S 

Crighton,  John,  Claee  de  Vrieselaam  1.S7,  Rotterdam,  f  a  M  a>  Tan 'iftoa 


.»#^.^a«,  (^'  26  Nov.,  1901 
S^iiin^'  \  A.M.20  Jan.,  1903 
Holland,  I  j^    22  Dec.,  1903 


Crockatt,  William,  179  Nitbadale  road,  Polloksbields, 

Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1881 

Crosher,  William,  121  St.  Vincent  street,  Glasgow,  24  Jan.,  1899 

Crow,  John,   Engineer,    236  Nitbsdale  road,   Pollok- 
sbields, Gbisgow,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Gumming,  Wm.  J.  L., Motherwell  Bridge  Co., Motherwell,  24  Jan.,  1899 

Cunningham,  Peter  N.,  Easter  Kennyhill  House, Cnm- 

bernanld  road,  Glasgow,  28  Dec.,  1884 

Cunningham,  P.  Nisbet,  Jnn.,  Easter  Keonyhill House,  |  G.  22  Nov.,  1898 

Cambemaold  road,  Glasgow, }  M.  3  May,  1904 

Cuthill,  William,  Beechwood,  Uddingstou,  24  Nov.,  1896 


Darroch,  John,  27  South  Kinning  place.  Paisley  road, 

Glasgow,  24  Jan.,  1899 

Davidson,  David,  17  Regent  Park  square,  Strathbungo,  )  G.  22  Mar.,  1881 

Glasgow,  \  M.  18  Dea,  1888 

Davie,  James,  U  Glencaim  drive,  Polloksbields  W., 

Glasgow,  19  Dec.,  1899 

Davie,  Wiluam,  50  Lennox  avenue,  Scotstouo,  Glas- 
gow, 22Dec.,  19a3 

Davis,  Charles  H.,  25  Broad  street.  New  York,  U.S.A.,        20  Nov.,  1900 

Davis,  Harry  Llewelyn,  Messrs  Cochran  &  Co.,  Ltd.,  /G.  18  Dec.,  1888 

Newbie,  Annan,  \M.  23  April,  1901 

Dawson,  Charles  £.,  571  Sanohiehall  street,  Glasgow,  21  Jan.,  1902 

Day,  Charles,  Huntly  lodge.  Ibroxholm,  Glasgow,  24  Nov.,  1903 

Delacour,  Frank  Phiup,  Baku,  Russia,  24  Apr.,  1900 

Delmaar,  Frederick  Anthony,  Sourabaya,  Nether-  /G.  24  Apr.,  1883 

lands  East  Indies,  \M.  24  Oct.,   1899 

Dempster,   James,    7   Knowe  terrace,   Polloksbields, 

Gbisgow,  24  Jan.,  1899 

Dbnholm,  James,  40  Derby  street,  Glasgow,  21  Nov.,  1883 

DsNHOLM,  William,  Meadowside  Shipbuilding  yard,  )  G.  18  Dec.,  1883 

Partick,  Glasgow,  )  M.  21  Nov.,  1893 
Denny,  Archibald,  Braehead,  Dumbarton,  21  Feb.,  1888 


MEMBERS  355 

Dsionr,  James,  £ngine  works,  Dnmbarton,  25  Oct,  1887 

Dennt,  Col.  John  M^  M.P.,  Garmuyle,   Dambarton,  27  Oct.,  1886 

Deknt,  Leslie,  Leven  Shipyard,  Dambarton,  80  Apr.,  1895 

Dennt,  Peter,  Bellfielcl,  Dambarton,  21  Feb.,  1888 

tDEWBAKCB,  John,  165  Great  Doverstreet,  London, S.E.,  19  Feb.,  1901 

Dick,  Frank  W.,  c/o  The  Parkgate  Steel  &  Iron  Co., 

Ltd.,  Parkgate,  Rotherham.  19  Mar.,  1878 

DiCK»  James,  12  Ronald 'street,  Coatbridge,  18  Mar.,  1902 

DiMMOCK,  John  Wingrave,  Lloyd's  Register  of  Ship- 
ping, 342  Argyle  street,  Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1898 

DixoN,  JAMES  S.,  127  St.  Vincent  street,  Glasgow,           |  ^  |*  f^y  J|J| 

Dixon,  Walter,  Derwent,Kelvinside  gardens,  Glasgow,  26  Feb.,  1895 

Dobson,  William,  The  Chesters,  Jesmond,  Newcastle- 

on-Tyne,  17  Jan.,  1871 

DODD,  T.  J.,  Lloyd's  Register  of  Shipping,  342  Argyle 

street,  Glasgow,  20  Nov.,  1900 

D'Oliyeira,  Raphael  Chrtsostome,  Campos  Rio  de 

Janeiro,  Brazil,  20  Feb.,  1900 

Donald,  B.  B.,  Low  Balernock,  Petershill,  Gksgow,       |^  ^  ^y^  \^ 

Donald,  David  P.,  Johnstone,  21  Mar.,  1899 

Donald,  Robert  Hanna,  Abbey  works.  Paisley,  22  Nov.,  1892 

Donaldson,  A.  Falconer,  Beechwood,  Partick,            |  ^  ^  ^^  J^ 

Donaldson,  James,  Almond  villa,  Renfrew,  26  Jan.,  1876 

tDouGLAS,  Charles  Stuart,  B.Sc.,   **St.  Brides,"  12  )G.  24  Jan.,  1899 

Dalziel  drive,  PoUokshields,  Glasgow,  j  M.  8  Mar.,  1903 

DowNiE,  A.  Marshall,  B.Sc.,  London  road  Iron  works, 

Glasgow,  21  Nov.,  1899 

Doyle,  Patrick,  F.R.S.E.,  7  Government  place,  Cal- 
cutta, India,  23  Nov.,  1886 

Drew,   Alexander,     14  Talbot  House,   St.   Martin's 

lane,  London,  W.C,  29  Apr.,  1890 

Dron,  Alexander,  59  Elliot  street,  Glasgow,  27  Oct.,  1903 

Drummond,  Walter,  The  Glasgow  Railway  Engineer- 
ing works,  Govan,  Glasgow,  26  Mar.,  1895 

Drtsdale,   John  W.  W.,  3  Whittingehame  gardens, 

Kelvinside,  Glasgow,  23  Dec,  1884 

Duncan,  George  F.,  12  Syriam  terrace,  Broomfield  TG.  23  Nov.,  1886 

road,  Springbnm,  Glasgow,  \M.  20  Mar.,  1894 

Duncan,  George  Thomas,  Cnmledge,  XJddingston,  16  Apr.,  1902 

Duncan,  Hugh,  11  Hampden  terrace.  Mount  Florida, 

Glasgow,  15  June,  1898 

Duncan,  John,  Ardendutha,  Port-Glasgow,  23  Nov.,  1886 

Duncan,  Robert,  Whitefield  Engine  works,  Oovan,  25  Jan.,  1881 


356  MEMBERS 

Duncan,  W.  Lees,  Partick  foundry,  Pariick,  18  Dee.,  1900 

DuNKEBTON,  ERNEST  CHARLES,  43  Ceeil  Street,  Hill- 
head,  Glasgow,  17  Feb.,  1903 

DUNLOP,  David  John,  Inch  works,  Port-Glasgow,  23  Nov.,  1869 

DuNLOP,  John  G.,  Clydebank,  DambartonBhire,  23  Jan.,  1877 

Dunlop,  Thomas,  156  Hyndland  road,  Glasgow,  19  Dec.,  1899 

DuNLOP,  William,  119  Schneider  terrace,  Barrow-in-  /G.  22  Jan..  1884 

Fumees,  \M.  24  Jan.,  1899 

DuNLOP,  William  A.,  Harbour  Office,  Belfast,  23  April,  1001 

Dunn,  J.  R.,  42  Magdalen  Yard  load,  Dundee,  16  Dec,  1902 

Dunn,  James,  Engineer,  Collalis,  Scotstounhill,  Glasgow,  23  April,  1901 

tDuNN,  Peter  L.,  HIG  Battery  street,  San  Francisco, 

U.S.A.,  26  Oct,  1886 

tDUNSMUiR,  Hugh,  Govan  Engine  Works,  Govan,  21  Apr.,  1903 

Dyer,  Henry,    M.A.,  D.  Sc,  8    Uighburgh   terrace, 

DowanhiU,  Glasgow,  23  Oct.,  1883 

Edwards,  Charles,  The  Greenock  Foundry  Company, 

Greenock,  26  Oct.,  1897 

Elgar,  FR.VNCIS,  LL.D.,  F.K.SS.,  L.&  £.,  34Leadenhall 

street,  Loodon,  E.G.,  24  Feb.,  1885 

Eluott,  Kobfrt,  B.Sc.,  Lloyd's  Surveyor,  Greenock,  i^  ^i  Fe*b. '  1898 

EWRN,     Pktrr,     The    Barrowfield    Ironworks,    Ltd., 

Craigielea,  Bothwell,  21  Mar.,  1899 

Faickney,    Robert,   3   Thomwood   terrace,    Partick,  20  Nov.,  1900 

Fairweather,  Wallace,  62  St.  Vincent  at.,  Glasgow,  24  Apr.,  1894 

Ferguson,  David,  Glenholm.  Port-Glasgow,  29  Oct,  1901 

Ferguson,  John  James,  Kennard,  Kim,  24  Jan.,  1899 

Ferguson,  Louis,  8  Belhaveu  terrace,  Kelvinside,  (G.  22  Jan.,  1895 

Glasgow,  \M.  26  Nov.,  1901 

FERGUSON,  Peter,  Caerlon,  Paisley,  |^-  ^  j[,*^;'  }^ 

Ferguson,    Peter,    8   Belhaven    terrace,   Kelvinside, 

Glasgow,  22  Oct.,  1889 

Ferguson,  Wilfred  H.,  4  Thomwood  terrace,  Partick,  22  Nov.,  1898 

Ferguson,  William  D.,  3  Mount  Delphi,  Antrim  road,  /G.  27  Jan..  1885 

Belfast.  \M.  20  Mar..  1894 
Ferguson,  William  R,,  Messrs  Barclay,  Curie  &  Co.,  /G.  22  Feb.,  1881 

Ltd.,  Whiteinch,  GUsgow,  (M.  22  Jan.,  1895 
Ferrier,  Hugh,  48  Daisy  street,  GovanhUl,  Glasgow,  22  Dec  ,  1903 

Fife,  Wiluam,  Meseis  William  Fife  &  Sons,  Fairlie, 

Ayrshire,  28  Apr.,  1903 

Findlay,  Alexander,   M.P.,  Parkneuk   Iron   works. 

Motherwell.  27  Jan.,  1880 


MEMBERS  357 

FniDLAY,  Louis,  60  WeUington  st wt,  Glasiirow,             |  Jj  ^  ^®J^;'  \^ 

FiNLiLYSON,  FiNLAT,  Laird  street,  Ck>atbridge,  23  Dec.,  1884 

Fisher,  Andrew,  St.  Mirren's  Engine  works.  Paisley,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Fleming,  Andrew  £.,  Kandy,  Ceylon,  23  Jan.,  1894 

Fleming,    George  £.,  Messrs  Dewrance   &  Co.,    79 

West  Regent  street,  Glasgow,  27  Oct,  1896 

Fleming,  John,  Dellbum  works,  Motherwell,  24  Jan.,  1899 

Fletcher,    James,  15  Kildonan  terrace.  Paisley  road,  (G.  28  Jan.,  1896 

Ibrox,  Gfa8gow,tM.  23  Nov.,  1897 

Flett,  George  L.,  5  Abercromby  terrace,  Ibrox,  Glas- 
gow, 22  Jan.,  1895 

Forrester,  John,  41  Bothwell  street,  Glasgow,  22  Dec.,  1903 
Forsyth,  Lawson^  97  St.  James  road,  Glasgow,  18  Dec,  1883 
Foster,  James,  42  Herriot  street,  Pollokshields,  Glas- 
gow, 26  Jan.,  1897 
Frame,  James,  6  Kilmailing  terrace,  Cathcart,  Glasgow,  23  Feb.,  1897 

Praser,  J.  IMBRIE,  Clifton,  Row,  Dumbartonshire,         j  ^  |I  ^^^y  J^g 

Fryer,  Tom  J.,  "Brookdean,"  Hope,  Sheffield,                i^  ^  5^|  j^ 

Fujn,  Terugoro,  Imperial  Japanese  Navy,  8  Notting- 
ham place,  London,  W.  21  Feb.,  1899 

Fullbrton,  Alexander,  Valcan  Works,  Paisley,  22  Dec.,  1896 

Fullerton,  James,  Abbotsbum,  Paisley,  19  Mar.,  1901 

FULLKRTON,  BoBERT  A.,  1  Strathmore gardens,  Hillhead, 

Glasgow,  19  Mar.,  1901 

Fulton,  Norman  O,,  8  Moray  Cottages,  Scotstonn,  fG.  23  Feb.,  1892 

Glasgow,  \M.  19  Mar.,  1901 

Fyfe,  Charles  F.  A.,  10  Wolseley  street,  Belfast,  j^'  H  ^^^  }^ 

Galb«  Edmund  Wiluam,  Drawing  Office,  Consolidated 
Gold  Fields  of  South  Africa,  Box  1167,  Johannesbnrg, 

Sonth  Africa,  23  Nov.,  1897 

Gale,   William  M.,   18  Hnntly  gardens,  Kelvinside, 

Glasgow,  24  Jan.,  1893 

Galletly,  Archibald  A.,  10  Greenlaw  avenue,  Paisley,  22  Jan.,  1901 

<x  allow  AY,  Charles  S.,  Greenwood  City,  Vancouver, 

6.C.,  22  Jan.,  1895 

Gardner,  Walter,  11  Kildonan  terrace.  Paisley  road 

W.,  Glasgow,  20  Dec,  1898 

Gearing,  Ernest,  Fenshurst,  Clarence  ilrive,  Harro- 
gate, 20  Mar.,  1888 

Oemhell,  £.  W.,  Board  of  Trade  Offices,  7  York  street, 

Glasgow,  18  Dec.,  1888 


358  MEMBERS 

Gbmmell,  Thomas,  Electric  Liithting  Departmeat.  bt. 

Enoch  Station,  GUagow,  24  Oct.,   1899 

GiBB,   Andrew,   Garthl&nd,   Weitoombe   Park    road,  /G.  23  Dec,  187S 

Blaekheath,  London,  S.E.,  \M.  21  BCar.,  1882 
GiFFORD,     Paterson,    c/o    Messrs    Bell,    Brothers    & 

M'Lelland,  135  Bachanan  street,  Glasgow,  23  Nov.,  1886 

Gilchrist,  Archibald,  36  Finnieston  street,  Glasgow,  16  Dec.,  1902 

Gilchrist,   James,   3  Kingsboroogh  gardens,  Kelvin-  /G.  26  Dec.,  1866 

side,  Glasgow,  \M.  29  Oct.,  1878 
Gill,  Wiluah  Neuson,  11  Kersland  street,  Hillhead, 

Glasgow,  23  Feb.,  1904 

Gillespie,  Andrew,  65  Bath  street,  Glasgow,  20  Nov.,  1894 

Gillespie,  James,  21  Minerva  street,  Glasgow,  |^*  ^  jJ^-»  J^* 

Gillespie,  James,  Jan.,  Margaretville,  Orchard  street, 

Motherwell,  18  Dec.,  1900 

GILMOUR,  John  H.,  River  Bank,  Irvine,  20  Feb.,  1900 

Glasgow,  James,  Femlea,  Paisley,  25  Jan.,  1898 

■tGoODWiN,  Gilbert  S.,  Alexandra  buildings,  James 

street,  Liverpool,  28  Mar.,  1866 

Gordon,  A.  G.,  c/o  Messrs  Shewan,  Tomes,  &  Co.,  Hong 

kong,  China,  23  April,  1901 

Gordon,  John,  152  Craigpark  street,  Glasgow,  26  Mar.,  1895 

GORRIE,  James  M.  ,  1  Broomhill  terrace,  Partick,  Glasgow,  22  Nov. ,  189S 

Goudie,  Robkrt,  37  West  Campbell  street,  Glasgow,  27  Oct.,  1903 

Goudie,  William  J.,  B.Sc.,  92  Albert  drive,  Crosshill, /G.  21  Dec.,  1897 

Glasgow,  \M.  29  Oct,  1901 
GoURLAY,  H.  Garret,  Dundee  foundry,  Dnndee,  25  Apr.,  1882 

GoURLAY.     R.     Clelano,    Endyne,    Oakshaw   street,  \  G.  24  Dec,  1895 

Paisley,  }  M.  27  Oct.,  1903 
GovAN,  Alexander,  The  Shelling,  Craigendoran,  24  Oct.,  1899 

Gow,   George,   Aroka,  Bellevue  Road,  Mount  Eden, 

Auckland,  New  Zealand,  20  Mar.,  1900 

GOWAN,  A.   B.,  By  ram.   Maxwell  drive,  PoUokshields,  /G.  24  Jan.,  1882 

Glasgow,  \M.  22  Jan.,  1895 

Gracie,   Alexander,  Fairfield  Shipbuilding  and  En-rO.  26  Feb.,  1884 

gineering  Company,  Govan,\M.  24  Nov.,  1896 

Graham,    John,    60   Cambridge    drive,     Kelvinside, 

Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Graham,  John,  25  Broomhill  terrace,  Partick,  *    23  Oct.,  1900 

Graham,    John,    15    Armadale    street,    Dennistoun,  /G.  19  Mar.,  1901 

Glasgow,  \M.  21  Apr.,  1908 

Graham,    Walter,  Kilblain  Engine  works,  Nicholson  /G.  28  Jan.,  1896 

street,  Greenock,  \  M.  15  June,  1898 
Grant,    Thomas   M.,    17  Clarence  drive,  Hyndland, 

Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1876 

Gray,  David,  77  West  Nile  street,  Glasgow,  21  Nov.,  1899 


MTr.MB1tBS  359 

Ukay,  Jambs,  Riverside,  Old  Cainiiock»  Ayrshire,  8  Jan.,  1862 

6bay,  Wiluam,  6  Lloyd's  avenue,  London,  E.C.,  26  Jan.,  1904 

Gretchin,  G.  L.,  Works  Manager,  Chantiers  Navals 
Ateliers  and  Founderies  de  Nicolaieff,  Nioolaieff, 

Russia,  26  Jan.,  18d8 

Grieve,  John,  Engineer,  Motherwell,  26  Jan.,  1898 

Grigg,  James,  136  Balshagray  avenue,  Partiek,  20  Jan.,  1903 

Groves,  L.JoHN,£ngineer,CrinanCanalhou8e,ATdrishaig,  20  Dec,  1881 

Guthrie,  John,  The  Crown  Iron  works,  Glasgow,  27  Oct,  1896 


Haig,  Robert,  The  Mechanical  Retorto  Co.,  Limited, 

Murray  street,  Paisley,  22  Jan.,  1901 

Uaigh,  William  R.,  6  Elmwood  gardens,  Jordanhill,  22  Dec.,  1896 

Halkbt,  James    P.,   Glengall   Iron    works,  Millwall, 

London,  £.,  26  Oct.,  1897 

Hall,  William,  Shipbuilder,  Aberdeen,  25  Jan.,  1881 

Hamilton,  Archibald,  Clyde  Navigation  Chambers,  /G.  24  Feb.,  1874 

Glasgow,  \M.  24  Nov.,  1885 

Hamilton,  Claud,    247   St.    Vincent    street,    Glas- 
gow, 15  June,  1898 

Hamilton,  David   C,  Clyde  Shipping  Company,  21  /G.  23  Dec.,  1873 

Carlton  place,  Glasgow,  \M.  22  Nov.,  1881 

Hamilton,  James,  Messrs  William  Beardmore  &  Co.,  /G.  26  Dec.,  1863 

Govan,  \M.  18  Mar.,  1876 

Hamilton,  James,  6  Kyle  park,  Uddingston,  20  Nov.,  1900 

*tHAMiLTON,  John,  22  Athole  gardens,  Glasgow, 

Hamilton,  John  K.,  230  Berkeley  street,  Glasgow,  16  May,  1900 

Hamilton,  Robert  Smith,  Flemington,  Maxwell  Park 

gardens,  Pollokshields,  Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1904 

Harman,  Bruce,  35  Connaught  road,  Harlenden,  Lon-  /G.    2  Nov.,  1880 

don,  N.W.,  \M.  22  Jan.,  1884 

Harrison,  J.  E.,   160   Hope   street,   Glasgow,  (^  ^  ^^''^  jl^l 

Hart,  P.  Campbell,  134  St.,  Vincent  street,  Glasgow,  24  Nov.,  1896 

Harvey,  James,  224  West  street,  Glasgow,  24  Jan,,  1899 

Harvey,  John  H.,  Messrs  Wm.  Hamilton  &  Co.,  Port- 

GUsgow,  22  Feb.,  1887 

Harvey,  Thomas,  Grangemouth  Dockyard  Co.,  Grange- 
mouth, 19  Dec.,  1899 

Hay,  John,  WansfeU,  The  Grove,  Finchley,  London,  N.,  26  Nov.,  1901 

Hay,  Rankin,  44  Windsor  terrace,  St.  George's  road, 

Glasgow,  18  Dec.,  1900 

Hayward,  Thomas  Andrew,  18   Carrington  street, 

Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1898 


360  MEMBERS 

tHBNDBRSON,   A.    P.,  30  Lanoefield    qaay,   Gla«gow,  25  Nov.,  1879 

Henderson,  Charles  A.,  The  Basin  House,  Exeter,     {  m   f^  q^[*  }^ 

Hbnderson,    Fbederick    N.,    Meadowside,    Partick, 

Glasgow,  26  Mar.,  1895 

Henderson,  H.  £.,  32Ciirzoii  road,  Waterloo,  near  Liver-/  G.  22  Nov.,  1898 

pool,!  M.    3  May,  1904 

Henderson,  J.  BAiUE,Govemmeot  Hydranlic  Engineer, 

Brisiiane,  Queensland,  18  Dee.,  1888 

Henderson,  James  Blacklock,  D.Sc,  146  Cambridge 

drive,  Glasgow,  20  Nov.,  1900 

Henderson,  John  Francis,  B.Sc.,  Albion  Motor  Car 

Co.,  Ltd.,  Sonth  street,  Sootstoun,  Glasgow,  16  Dec,  1902 

tHBNDBBSON,  JoHN  L.,  25  Nov.,  1879 

Henderson,  Robert,  777  London  road,  Glasgow,  19  Mar.,  1901 

Henderson.  William  Stbwart,  Belwood,  Coatbridge,  24  Nov.,  1896 

Hbndin,  Alexander  James,  14  Hamilton  terrace,  W., 

Partick,  Glasgow,  22  Dec.,  1903 

Hendry,  James  C,  8  Fleming  terrace,  George  street, 

Shettleeton,  18  Dec.,  1900 

Henry,  Erentz,  18  Ann  street,  Hillhead,  Glasgow,  20  Feb.,  1900 

Herriot,    W.    Scott,    19  Keir  street,    Pollokshields, 

Glasgow,  28  Oct.,  1890 

Hktherinoton,  Edward  P.,  Messrs  John  Hetherington 

&  Co,  Ltd.,  Pollard  street,  Manchester,  22  Nov.,  1892 

Hide,  William  Seymour,  Messrs    Amos   ft   Smith, 

Albert  Dock  works,  Hull,  18  Dec,  1888 

HiLLHOUSE,  Percy  Archibald,  B.Sc.,  Whit  worth.  Busby,  3  May,  1904 

Hogarth,  W.  A.,  293  Onslow  drive,  Glasgow,  20  Nov.,  1900 

Hogg,  Charles  P.,  63  Both  well  street,  Glasgow,  2  Nov.,  1880 

Hogg,  John,  Victoria  Engine  works,  Airdrie,  20  Mar.,  1883 

Hok,  W.,  10  Karlaplan,  Stockholm,  Sweden,  29  Oct.,  1901 

HOLLIS,  H.  E.,  40  Union  street,  Glasgow,  |  ^  |[  JJ^^^y  }^ 

Holmes,  F.  G.,  Town  Hall,  Govan,  23  Mar.,  1880 

Holms,  A.  Campbell,  Lloyd's  Register,  56  John  street, 

Sunderland,  24  Apr.,  1894 

HOMAN.  WILLIAM  M'L..  («•  |«  ^^y  \^ 

Homb,  Henry,  Cambridge  House,  High  street,  Biggles- 
wade, Bedfordshire,  23  Feb.,  1897 

HORNE,  George  S.,  Corozai,  Iverton  road,  Johnstone,  21  Feb.,  1899 

HoRNE,   John,    Rokeby   villa,  Carlisle,  23  Nov.,  1897 
t Houston,  Colin,  Harbour  Engine  works,  60  Portman 

street,  Glasgow,  25  Mar.,  1890 


MEMBSR8-  361 

Houston,  James,  Jnnr.,  Brisbane  hooae,  Bellahooaton,  25  Jrd.,  1898- 

Houston,  William  Campbell,  B.Sc,  Herriot  Watt  /G.  26  Oct..  1897 

College,  Edinburgh,  IM.    3  Mar.,  1908 

Howard,  John  Rowl.ind,  56  Osborne  road,  Levens- 

halme,  Manohester,  18  Dec.,  1900 
HowAT,  William,  21  Kirkland  street,  Glasgow,  22  Feb.,  1898- 
tHowDKN,  James,  195  Scotland  street,  Glasgow,  Original 
Hubbard,  Robert  Sowtbr,  Townsend  Downey  Ship- 
building Co.,  Shooter  Island,  Richmond,  New  York,  19  Dec.,  1899- 

Hume,  Jambs  Howden,  195  Scotland  street,  Glasgow,  22  Dec.,  1891 

Hummel,  Horace  .Iambs  Jordan,  c/o  Pintsch's  Patent 

Lighting  Co.,  38  Leadenhall  street,  London,  B.C.,  23  April,  1901 

*tHuMT,  Edmund,  121  West  George  street,  Glasgow,  Original 

Hunter,  Gilbert  M.,  Lanrieston  house,  Selkirk,  (^  ^  ^'  J^ 

Hunter,  James,  Aberdeen  Iron  works,  Aberdeen,  25  Jan.,  1881 

Hunter,  James,  20  Feb.,  190O 

Hunter.  John,  13  Queen's  Gate,  Dowanhill,  Glasgow,  l^*  |^  ^°;.»  }j^ 

Hunter,   Joseph  Gilbert,   P.O.  Box  671,   Newport 

News,  Va.,  U.S.A., 

Hunter,  Joseph  M.,  Dalmuir  place.  128  Muir  street, 

Motherwell, 

Hunter,  Matthew,  Bumbank,  Whiteinch, 

tHUTCHEON,  James,  46  Park  drive  south,  Whiteinch, 

Hutcheson,  Archibald,  37  Mair  street,  Plantation, 

Glasgow, 

Hutcheson,  John,  37  Mair  street.  Plantation,  Glasgow, 

Hutchison,  James  H.,  Shipbuilder,  Port-Glasgow, 

Hutchison,  John  S.,  107  Douglas  street,  Glasgow, 

Hutchison,  M.,  50  Gibson  street,  Hillhead,  Glasgow, 

Hutson,  Alexander,  Westboume  house,  Kelvinside, 

Glasgow, 

Hutson,  Guybon,  Culdees,  Minard  road,  Partickhill, 

Glasgow, 

Hutson,  James,  117  Balshagray  avenue,  Partick, 

Htnd,  Alexander,  Federal  Supply  and  Cold  Storage 
Co.,  of  South  Africa,  Ltd.,  Durban,  South  Africa, 

tiNGLis,  John,  LL.D.,  Point  House  Shipyard,  Glasgow,  1  May,  1861 

Inglis,  John  Francis,  46  Princes  terrace,  Dowanhill,  J  G.  26  Oct..  1897 

Glasgow,  )  M.  20  Jan.,  1903 

INNES,  W.,  11  Walmer  terrace,  Glasgow,  |^;  ^  ^^^'^  \^ 


24  Feb., 

1891 

26  Nov., 

1901 

19  Mar., 

1901 

19  Mar., 

1901 

22  Dec., 

,  1896 

22  Mar., 

,1898 

26  Mar., 

,  1896 

24  Apr., 

1900 

29  Oct., 

1901 

19  Dec, 

1899 

21  Mar. 

,  1893 

19  Dec., 

1899 

27  Oct., 

,  1903 

362  MEMBERS 

Ireland,  William,  7  Ardgowan  terrace,  GUsgow,  25  Feb.,  1800^ 

Jack,  Alexander,  164  Windmillhill,  Motherwell,  21  Nov.,  1893 

Jack,  Jambs  R,  Mavisbank.  Dambarton,  27  Apr.,  1897 

Jackson,  Daniel,  Thorabank,  Dumbarton,  24  Oct.,   1899 

Jackson.  Harold  D.,  Westdel,  Dowanhill,  Glasgow,  j^'  ^  ^;'  }|^ 

Jackson,  Wiluam,  Go  van  Engine  works,  Govan,  21  Dec,  1875 

Jackson,  William  Stbnhousb,  109  Hope  street,  Glas-f G.   29  Oct.,  1901 

gow,tM.  23  Feb.,  1904 

Jamieson,    Professor   Andrew,  F.R.S.E..   16  Rosslyn 

terrace,  Kelviuside,  Glasgow,  26  Mar.,  1889 

Jeff,  William,  Northfleet  Engineering  works,  North- 
fleet,  Kent,  18  Dec.,  1900 

Jbffbry,  Arthur  W.,  71  Dixon  avenue,  Glasgow,  23  April,  1901 

Johnston,  David,   9  Odbome  terrace,   Ck>pland  road, 

Glasgow,  25  Feb.,  1879 

Johnston,  Robert,  Kirklee,  Wallace  street,  Kilmar- 
nock, 22  Mar.,  1898 

Johnstone,  Gkorok,  F.K.S.E.,  Marine  Superintendent, 
British  India  Steam  Navigation  Co., 
Ltd.,  16  Strand  road,  Calcutta,  India,  21  Mar.,  1899 

JoNKS,  Arthur  J.  E..  118  Napiershall  street,  Glasgow,  29  Oct.,  1901 

Jones,  Llewkllyn,  The  Stirling  Boiler  Co.,  Ltd.,  25 

Victoria  street,  Westminster,  London,  25  Oct.,  1892 

Judd,  Edwin  H.,  Sentinel  works,  Glasgow,  |j^'  ^  jj^^*|  jg^^ 

Kay,  Alexander  J.,  21  Endsleigh  gardens,  Partickhill,  /G.  24  Oct.,  1893 

Glasgow,  \M.  28  Apr.,  1903 

Kregan,  Thomas  J.  M.,  P.  O.  Box  4585,  Jobannesburg, 

South  Africa,  22  Jan.,  1901 

Keeling,   Thomas,    42    Prospecthill   road,    Langside, 

(ilasgow,  19  Feb.,  1901 

Kelly,  Alexander,  100  Hyde  Park  street,  Glasgow.  28  Feb.,  1897 

Kelso,  Matthew  Glen,  47  Oxford  street,  Glasgow,  27  Oct.,  19a3 

Kemp,     Daniel,    48     Randolph     gardens,      Partick,  /G.  23  Nov.,  1886 

Glasgow,  \M.  20  Dec,  1898 

Kemp,  Ebenkzer,  D.,  Birkenbead  Iron  works,  Birken-  fG.  20  Feb.,  1883 

head,\M.  25  Oct.,  1892 

Kempt,   Irvine,  Jnn.,  37   Falkland  mansions,  Hynd-  /G.  26  Feb.,  1895 

land,  Glasgow,  \M  27  Apr.,  1897 

Kennedy,  Alexander  M*A.,  Clydevale,  Dumbarton,  30  Apr.,  1895 

Kennedy,  John,  Messrs  R.  M*Andrew  &  Co.,  Suffolk 

House,  Laurence  Ponntney  Hill,  London,  E.G.,  23  Jan.,  1877 


MEMBERS  363 

Kennedy,  Rankin,  Bale  villa,  Spriogboig,  Shettleston,  3  May,  1904 

Kennedy,  Robert,  B.8c.,  Messrs  Glenfield  &  Kennedy, 

KiLmarnook,  23  Mar.,  1897 

Kennedy,  Thomas,  Messrs  Glenfield  &  Kennedy,  Kil- 
marnock, 22  Feb.,  1876 

Kennedy,  William,  13  Victoria  crescent,  Dowanhill, 

Glasgow,  24  Apr.,  1894 

Ker,  William    Arthub,    Manager,    Patella  Works, 

Paisley,  16  Dec,  1902 

Kebr,  James,    Lloyd's   Register   of   Shipping,    Hull,  22  Feb.,  1898 

Kerr,  John,  10  WeUmeadow,  Blairgowrie,  22  Mar.,  1904 

Key,  William,  109  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  20  Feb.,  1900 

KiNGAiD,  John  G.,  30  Forsyth  street,  Greenock,  22  Feb.,  1898 

Kino,  A.  C,  Motherwell  Bridge  Co.,  MotherweU,  24  Jan.,  1899 

King,  J.   Foster,   The  British   Corporation,    121   St. 

Vincent  street,  Glasgow,  26  Mar.,  1896 

Kinghorn,  a.  J.,  59  Robertson  street,  Glasgow,  24  Oct,  1899 

KiNGHORN,  John  6.,  Tower  Buildings,  Water  street, 

Liverpool,  23  Dec,  1879 

KiNMONT,  David  W\,  Contractor's  Office,  LarkhaU,        j^'   ^^  ^^^'  }^^ 

tKiRBY,  Frank  E.,  Detroit,  U.S.A.,  24  Nov.,  1886 

Klinkenberg,  John,  4  Derby  street,  Glasgow,  16  Dec,  1902 
Knight,  Charles  A.,  c/o  Messrs  Babcock  &  Wilcox, 

Ltd.,  Oriel  House,  Farringdon  st,  London,  E.C.,  27  Jan.,  1885 

Knox,  Robert,  10  Clayton  terrace,  Dennistoun,  Glasgow,  24  Nov.,  1896 


Lackie,  William  W.,   75  Waterloo  street,  Glasgow,  22  Nov.,  1898 

Lade,  Jambs  A.,  Sbalott,  Kilmalcolm,  27  Jan.,  18i)] 

Laidlaw,  D.,  147  East  Milton  street,  Glasgow,  18  Mar.,  1902 

Laidlaw,  John,  98  Dnndas  street,  8.s.,  Glasgow,  25  Mar.,  1884 

Laidlaw,   Robert,   147  East  Milton  street,  Glasgow,  26  Nov.,  1862 

Laidlaw,  T.  K.,  147  East  Milton  street,  Glasgow,  18  Mar.,  1902 

Laidlaw,  Thomas,  52  Norse  road,  Scotstoun,  26  Nov.,  1901 
Laing,  Andrew,   The  Wallsend    Slipway    Company, 

Newcastle-on-Tyne,  20  Mar.,  1880 
Laird,  Andrew,  190  West  George  Street,  Glasgow,  22  Nov.,  1898 
Lambert,  John,  Corporation  Electricity  Works,  Perth,  18  Dec,  1900 
Lambbrton,  Andrew,  Sunnyside  Engine  works,  Coat- 
bridge, 27  Apr.,  1897 
Lambie,  Alexander,  Ravenshall,  Port-Glasgow,  19  Mar.,  1901 

Lang,  C.  R.,  Holm  Foundry,  Cathcart,  Glasgow,  j  ^  ^  ^ov.*^  J^^^ 


364  MEMBERS 

Lang,  Jam&s,  Mcmtb  George  Smith  &  Sons,  75  Bothwell 

BiKet,  GlMgow,  24  Feb.,  1880 

Lang,  John,  Jan.,  Lynnhnrst,  Johnstone,  26  Feb.,  1884 

Lang,  Robert,  Qnarrypark,  Johnstone,  25  Jan.,  1808 

Lauder,  Thomas  H.,  38  Chappel  terrace,  Parkhead, }  6.  19  Dec.,  1893 

Glasgow,  j  M.  27  Oct.,  1008 

Laurence,  (George  B.,  Cintha  Iron  works,  Paisley  road, 

Glasgow,  21  Feb.,  188a 

Le  Rossignol,  a.  E.,  Corporation  Tramway  Office,  City 

road,  Newoastle-on-Tyne,  22  Nov.,  1898 

tLEE,  Robert,  105  Clarence  drive,  Partickhill,  Glasgow,  |Jj  ^  J^-  j^ 

Leitch,  Archibald,  40  St.  Enoch  sqnare,  Glasgow,  22  Dec,  1895 

Lemkes.  C.  R.  L.,  5  Wellington  street,  Glasgow,  {  M    22  Mar'  1^ 

Lennox,   Alexander,    34   Glasgow  street,   Hillhead,  /G.  23  Jan.,  1894 

Glasgow,  \M.  19  Mar.,  1901 
Leslie,  James  T.  G.,  148  Randolph  terrace,  Hill  street, 

Garnethill,  Glasgow,  25  Apr.,  189S 

Leslie,    John,    Strnan,  Victoria  drive,    Scotstounhill,  /G.   20  Dec.,  1892* 

Glasgow,  \M.  27  Oct.,  1903 
Leslie,  William,  V^iewmonnf,   Emerald  Hill  terrace, 

Perth,  West  Australia,  24  Feb.,  1891 

Lester,  William  R.,  11  West  Regent  street,  Glasgow,  j^'  |^  j^^*'  }^ 

Lewin,  Harry  W.,  154  West  Regent  street,  Glasgow,  20  Dec.,  1898 

tLiNDSAY,  Charles  C,  180  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  j^'  ^  ^^J^»  J|^| 

Lindsay,  W.   F.,  203  Nithsdale  road,   Pollokshields* 

Glasgow*  19  Mar.,  1901 

Lithgow,  William  T.,  Port-Gla«gow,  21  Feb.,  189$ 

LiVESEY,    Robert   M.,    c/o  Messi's  Topham  Jones  A 

Railton,  H.M.  Dockyard  Extension,  Gibraltar,  26  Jan.,  1897 

tLoBNiTZ,  Fred.,  Clarence  house,  Renfrew,  |^-  ^  ^*^-»  J^ 

LocKiE,  John,  Wh.Sc.,  2  Custom  House  Chambers,  Leith,  26  Jan.,  1897 

Long  BOTTOM,"  Professor  John  Gordon,  Technical  Col- 
lege, 38  Bath  street,  Glasgow,  22  Nov.,  1898 

LORIMER,  Alexander    Smith,   Kirklinton,   Langside,  /G.  21  Nov.,  1899 

Glasgow,  \M.  27  Oct.,  190$ 

LORIMER,  Henry  Dubs,  Kirklinton,  Langside,  Glasgow,  l^  ^\  ^^'  J^ 

tLoRiMER,  William,  Glasgow  Locomotive  works,  Gushet- 

faulds,  Glasgow,  27  Oct.,  1896 

+LOUDON,  George  Findlay,    10    Claremont  Terrace, 

Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1896. 

LowsON,  Jambs,  10  West  Campbell  street,  Glasgow,  27  Oct.,  1903- 


MEMBERS  365' 

Luke,  W.  J.,  Messrs  John  Brown  &  Ck).,  Ltd.»  Clydebank,  24  Jan.,  1898 

LuSK,  Hugh  D.,  e/o  Mrs  Nelaon,  Laroh  villa,  Annan,  21  Feb.,  1880 

Lyall,  John,  33  Randolph  gardens,  Pkrtick,  87  Oct,  1888 

MACAL.PINE,    John    H.,  700  Van   Baren  street,  Wil- 

minfftOD,  Del.,  U.S.A.,  20  Dec,  1808 

M'Abthur,  James  D.,  Oriental  avenue,  Bangkok,  Siam,  26  Apr.,  1808 

McAuLAY,  W.,  10  Dixon  street,  Glasgow,  22  Nov.,  1898 

tM'CALi^  David,  180  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  17  Feb.,  1858 

MacCalldm,  p.  F.,  93  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  |^-  ^  Nov.*  18^ 

McCallitm,  David  Broadfoot,  Aldersyde,  Radyr,  near 

Cardiff  23  Feb.,  1904 

M'COLL,  Peter,  197  Byars  road«  Partick,  j^'  2^  J^y  |^ 

f MacColl,  Hector,  Bloomfield,  Belfast,  24  Mar.,  1874 

iMAcCOLL,  Hugo,  Wreath  Quay  Engineering  works, /G.  20  Deo.,  1881 

8anderland,\M,  22  Oct.,  1889 
M'Creath,  James,  208  St.  Yinceht  street,  Glasgow,         23  Got,  1883 

Macdonald,  D.  H.,  Brandon  works,  Motherwell,  24  Mar.,  1896 

Macdonald,    John,  Bridge   Turbine  Works,   Pollok- 

shaws,  Glasgow,  21  Mar.,  1890 

Macdonald,  John  Dron,  3  Rosemonnt  terrace,  Ibrox, 

Glasgow,  19  IS^.,  1901 

MacDonald,  Robert  Cowan,  Merrylee.  Trefoil  avenue, /G.  21  Nov.,  1899 

Shawlands,  Glasgow,  \M.  28  Apr.,  1903 

Macdonald,  Thomas,  9  York  street,  Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1898 

MacDonald,  Wiluam,  48  Dalhousie  street,  Glasgow,  22  Dec.,  1903 

McDouoALL,  Robert  Melvin,  86  Dale  street,  Glasgow,  20  Nov.,  1900 
M'DowALL,  John  Jas.,  Vulcan  Engine  Works,  Piraeus, 

Greece,  29  Oct.,  1901 
M'EWAN,   James,    Cyclops   Foundry  Co.,  Whiteinch, 

Glasgow,  96  Feb.,  1884 

M'EWAN,  Joseph,    35  Houldsworth   street,   Glasgow,  27  Jan.,  1891 
Macfarlane,  Duncan,  Jun.,  58  Hydepark  street,  Glas-/G.   26  Oct.,  1897 

gow,)M.  27  Oct.,  1903 

Macfarlane,  James,  Annieslea,  Motherwell,  15  June,  1898 
Macfaslane,  James  W.,  12  Balmoral  villas,  Cathcart, 

Glasgow,  2  Nov.,  1880 

tMACFARLANE,  WALTER,  22  Park  Circus,  GkuBgow,  26  Oct.,  1886 

M'Fablane,  George,  34  West  George  street,  GUsgow,  |  ^  ^  ^ov?,  1886 

Macfee,  John,  Castle  Chambers,  Renfield  street,  Glas- 
gow, 22  Jan.,  1901 

M 'Gee,  David,  c/o  Messrs  John  Brown  &  Co. ,  Clydebank,         22  Dec. ,  1896 

tM'GEE,  Walter,  Stoney  brae.  Paisley,  25  Jan.,  1898 

29 


366  MEMBRRS 

M'Geoch,  David  BnyD»' Lilyb«iik,  Port-Glasgow,  28  Jan.,  1896 

M'GiDBON,  W.  C,  2  Carlton  Court,  Bridge  street,  Glasgow,         18  Dec. ,  1900 

MacGregor,   J.    Grant,  e/o  L.  &  N.   Railway  Co., )  G.  21  Dec,  1886 
10th  Broadway,  LonisTille,  Ky.,  U.S.A.,  }  M.  28  Apr.,  1891 

McGregor,  John  B.,  6  Oxford  terrace,  Benfrew,  |  ^'  ^  ^/^  1^7 

M'Gregor,  Thomas,  10  Mosesfield  terrace,  Springbum, 

Glasgow,  26  Jan.,    1886 

M'HoUL,  John  B.,  2  Windsor  terrace,  Langside,  Glasgow,  |^  |*  q^'  \^ 

M'Ilvknna,  John,  18  Caird  drive,  Partickhill,  Glasgow,  19  Mar.,  1901 

MacIlwainb,  Georos  W.,  34  White  street,  Partick,  18  Mar.,  1902 

M'lNDOB,  John  B.,  2  Park  terrace.  Underwood,  Paisley,  21  Mar.,  1809 

MclNTOSH,  Thomas    Wiluam,  58  Hydepark    street, 

Glasgow  24  Nov.,  1903 

M*Into8H,  Donald,  Dnnglass,  Bowling,  20  Feb.,  1894 

M*lNT0SH,  John,  6  Douglas  terrace.  Paisley,  (^   27  oS  '  1903 

M'lNTOSH,  John  F.,  Caledonian  Railway,  St.  Rolloz, 

Glasgow,  28  Jan.,  1896 

.Mackintosh,  John,  2  Buchanan  ten-ace.  Paisley,  |Jj-  ^  J®^'  |^ 

MacKay,  Henry  James,  39  Westbank  terrace,  Gibson 

street,  Glasgow,  18  Feb.,  1902 

MagKay,    Robert,    7     Leslie    street,     Pollokshields, 

Glasgow,  Jan.,  1900 

M'Eeand,  Allan,  3  St.  James  street,  Billhead,  Glas-  (  G.  19  Dec,  1884 

gow,  )  M.  20  Mar.,  1892 

Mackechnie,  John,  342  Argyle  street,  Glasgow,  20  Dec,  1898 

M'Kechnie,  Jambs,  Messrs  Yickers,  Sons,  &  Maxim, 

Barrow-in-Famess,  24  Apr.,  1888 

Mackenzie,  James,  8  St  Alban's  road,  Bootle,  Vj^  ^  J^»  \^ 

Mackenzie,  Thomas  R,  Calder  view,  Motherwell,        {m  26  Nov'  1^ 

M'Kenzir,  John,  Messrs  J.  Gardiner  &  Co.,  24  St.  Vin- 
cent place,  Glasgow,  25  Apr.,  1893 
M*Kbnzie,  John,  Speedwell  Engineering  works,  Coat- 
bridge,         25  Jan.,  1898 

Mackie,  Willl\m,  3  Park  terrace,  Govan,  i^  ,^  ^'  J^ 

Mackie,   William    A.,  FalUand   bank,    Partickhill, 

Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1881 

McKiE,  J.  A.,  Copland  works,  Govan,  25  Jan.,  1898 

tMAcKiNLAY,  James  T.  C,  110  Gt.  Wellington  street, 

Kinning  park,  Glasgow,  2?  Oct.,  1896 


MEMBERS  367 

M^lCiNNEL»  WiLUAM,  234  Niibsdale  load,  Pollokshieldf, }  A.  21  Feb.,  1893 

Glasgow, }  M.  22  Feb.,  18^ 

M*Lachlan,  Ewen,  168  Kenmnre  street,  PoDoksbieldB, 

Glasgow,  21  Feb.,  1899 

McLachla^,  John,  Sancel  Bank  House,  Paisley,  26  Oct,   1897 

Maclaren,  John  F.,  B.Scm  Eglinton  foundry,  Canal 

streiet,  Glasgow,  28  Feb.,  1892 

Maclaren,  Robert,  Eglinton  fonndry.  Canal  street,  /G.    2  Not.,  1880 

Glasgow,  \M.  22  Dec.,  1885 

McLaren,  John  Alexander,  10  Dixon  street,  Glasgow,         22  Nov.,  1898 

McLaren,  Richard  Andrew,  Soath  Gallowhill  house. 

Paisley,  21  Apr.,  1903 

McLaren,  William,  9  Westbank  quadrant,  Hillhead, 

Glasgow,  26  Nov.,  1901 

MoLaurik,    Duncan,  217   Mercer  street,  New  York, 

U.S.A.,  28  Oct.,  1900 

Maclay,  David  M.,  Dnnonme,  Douglas  street,  Mother- 

weU,  18  Dec.,  1900 

fMACLKAN,    Andrew,  Messrs  Barclay,  Curie  &  Co., 

Whiteinch,  3  May,  1904 

Maclean,   Prof.  Magnus,  M.A..  D.Sc.,  51  Kersland 

street,  Hillhead,  Glasgow,  21  Nov.,  1899 

Maclean,  William  Dick,  Nuevas  Hilatnras  del  Ter, 

Torello,  Catalnlia,  Spain,         25  Jan.,  1898 

McLean,  John,  Messrs  Weir  &  McLean,  45  Hope  street, 

Glasgow,  16  Dec.,  1902 

McLean;  John,  Lower  Bairaca,  Valetta,  Malta,  IjJ  ^2  Dec!!  19^ 

tMACLELLAN,  WiLLiAM  T.,  Clutha  Ironworks,  Glasgow,  21  Dec.,  1886 

McLellan,  Alex.,  Clyde  Navigation  Trust,  16  Robertson  f  ^'li^P?^'  JS22 

st««t,  Glasgow,  |^.M.18^A^^^^ 

McLellan,  Dugald,  Caledonian  Railway  Co.,  Goods 

Yard,  Buchanan  street,  Station,  Glasgow,  22  Jan.,  1901 

Macmillan,  Hugh  Millar,  B.Sc..  Messrs.  Wngham, 

Richardson,  &  Co.,  Newcastleon-Tyne,  18  Dec.,  1900 

^tMAcMiLLAN,  W'lLLiAM,    Holmwood,  Whittingehame 

drive,  Kelvinside,  Glasgow,  Mar.,  1863 

McMillan,  John,  Resident  Electrical  Engineer's  Office,  /G.  27  Jan.,  I880 

Falkirk,  \M.  24  Jan.,  1899 

M'Millan,  W.  MACLEOD,  Dockyard,  Dumbarton,  22  Jan.,  1901 

MacMurray,  William,  Taller  Bisayas,  Yloilo,  Philippine 

Islands,  18  Mar.,  1902 

McMurray,  Thomas  H„  22  Cliftonville  avenue,  Belfast,         22  Jan..  1901 

M'Nair,  James,  Norwood,  Prestwick  road,  Ayr,  26  Nov.,  1895 

MacNamara,  Joseph,  Wortley,  near  Sheffield,  20  Jan.,  190*3 


968  MEMBERS 

M<Neil,  John,  Helen  street,  Govan,  23  Dec.,  18((4 

MacNicoll,  Nicol,  6  Dix6n  street,  Glasgow,  19  Mar.,  1901 

Macouat,  R.  B.,  Victoria  Bolt  and  Rivet  works,  Gran- 

stonhill,  Glasgow,  21  Mar.,  189(r 

M'Whirtbr,  William,  214  Holm  street,  Glasgow,  24  Mar.,  1891 

Mack,  James,  22  Rutland  street,  Edinburgh,  /G.  21  Dec.,  1886 

\^iu..  ^aI  iJec* ,  lovo 

Maitland,  Cbee,  190  West  George  street,  Glasgow,  21  Apr.,  1903 

Manson,  James,  G.  &  S.  W.  Railway,  KUmamock,  21  Feb.,  1889 

Marbiott,  Reuben,  Plantation  Boiler  Works,  Govan,  28  Feb.,  1897 

Mabshall,  David,  Glasgow  Tube  works,  Glasgow,  22  Jan.,  189i^ 

Marshall,  John,  Ashgrove,  Kilwinning,  18  Dec.,  1900 
Martin, William  Crammond,  10  West  Campbell  street, 

Glasgow,  27  Oct.,  190S 
Matheson,    Donald    A.,  Caledonian   Railway   Co., 

Buchanan  street  Station,  Glasgow,  26  Jan.,  1897 

Mathewson,  George,  Both  well  works,  Dunfermline,  21  l>ec.,  1876 

Mathieson,  James  H.,  Saracen  Tool  Works,  Glasgow,  29  Oct..'  1901 
Matthby,   C.   a.,  c/o  W.   Hope   Campbell,   Esq.,  42 

Krestchatik,  Kieff,  S.  Russia,  26  Oct,  1897 

Mayor,  Henry  A.,  47  King  street,  Bridgeton,  Glasgow,  22  Apr.,  1884 

Mayor,  Sam,  37  Burnbank  gardens,  Glasgow,  20  Nov.,  1894 

Maxton,  James,  4  Ulster  street,  Belfast,  22  Jan.,*  190? 
May,    William   W.,    Woodboume,    Minard    aTenue, 

Partickhill,  Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1876 

Maybe,  William,  Morwell  Honse,  Dumbarton,  23  Feb.,  1897 
Meghan,  Henry,  Messrs  Mechan  &  Sons,  Scotstounlron 

works,  Glasgow,  26  Jan.,  1887 

Meghan,  Samuel^  7  Kelvingrove  terrace,  Glasgow,  27  Oct,  1891 
Melville,    William,    Glasgow    and   South   Western 

Railway,  St.  Enoch  square,  Glasgow,  23  Jan.,  1883 
Middleton,R.  A.,  20TheGrove,  Benton,  near  Newcastle- rG.  24  Jan.,  1882 

on-Tyne,\M.  28  Oct.,'  1890 

Millar,  Sidney,  Harthill  house,  Cambuslanir,  f  p-  ^^  ^«^.  ^889 

^  **  IM.21  Dec,  1S97 

Millar,  Thomas,  Sir  W.  G.  Armstrong,  Whitworth  &  /G.  26  Nov     1884 

Co.,  Ltd.,  Walker  Shipyard,  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  \M,  27  Oct.*  1903 

Millar,  William,  Towersland,  Octavia  terrace,  Greenock,    19  Dec.,  1899 

Miller,  Arthur C,  12  Caird drive, Partickhill, Glasgow,  19  Mar.,  1901 

Miller,  John  F.,  Greenoakhill,  Broomhouse,  (9;  S  S*^'*  ^^^ 

tM.  22  Nov.,  1881 

Miller,  Robert  F.,  Messrs  Wardlaw  &  Miller,  109  <  G.  25  Feb.,  1890 

Bath  street,  Glasgow,  \  M.  27  Oct.,  1903 

Milne,  Charles  W.,  Fairmount,  Hcotstounhill,  Glasgow,       26  Nov.,  1901 


MEMBERS 

MiLNK,  George,  10  Bo^hwell  street,  Glaagow,  22  Jan.,  1901 

MrrcHBLL,  Alexander,  Hay  field  house,  Springbani, 

Glasgow,  26  Jan.,  1886 

Mitchell,  George  A.,  F.K.S.E.,  5  West  Regent  street, 

Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Mitchell,  Thomas,  Gower  street,  Bellahonston,  Glas- 
gow, 20  Nov.,  1888 

MoiR,  Erebst  W.,  e/o  Messrs  S.  Pearson  &  Son.  lO/G.   26  Jan.,  1881 
Vietoria street,  Westminster,  London,  \M.  24  Jan.,  1899 

MoiBy  JAMK8,  70  Wellington  street,  Glasgow,  16  Dec.,  1902 

MoiB,  John,  Clyde  Shipboilding  and  Engineering  Com- 
pany, Fort-Glasgow,  23  Feb.,  1897 
MoiR,  Thoma»,  10  Syriam  terrace,  Springbam,  Glasgow,          23  Apr.,  1901 

MoLLisoN,  Hkctor  A.,  B.Sc.,  30  Balshaorray  avenue,  /G.  22  Nov.,  1892 

Partick,  \M.  20  Nov.,  1900 

MoLLisoE,  James,  30  Balshagray  avenue,  Partick,  21  Mar.,  1876 

Monroe,  Kobert,  Eastbrook  house,  Dinas  Powis,  Glam.,  26  Jan.,  1904 

Moore,  Ralph  D.,  B.Sc,  Leabank,  Bearsden,  27  Apr.,  1897 
Moore,  Robert  H.,   Caledonian  Steel  Castings   Co., 

Govan,  16  Dec.,  1902 
Moore,  Robert  T.,  B.Sc,  13  Clairmont  gardens,  Glas- 
gow, 27  Jan.,  1891 
Morgan,  Robert,  Amsbrae,  Dnmbreck,  Glasgow,  24  Mar.,  1903 
MORISON,  William,  50  St.  Vincent  crescent,  Glasgow,  20  Mar.,  1888 

MoRisoN,  William  B.,  7  Rowallan  gardens,  BroombiU, 

Glasgow,  20  Nov.,  1900 

MoRRiCE,  Richard  Wood,  24  Battlefield  road,  Lang- 
side,  Glasgow,  28  Feb.,  1897 

Morrison,  Arthur MACKiE,Merobiston,  ScotstonnbiU,  (G.  17  Dec.,  1889 

Glasgow,  W..  \  M.    8  Mar.,  1908 

Morrison,  William,   11  Sherbrooke  avenue,  Pollok- 

sbields,  Glasgow,  19  Feb.,  1901 

MoRT,  Arthur,  Calder  view,  Motherwell,  j^'  f^  jj^'  }^ 

Morton,  David  Home,  130  Batb  street,  Glasgow,  20  Nov.,  1900 

Morton,  Duncan  A-,  Errol  workf,  Errol,  21  Nov.,  1899 

Morton,  Robert,  8  Prince's  square,  Buchanan  street,  /G.  17  Dec.,  1878 

Glasgow,  \M.  23  Jan.,  1883 
Morton,  Robert  C,  16  Vinicombe  street,  Hillhead, 

Glasgow,  26  Nov.,  1901 

Morton,  Thomas,  M.  G.,  Enrol  works,  Errol,  26  Jan.,  1904 

Motion,  Robert,   Ancrum,  Lenzie,  23  Feb.,  1892 

Mott,  Edmund,  88  Connaught  Road,  Roath,  Cardiff,  24  Mar.,  1886 

Mow  at,  Magnus,  Jun.,  Civil  Engineer,  Millwall  Docks,  fG.  26  Oct.,  1897 

London,  I  M.  26  Nov.,  1901 


370  MEMBERS 

Moves,  John  Young,  12  Rathven  street,  Glatgow,  27  Oct,  190^ 

tMuiR,  Hugh,  7  Kelvingrove  terrace,  Glasgow,  17  Feb.,  1864 

MuiR,  Jambs  E.,  45  West  Nile  street^  Glasgow,  22  Dec,  189S 

tMuiR,  John  G.,  24  Jan.,  1882 

MuiR,     Peter    Gillkspie,     24     Labamam    avenue, 

Wallsend'On-Tyne,  18  Mar. ,  1902 

MuiR,  Robert  White,  97  St.   James  road,  Glasgow,         21  Dec.,  1897 

MuiRHEAD,  James  A.,  Messrs  A.  L.,  Secretan  &  Co., 

Ltd.,  3  Victoria  street,  Westminster,  Ix>ndon,  S.W.,  19  Feb.,  1901 

MuMME,  Carl,  dO  Newark  street,  Greenock,  22  Oct.,  1895 

MuMM£,ERNESTCHARLES,HajiparBegamSarai  Railway  fn  oo  v^»  hmm 
Extension,  Begam  Sarai  P.O.,  Tirhoot^\J  S  Sfk"  iSa 
State  Railway,  India,  \^-  ^  ^«'*-»  '^ 

MuNN,  Robert  A.,  Twynham,  5  Winn  road  Southamp- 
ton, 22  Dec,  1896 

MUNRO,  James,  34  Garthland  drive,  Glasgow,  16  Dec,  1902 

MUNRO,  John,  51  Polwarth  gardens,  flyndland,  Glasgow,        23  Apr.,  1901 

MuNRO,  Robert  D.,  Scottish  Boiler  Insaraaoe  Company, 

111  Union  street,  Glasgow,  19  Dec,  1882 

Murdoch,  Frederick  Teed,  Nile  House,  Mansoarah, 

EgypI,  25  Feb.,  1896 

Murdoch,  J.  A.,  7  Park  Circus  place,  Glasgow,  /G.  25  Oct,  1892 

\M.  20  liov.,  1900 

Murphy,  B.  Stewart,  Lloyd's  RcNrister,  324-6,  Third  /G.  24  Oct,  lt93 
Floor,  Bourse  Boildings,  Philadelphia,  U.S.A.,    \M.  20  Nov.,  1900 

Murray,  Angus,  Strathroy,  Dumbreck,  |^'  JJ  ^^'  J^ 

Murray,  Henry,  Shipbuilder.  Port-Glasgow,  22  Dec,  1896 

Murray,  James,  Rossbank,  Port-GUsgow,  22  Dec,  1896 

Murray,  James,  Messrs  Murray  MacVinnie  &  Co., 

Mavisbank  quay,  S.S.,  Glasgow,  26  Jan.,  1886 

Murray,  Richard,  109  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  26  Oct,  1897 

Murray,  Thomas  Blackwood,  B.Sc.,  92  Camjpeidown 

road,  Scotstonn,  Glasgow,  22  Dec,  1891 

Murray,  Thomas  R.,  Messrs.  Spencer  &  Co.,  Melk- 

sham,  Wilts,  25  Feb.,  1896 

Myles,      David,     Northumberland     Bngiue     works, /G.  20  Dec,  1887 

Wallsend-onTyne,\M.  19  Dec,  1899 

Mylne,  Alfred,  108a  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  (j^  ^  jl^*  ^^^ 

Nagao,  Hanpei,  c/o  Taipeifu,  Formosa,  Japan,  24  Dec,  1901 

Napier,  Henry  M.,  Shipbuilder,  Yoker,  near  Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1881 

tNAPiBR,  Robert  T.,  75  Bothwell  street,  Glasgow,  20  Dec,  1881 

Needham,  James  H.,  Colquhoun  street,  Dumbarton,  18  Mar.,  1902 


MEMBERS  371 

Null,    Hugh,   Jul,  99   Clarence   drive,    Hyndlaacl,  i  G,  21  Nov.,  1899 

Glasgow,  \  M.    8  May,  1904 

Neilsok,  James,  Alma  Boiler  Works,  Glasfi^w,  .  24  Bfar.,  1903 

NsuoN,   Andrew  S.,  Snowdon,  Sherbrooke  avenne, 

PoUokahieldB,  Glasgow,  27  Oct,  1896 

Nulsok,  John  Frederick,  Messrs  John  Brown  &  Co., 

Ltd.,  Clydebank,  24  Nov.,  1903 

Xess^  George,  Hi  Union  street,  Glasgow,  23  Feb.,  1897 

NiooL,  R  Gordon,  15  Regent  Quay,  Aberdeen,  20  Nov.,  1900 

tNoRMAN,  John,  131a  St.  Vincent  street,  Glasgow,  11  Dec.,  1801 

Morris,  Charles  G.,  504  Stockport  road,  Manchester,  29  Oct.,  1901 

CNeill,  J.  J.,  19  Roxburgh  street,  Kelvinside,  Glas- 
gow, 24  Nov.,  1896 

Oldfield,  George,  c/o  Messrs  Crarer  Bros.,  VaaxhaU 

works,  Osborne  street,  Manchester,  22  Nov.,  1898 

OuPHANT,  William,  207  Bath  street,  Glasgow,  28  Feb.,  1897 

tOBXiSTON,  John  W.,  213  St.  Vincent  street,  Glasgow,  28  Nov.,  1860 

Orr,  Alexander  T.,  Marine  Department,  London  and 

North- Western  Railway,  Holyhead,  24  Mar.,  1883 

Orr,   John   R.,  Motherwell   Bridge  Co.,  Motherwell,  24  Jan.,  1899 
Osborne,  Hugh,  31  Broomhill  terrace,  Partick,               (^  ^^  J^*'  \^l 


Parker,  Edward  Henry,  U  Strathmore  gardens,  Hill- 
head,  Glasgow,  16  Dec.,  1902 

Parsons,  The  Hon.  Charles  Algernon,  M.A.,  Holeyn 

HaU,  Wylamon-Tyne,  28  Apr.,  1903 

Paterson,  James  V.,  307  Walnnt  street,  PhUadelphia,  <G.  24  Jan.,  1888 

U.S.A.,  tM.  27  Oct.,  1903 

Paterson,  John,  Edradoar,  Dalmnir,  22  Jan.,  1901 

Paterson,  W.  L.  C,  5  Elmwood  terrace,  Jordanhill, 

Glasgow,  21  Nov.,  1883 

Paton,  Professor  George,  Royal  Agricoltnral  College, 

Cirencester,  22  Nov.,  1887 

Patrick,  Andrew  Crawford,  Johnstone,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Patterson,  James,  Maryhill  Iron  works,  GUsgow,  22  Nov.,  1898 

Patterson,  James,  130  Elliot  street,  GUsgow,  18  Dec,  1900 

Pattie,  Alexander  W.,  Hong  Kong  &  WhampoaDock 

Co.,  Hong  Kong,  22  Jan.,  1896 

Paul,  H.  S.,  Levenford  works,  Dumbarton,  24  Jan.,  1899 

Paul,  James,  Kirkton,  Dumbarton,  24  Mar.,  1903 

Paul,  Matthew,  Levenford  works,  Dumbarton,  i-^  21  Dec.'  1886 


372  MEMBERS 

»*BA00CK,  James,  Oriental  Bteam  Navigaaon  Ga,   IS/G.  22  Nov.,  1881 

Fenchurch  avenue,  London,  £.C.\M.  21  Feb.,  1899 

Peck,  Edwabd  C,  Meesn  Yarrow  &  Company,  Poplar,  /6.  23  Dec.,  1873 

London,  \M.  23  Oct.,  1888 

Peck,   Jambs  J.,   fi2   Randolph   gardens,   Broomhill, 

Glaegoin,  aa  Dec.,  1896 

Peck,  Noel  E.,  4  Ashgrove  terrace,  Partiokbill  road, 

Glasgow,  18  Dec,  1900 

Peeman,  Robebt  Reid,  16  Annfield  place,  Glasgow,  25  Jan«,  1808 

Penman,  William,    Springfield    house,    Dalmamoek, 

Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Pbtroff,  Alexandeb,  60  Thornton  avenue,  Streatham  i 

Hill,  London,  8.W.,  19  Man,  1901              { 

Phiup,     William     Littlejohn,     Sherbrooke,    Box,  > 

WUte,  24  Jan.,  1899 

PiCKEBiNO,  Jonathan,  50  Wellington  street,  Glasgow,  3  Mar.,  1908 

PococK,  J.  Hebbebt,  39  Falkland  mansions,  Kelvinside, 

Glasgow,  29  Oct,  1901 

Pollock,  David,  128  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  23  Feb.,  1897 

POLLOK,  Robebt,  Messrs  John  Brown  &  Co.,  Clydebank,  22  Dec.,  1896 

Poole,  William  John,  65  Renfield  street,  Glasgow,  20  Dec.,  1898 

Pope,  Robebt   Band,  Leven   Shipyard,   Dumbarton,  25  Oct.,  1887 

Pbatten,  William  J.,  Momington,  Derryvolgie  avenue, 

Belfast,  22  Dec»  1896 

Pbinole,  William  S.,  16  Elm  place,  Aberdeen,  |  ^-  '^  g^'  J^ 

Pubdon,  Abchibald,  Inch  works,  Port-Glasgow,  27  Apr.,  1897 

PUBVES,  J.  A.,  D.Sc.,  F.R.S.E.,53  York  place, Edinburgh.  25  Oct.,  1898 

PuBVis,  Prof.   F.   P.,  College  of  Naval  Architecture, 

Imperial  University,  Tokio,  Japan,  20  Nov.,  1877 

Putnam.  Thomas,  Darlington  Forge  Co.,  Darlington,  15  June,  1898 

Pyle,  James  H.,  88  Elliot  street,  Glasgow,  23  Feb.,  1897 


Rabbubn,  Chables  K,  1  Hillhead  street,  W.,  Glasgow,         24  Oct.,   1899 

Rainky,  Fbancis  E.,  c/o  Mr  F.  Nell,  97  Queen  Victoria 

street,  London,  S.E.,  27  Apr.,  1897 

Rait,  Henby  M.,  165  Fenchurch  street,  London,  23  Dec.,  1868 

Ramage,  Richabd,  Shipbuilder,  Leith,  22  Apr.,  1873 

Rankin,  John  F.,  Eagle  foundry,  Greenock,  23  Mar.,  1886 

Rankin,   Matthew,   c/o  Messrs   Rankin  &  Demas,  J  G.    2  Nov.,  1880 

Engineers,  Smyrna,  {  M.  20  Mar.,  1894 

Rankin,  Robebt.  Jnn.,  6  Brighton  place.  Govan,  22  Jan.,  1901 

Rankink,  David,  238  West  George  street,  Glasgow,  22  Oct.,  1872 


MEMBERS  373 

Raphael,  Robert  A..  160  Renfrew  street,  Glasgow,  \^  |*  g^-  jgW 

RSBD-COOPBR,    T.    L.,    70   West   CmnberUnd   street, 

Glasgow,  22  Dec.,  1896 

Rbid,  Andrew  T.,  Hydepark  Locomotive  works,  Glas-  J  G.  21  Dec,  1886 

gow,  j  M.  18  Dec!|  1894 
Rbid,  George  W.,  Inchanga,  Hillfoot,  Bearsden,  21  Nov.,  1883 

Rbid,  J.  Miller,  110  Lancefield  street,  Glasgow,  23  Mar.,'  1897 

tREiD,  James,  Shipbuilder,  Port-Glasgow,  17  Mar.',  1869 

Reid,  James,  3  Cart  street.  Paisley,  26  Jan.,'  1898 

-^Reid,  James  B.,  Chapelhill,  Paisley,  24  Nov.',  1891 

Reid,    James   G.,    Moorpark    Bolt   and    Nut   works,  /G.   23  Dec.!  1894 

Renfrew,  \M.  21  Feb!,*  1899 

tRxiD,  John,  7  Park  terrace,  Kelvinside,  Glasgow,         |S    ^1  Dec.,  1886 

<.M.   18  Dec.,  1894 
Reid,  John,  Baltic  Chambers,  50  Wellington  street, 

Glasgow,  18  Dec,  1900 

Reii>,  John  Wilson,  Napier  house.  Bridge  of  Allan,  N.  B. ,         21  Jan.,  1902 
Rbid,  Robert  Shaw,  79  West  Regent  street,  Glasgow,  21  Mar.,'  1899 

REm,  Thomas,  Jnn.,  6  Bridge  street,  Abbey,  Paisley,  18  Dec,  1900 

Reid,  W.  J.  H.,  Redlea,  Linwood,  Nr.  Paisley,  16  Dec,  1902 

Reid,  William  Paton,  36  Dnneam  street,  Glasgow,  W.,  23  Feb.,  1904 

Renmie,  Archibald,  3  Bawhirley  road,  Greenock,  ||:  ^^  ^®*»  ^^^ 

Rbw,  James  H.,  Ardfem,  Victoria  place,  Airdrie,  *  27  Oct,*  1896 

Reynolds,    Charles   H.,    Frederiksgade   7*,    Copen-/G.  23  Dec,  1873 

hBgen,\M.  22  Nov.,  1881 
Richardson,  Andrkw,  Soho  Engine  works,  Paisley,  26  Jan.,  1904 

Richmond,  Sir  David,  North  British  Tube  works,  Govan,         21  Dec,'  1897 
Richmond,  James,  Roselyn,  96  Maxwell  drive,  PoUok./G.  23  Jan.',  1894 

shields,  Glasgow, \M.  23  Oct.,'  1900 
Richmond,  John  R.,  Holm  foundry,  Cathcart,  Glasgow,  28  Jan.,  1896 

RiDDELL,  W.  G.,  c/o  Messrs  John  Hastie  &  Co.,  Eilblain 

Engine  Works,  Greenock,  21  Feb.,  1899 

RiEEiE,  John,  Argarth,  Dumbreck,  Glasgow,  29  Oct.,  1901 

Rise,  Robert,  Halidon  Villa,  Cambuslang,  23  Mar.,  1897 

Ritchie,  Duncan,  34  HiUfoot  street,  Dennistoun,  Glas- 

gow,  16  Dec,  1902 

Ritchie,  George,  Parkhead  Foige,  Glasgow,  15  jnug^  jggg 

ROBERTS,  W.  G.  2g  O^t  '  jj^j 

Robertson,  Alexander,  Jun.,  c/o  Me8^r8  Matthew 

Reid  &  Co.,  Kilmarnock,  22  Dec,  1896 

Robertson,    Alexander,   8    Damley    road,    Pollok-  j  G.  26  Oct     1886 

shields,  Glasgow,  j  M.  23  Feb.',  1904 

Robertson,  Andrew  R.,  8  Park  Circus  place.  Glasirow  J  ^-  ^2  Nov.,  1892 

r  -^      •  ?  M.  23  Feb.,  1897 


374 


.MEMBERS 


ROBI^RTSON,  Prof.  David,  B.Sc.,  16  Rokeby  avenai*, /6.  19  Dee.,  189» 

RedJand,  Bristol,  \M.2S  Apr.,  1903 

Robertson,  David  W.»  Dalxiel  Bridge  workji,  Motherwell.     26  Nov.,  1901 

ROBBRTSON,  Duncan,  Baldioma,  Ibrox,  Glaan^w,  24  Oct.,  1876 

Robertson,  Robert,  B.Sc.,  154  Weet  George  street, 

Glasgow,  20  Nov.,  1900 

Robertson,  William,  12l  St.  ViDoent  street,  Glasgow,  25  Nov.,  1863 
Robin,  Matthew,    58   Dumbreck    road,   Darobreck,  }  G.  20  Dec,  1887 

Glasgow,  j  M.  25  Jan.,  1898 

Robinson,  J.  F.,  17  Victoria  street,  Westminster,  London,  24  Apr.,  1888 

Robinson,  Robert,  54  Balsbagray  avenue,  Partick,  3  Mar. ,  1993 

ROBSON,  George  J.,  22  Bath  street,  Glasgow,  21  Mar.,  1899 

*tRoBSON,  Hazelton  R.,  14  Royal  crescent,  Glasgow,  Original 

Rodger,  Anderson,  Glenpark,  Port-Glasgow,  21  Mar.,  1893 

Rodger,  Anderson,   Jan.,    Glenpark,   Port-Glasgow,  |^-  ^IsSy  19^ 

Roger,  George  William,  4  Lloyd's  avenue,  Fenehurch  /G.  24  Nov.,  1896 

street,  London,  E.G.,  \M.  18  Dec.,  1900 

Rose,  Joseph,  **  Westoe.''  Scotstoonhill,  Glasgow,  3  May,  1904 

Rosenthal,  James  H.,  Oriel  House,  30  Farringdbn  street, 

London,  24  Nov.,  1896 

Ross,  J.  MacEwan,  St.  Helens,  Troon,  |  ^  ^^^;;  J^f 

Ross,  James  R.,  7  Ashfield  gardens,  Jordanhill,  Glasgow,  24  Nov.,  1896 

Ross,  Richard  G.,  21  Greenhead  street,  Glasgow,  11  Dee.,  1861 

Ross,  William,  Messrs  Malone,  Alliott  &  Co.,  Ltd.,  101 

St.  Vincent  street,  Glasgow,  18  Dec.,  190O 

Rowan,  Frederick  John,  71a  West  Nile  street,  Glasgow,       26  Jan.,  18^ 

Rowan,  James,  231  EUiot  street,  Glasgow,  |  ^  ^  ^^'*  |^ 

Rowley,  Thomas,   Board  of  Trade  OflBces,  Virginia 

street,  Greenock,  18  Dec.,  1888^ 

Roy,  William,  Bowden  view,  Melksham,  WUts,  {^-  ^1  A^r.,  19S 

RUDD,  John  A.,  177  West  George  street,  GUsgow,  |  ^  ^  jj^^'^  J^ 

Russell,  Alexander  C.,  655  Hawthorn  street.  Spring-  /G.  16  Apr.,  1902' 

bom,  Glasgow,  \M.  22  Dee.,  190S 

Russell,  Frederick  Alexander,  20  Skirving  street, 

Shawlands,  Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  188^ 

(  G    22  Dec     1SS8' 
tRussELL,  Georoe,  Belmont,  Uddingston,  1 1^'    ^  Mar*'  1863 

+RU88ELL,  James,  Waverley,  Uddingston,  |  y[  ^  j^*'  j^ 

Russell,  Jambs  E.,  c/o  Clnness,  26  Woodside  quadrant,  .  G.  22  Dec.,  1891 

W.,  Glasgow,  }  M.  27  Oct.,  190& 


MEMBERS  3T$ 

Russell,  Joseph,  Shipbuilder,  Port-Glasgow,  22  Feb.,  1881 

Rttssbll,  Joseph  WiLUAM,  50  Charles  street,  St  Rolloz,  S  G.   6  Apr.,  1887 

Glasgow,  j  M.  25  Jan.,  1898 

Russell,  Thomas  W.,  Admiralty,  21  Northamberland 

avenae,  London,  W.C,  27  Apr.,  1897 

Rutherford,  A.  K.,  Engineer's  Office,  Natal  GoYom- 

ment  Railways,  PietermaritzbnrK,  Natal,  24  Dec.,  1901 

Rutherford,  George,  Mercantile  Pontoon  Company, 

Cardiff,  23  Mar.,  1897 

Sadler,    Prof.    Herbert    C,    D.Sc.,    University    of /6.  19  Dec.,  1893 
Michigan,  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan,  U.S.A.  \M.  23  Oct,  1900 

Salmon,  Edward  Mowbray,  Lloyd's  Register,  71  Fen- 

church  street,  London,  E.C.,  21  Jan.,  1890 

Salmond,  Henry,  98  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  18  Dec,  1900 

Sampson,  Alexander  W.  ,  Bonnington,  9  Beech  avenne, 

Bellahooston,  22  Dec.,  1896 

Samson,  Peter,  Board  of  Trade  Offices,  54  Victoria 

street,  Westminster,  London,  S.W.,  24  Oct.,  1876 

Samuel,  James,  Jan.,  185  Kent  road,  Glasgow,  24  Feb.,  1885 

Sanderson,  John,  Lloyd's  Register,  Royal  Exchange, 

Middlesbro'-onTees,  20  Feb.,  1883 

Sayers,  James  Edmund,  189  St.  Vincent  street,  Glasgow,      24  Dec.,  1901 

Sayers,  William  Brooks,   189   St.    Vincent  street, 

Glasgow,  25  Oct.,  1892 

ScoBiE,  Alexander,  58  West  Regent  Street,  Glasgow,    {  m.  28  Feb  *  1904 

tScoBiE,  John,  c/o  Alfred  Scobie,  Esq.,  68  West  Regent  J  G.  25  Mar.,  1878 

street,  Glasgow, }  M.  23  Oct.,  1889 
Scott,  Charles  Cunningham,    Greenock   Fonndiy, 

Greenock,  27  Oct.,  1896 

Scorr,  Charles  Wood,  Dnnarbnck,  Bowling,  15  June,  1898 

Scott,  James,  Rock  Knowe,  Tayport,  N.B.,  22  Dec.,  1896 

Scott,  James,  Jnn.,  Strathclyde,  Bowling,  15  Jnne,  1898 

Scott,  James  G.,  19  m^^^^^  1901 

Scott,  John,  11  Grosvenor  street,  Edinbnrgh,  26  Jan..  1881 

Seath,  William  Y.,  121  St.  Vincent  street,  Glasgow,      j  g'  ^  ^^  |^ 

Seley-Bigge,  D.,  27  Mosley  street,  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  21  Feb.,  1899 

Shanks,  James  Kirkwood,  Engineer,  Beeohfield,  Denny,  23  Apr.,  1901 

Shakes,  William,  Tubal  works,  Barrhead,  16  June,  1898 

Sharer,  Edmund,  Sootstoun  house,  Scotstoun,  Glasgow,  30  Apr.,  1895 

Sharp,  John,  28  Bumbank  gardens.  Glasgow.  /^-  ^^  ^^^^  ^^^ 

^      ^     '  \M.  22  Nov,,  1898 

Sharpe,    Robert,    Corporation    Gas  Works,    Belfast,         22  Jan.,  1901 


'376  MEMBERS 

8HBARBR,   Sir  John,   13  Crown  temoe,    Dowaaliill, 

Glasgow,  23  Oct.,  190O 

Shbdden,  William,  3  Andrew's  street.  Paisley,  24  Oct.,  1899 

Shepherd,  John  W.,  Carrickarden,  Bearsden,  26  Mar.,  1889 

Shutb,  Arthur  £.,  12  Clydeview,  Partick,  Glasgow,  27  Oct.,  1896 
Shute,  Charles  W.,  38  Rowallan  gardens,  Partick, 

Glasgow.  27  Oct.,  1896 

Shute,  T.  S.,  8  Belvidere  road,  Sunderland,  |  Jj  ^  ^'^  J^ 

SiME,  John,  96  Bnchanan  street,  Glasgow,  26  Jau.,  1897 

tSiMPSON,  Alexander,  175  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  22  Jan.,  1862 

SiMPRON,  Robert,  B.Sc.,  175  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1887 

Simpson,  Willlam,  15  Regent  Quay,  Aberdeen,  20  Nov.,  190O 

Sinclair,  D.  S.,  London  road  Iron  works,  Glasgow,  24  Dec,  1901 

Sinclair,  Nisbet,  2  Gardenside  avenne,  Carmyle,  |  y[  ^  ^;'^  {^ 

Slight,  George  H.,  Jan.,  c/o  James  Slight,  Esq.,  131  \  G.  28  Nov.,  1882 
West  Regent  street,  Glasgow,  |  M.  22  Oct.,  1889 

Smail,  David,  c/o  Messrs  George  Webster  &  Son,  19 

Waterloo  street,  Glasgow,  22  Jan.,  1901 

Small,  William  O.,  Carmyle  avenne,  Carmyle,  23  Feb.,  1897 

Smart,  Lewis  A.,  Birkbeok  Bank  Chambers,  Holbom, 

London,  22  Mar.,  189S 

Smillie,  Samuel,  71  Lancefield  street,  Glasgow,  |  ^'  ^  ^^'^  ^^ 

Smith,  Alexander,  658  Shields  road,  Glasgow,  (^   ^  ^^;*  ]^\ 

Smith,  Herbert  Gardner,  Lee  wood,  Helensbargh,  26  Nov.,  1901 

Smith,   Hugh  Wii^on,    Netherby,    N.   Albert  road, 

PoUokshields,  Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Smith,  James,  Tinley  Manor,  Chakas  Kraal,  Durban, 

South  Africa,  23  Oct.,  1888 

Smith,  Jambs  A.,  Union  Bank  house,  Virginia  place,  j^'|^  28  A^r  1903 

Glasgow,  i^  2V  Oct.,  'l90S 
Smith,  Osbourne,  Poesil  Engine  works,  Glasgow,  24  Dec,  1895 

Smith,  Robert,  c/o  Mrs  Chisholm,  229  North  street, 

Glasgow,  20  Mar.,  190(> 

Smith,  Robert  Bruce,  60  Guilford  road,  Greenwich,  20  Jan.,  1903 

Smith,   William  J.,  7  Newark   drive,  PoUokshields, 

Glasgow,  24  Jan.,  1899 

Snkddon,  Richard  M.,  45c  Whiiflet  street,  Coatbridge,  l^    j^  Mar!|  1902 
Sneddon,  W.  R.,  Shipyard,  Irvine,  22  Jan..  1901 

Snowball,  Edward,  10  Broomfield  terrace,  Springbnm, 

Glasgow,  22  Feb.,  1870 


MEMBERS  377 

SoMERTAiL,  Peter  A.,  Dalmnir  Ironworks,  Dalmnir,  26  Jan.,  1887 

SOMERVILLK,  THOMAS  A.,  267  UoWenity  Btreet,  Montreal, 

Canada,  22  Feb.,  189a 

SoMMERViLLK,  ROBERT  G.,  Jun.,  HlUaide,   Port-Glas- 
gow, 29  Oct..  1901 

SoTHERN,  John  W.,  59  Bridge  etreet,  Glasgow,  29  Oct.,  190) 

Spaldimg,   William,  9  Crown  Circus  road,  W.,  Glas-  \  O.  25  Oct,  1892* 

gow,  )  M.  16  Dec.,  1902^ 

Spknce,  Wilfrid  L.,  Oakleigh,  AUoa,  28  Apr.,  1908- 

SPRoni«,  A.,  13  Greenlaw  avenue,  Paisley,  19  Mar.,  1901 

Stark,  James,  13  Princes  gardens,  Dowanhill,  Glasgow,  27  Oct.,  1896^ 

Stark,  James.  Penang, Stmits Settlement,  | ^  *^ 5^»  }^ 

tSTEPHEN,  Alexander  £.,  8  Princes  terrace,  Dowanhill, 

Glasgow,  18  Dec,  1883^ 

-tSTEPHEN,  Frederiok  J.,  Linthouse,  Govan,  30  Apr.,  1895- 

Stephen,  J.  M.,  12  Campania  place,  Govan,  19  Mar.,  19()1 

*tSTEPHEN,  John,  Linthouse,  Govan, 

Steven,  James,  Eastvale  place,  Kelvinhaugh,  Glasgow,  23  Oct.,  1900- 

Steven,  John,  Eastvale  place,  Kelvinhaugh,  Glasgow,  26  Oct,  1897 

Steven,  John  A.,  12  Royal  crescent,  Glasgow,  |  ^  ^  ^^''^  J^ 

Steven.  John  Wilson,  8  Clarence  Drive,   Hvndland, 

Glasgow,  20  Dec.,  1898 

Steven,   William,   420  Sauehiehall  street,  Glasgow,  23  Jan.,  1894 

Stevens,  John,  Marsden,  Renfrew,  23  Mar.,  1897 

Stevenson,  William  F.,  49  Park  drive,  South,  White- 
inch,  Glapgow,  18  Dec,  1900^ 

Stewart,    Alexander  W.,  56  West  Regent  Street, 

Glasgow,  23  Jan.,  1894 

tSTBWART,  James,  Harbour  Engine  works,  60  Portman 

street,  Glasgow,  25  Mar.,  1890 

Stewart,  James,  Messrs  L.  Sterne  &  Co.,  155  North 

Woodside  road,  Glasgow,  25  Oct,  1898 

Stewart,  James  C,  54  Geoige  square,  Glasgow,  24  Dec,  1901 
Stewart,  Jambs,  Dunolly,  Holmfauldhead  drive.  South 

Govan,  23  Feb.,  1904 
Stewart,  John  Graham,  B.Sc,  Ault  Wharrie,  Dun- 

blaoe,  22  Mar.,  1892 

Stkwart,  W.  Maxwell,  55  W.  Regent  street,  Glasgow,  21  Nov.,  1899 

Strachan,  Robert,  55  ClifiFord  street,  Ibroz,  Govan,  22  Nov.,  1898 

Strathern,  Alexander  G.,  Hillside,  Stepps,  N.B.,  25  Apr.,  1899 

Stuart,  James,  94  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  22  Oct.,  1889 
Stuart,  James  Tait,  2  Bowmont  terrace,  Kelvinside, 

Glasgow,  18  Dec,  1900- 


378  MEMBERS 

SuRTEBs,  Francis  Vere,  Messn  Lobnitz  &  Co.,  Ltd., 

Ranfraw,  19  Feb.,  190] 

Sutherland,  Sinclair,  North  British   Tube  works, 

Goyan,  21  Dee.,  1897 

Syme,  James,  8  Glenayon  terrace,  Partick,  23  Jao.,  1877 


Tannett,  John  Croysdale,  Vulcan  works.  Paisley,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Tatham,  Stanley,  Montana,  Burton  road,  Branksome  }  G.  21  Dec,  1880 

park,  Bournemouth,  W.,  |  M.  15  June,  1898 

Tavbrner,  H.  Lacy,  48  West  Regent  street,  Glasgow,  22  Dec.,  1896 

Taylor,  Benson,  21  Thornwood  avenue,  Partick,  20  Nov.,  1900 

Taylor,  James,  3  Westminster  terrace,  Ibroz,  Glasgow,  16  Dec,  1902 

Taylor,  Peter,  Selby  Shipbuildinjr  and  Engineering 

Ck>.,  Ltd.,  Ousegate,  Selby,  28  Apr.,  1885 

Taylor,  Robert,  28  Ardgowan  street,  (i^reenock,  27  Oct,  1896 

Taylor,  Staveley,  Messrs  Russell  &  Company,  Port- 
Glasgow,  25  Mar.,  1879 

Taylor,  Thomas,  c/o  Messrs  Smith,  Bell  &  Co.,  Manila, 

PhilUpine  Islands,  29  Oct.,  1901 

Terano,  Prof.  Seiichi,  College  of  Engineering,  Imperial 

University,  Tokyo,  Japan,  21  Feb.,  1899 

Thearlr,  Samuel  J.  P.,  71  Fenchurch  Street,  London,  22  Dec,  1896 

Thistlethwaite,  John  Dickinson,  Mechanical  Engi. 
neer,  Harbours  and  Rivers  Department,  Brisbane, 

Queensland,  28  Apr.,  1903 

Thope,  (iEORGE  W.,  i  Prince  Friedrich-Carl  Strasse, 

Rostock,  M.S.,  (Germany,  27  Jan.,  1885 

Thom,  John,  8  Park  Avenue,  Glasgow,  26  Feb.,  1889 

Thompson,  W.  B.,  Ellengowan,  Dundee,  14  May,  1878 

Thomson,  Prof.  Arthur  W.,  D.Sc,  CoUeire  of  Science, 

Poena,  India,  26  Apr.,  1887 

Thomson,   (i.   ("aldwell,  23  Elisabeth  street,  Riga, 

Russia,  24  Oct.,  1893 


Thomson,  (iEORGE,  8  Woodbum  terrace,  Momingside,  }  G.  23  Nov.,  1880 

iigh,}r - 

Thomson,   (iEORcn-:  C,   53  Bedford  road,  Rock  Ferry,  J  G.   24  Feb.,  1874 

d,  JM.  22  r        


Thomson,  George,  14 Caird  drive,  Partickhill,  Glasgow,  18  Dec,  1883 

Vfomingside,  }  G.  23  Nov.,  188<) 
Edinburgh,  )  M.  20  Nov.,  1894 

Rock  Ferry, }  G.    24  Feb.,  1874 
near  Birkenhead, )  M.  22  Oct.,  1889 

Thomson,  James,  Hayfield,  Motherwell,  |  ^  ^  ^^^;|  {^ 

Thomson,  John,  3  Crown  terrace,  Dowanhill,  Glasgow,  20  May,  1868 

Thomson,  John,  44  St.  Vincent  crescent,  Glasgow,  26  Nov.,  1901 

Thomson,  R.  H.  B.,  Govan  Shipbuilding  yard,  (lovan,  26  Feb.,  1895 

Thomson,  Robert,  Messrs  Barr,  Thomson  &  Co.,  Ltd., 

Kilmarnock,  25  Jan.,  1896 


MEMBERS  379 

Thomson,  William,  20  Huntly  gardens,   Kelvinside,  )  G.  23  Dec,  1884 

Glasgow, }  M.  27  Oct,  1896 

Thomson,    William,    Koyal    Institution   Laboratory, 

Manchester,  17  Feb.,  1903 

TiDD,  £.  George,  68  Gordon  street,  (xlasgow,  22  Oct.,  1895 

Tod,   Peter,  c/o   Messrs    E.    H.  Williamson  &  Co.,  /Q.    27  Oct.,  1885 
Engineeis,  Lightbody  street,  Liverpool,  I M.  *27  Oct.,  1903 

Todd,  David  K.,  39-40  Arcade  Chambers,  St.  Mary's  i  G.  25  Jan.,  1887 
Gate  and  Dean's  Gate,  Manchester,  {  M.  25  Oct.,  1892 

ToRRiK,  James,  Stewarton,  18  Mar.«  1902 

TuLUS,  David  K.,  Kilbowie  Iron  works,  Kilbowie,  23  Nov.,  1897 

TuLUS,  James,  Kilbowie  Iron  works,  Kilbowie,  23  Nov.,  1897 
TuRNBULL,  Alexander,  St.  Mango's  works,  Bishop- 

briggs,  Glasgow,  21  Nov.,  1876 
TuRNBULL,  Alexander  Pott,  65  West  Kegent  street, 

Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Turhbull,  Campbell,  190  West  George  street,  Glasgow,  j^'  ^  ^^  }^ 

TURNBULL,  James,  Basford  hoase,  Seymour  grove,  Man- J  G.   22  Mar.,  1892 

Chester, \M.  27  Oct.,  1903 

TURNBULL,  W.  L.,  190  West  George  street,  Glasgow,        [^'  ^  ^®^'"  J^J 

Turner,  Thomas,  Caledonia  works,  Kilmarnock,  22  Jan.,  1901 

Waddell,  James,  15  Moray  place,  Glasgow,  23  Mar.,  1897 

Walker.  Archibald,  24  Leadenhall  street,  London,  E.C.,     26  Nov.,  1901 

Walker,  John,  Hillside,  Newlands  road,  Newlands,       f^^i   ^g  Dec  *  1899 
Wallace,  Duncan  M.,  65  Union  street,  Greenock,  27  Oct.,  1896 

Wallace,  James  Loch,  15  Clifford  street,  Glasgow,  S.S.,       18  Feb.,  1902 

Wallace,    John,   Jan.,    Kidbrooke,   Hanover   street, /G.  26  Jan.,  1892 

Helensburgh,  l^M.  22  Jan.,  1901 

Wallace,  Peter,  Ailsa  Shipbuilding  Co.,  Troon,  23  Jan.,  1883 

Wallace,  W.  Carlile,  Messrs  John  Brown  &  Co., 

Ltd.,  22  Thames  street.  New  York,  U.S.  A.,  24  Mar.,  1885 

Wannop,  Charles  H.,  Messrs  A.  Stephen  &  Son,  Lint-  /G.  24  Feb.,  1885 

house,  Glasgow,  \M.  22  Mar.,  1904 

Ward,  J.  C.  A.,  Birchmead,  Weymouth  park,  Walton- 

on-Thames,  Surrey,  22  Nov.,  1898 

Ward,  John,  Leven  Shipyard,  Dumbarton,  26  Jan.,  1886 

Warde,  Henry  W.,  69a  Waterloo  street,  Glasgow,  15  June,  1898 

Warden,. Willoughby  C,  68  Gordon  Htreet,  Glasgow,  24  Mar.,  1896 

Warnock,  William  Findlay,  274  Bath  street,  Glasgow,  21  Jan.,  1902 

WatkinjSON,  Prof.   W.   H.,   190   West   Regent  street, 

Glasgow,  19  Dec,  1893 


380  MEMBERS 

Watson,  G.  L.,  53  Bothwell  street,  Glangow,  23  Mar.,  1875  i 

Watson  ,  J  am  es  W.,c/o  Messrs  MeDonald,  Frmser  &  Soo ,  ' 

FredietoWD,  New  Brunswick,  Canada,  17  Feb.,  1903  | 

Watson,  RoBtaiT,  10  East  Nelson  street,  Glasgow,         |^-   ^  ^*^-  \^l  \ 

Watson,  William,  Clyde  Shipping  Company,  Greenock,         24  Nov.,  189(^  i 

Watt,  Alexander,  Inchcape,  Paisley,  25  Jan.,  1806 

Watt,  Robert  D.,  c/o  Messrs   Butterfield  &  Swire,  JG.  27  Apr,  1880 
French  Bund,  Shanghai,  China,  iM.  27  Oct.,  1908 

Webb,  R.  G.,  Messis  Richardson  &  Craddas,  Bycalla,  )  G.  21  Dec,  1875 

Bombay,  {  M.  26  Oct.,  188^ 

Webster,  James,  Messrs  Sharp,  Stewsrt,  &  Co.,  Ltd., 

Atlas  works,  Springbnm,  Glasgow,  21  Mar.,  1899 

Weddell,  Alexander  H.,  B.Sc.,  Park  villa,  lidding- \  G.  22  Dec.,  1896 

ston,  ( M.  16  Dee.,  1902 

Weddell,  Jamks,  Park  villa,  Uddingston,  22  Dec,  1896 

Wedgwood,  A.,  Dennystown  Forge,  Dumbarton,  18  Dec,  1900 

Wedgwood,  Arthur  D.,  Forgemaster,  Dambarton,  26  Jan.,  1897 

Weighton,   Prof.   R.   L.,   M.A.,   2  Psrk  villas,  Gos-  J  G.  17  Dec,  187H 

forth,  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  |  M.  22  Nov.,  1887 

fWEiR,  George,  Yass,  near  Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  22  Dec,  1874 

+WEIR,   James,   Holmwood,  72   St.    Andrew's   drive. 

PoUokshields,  Glasgow,  22  Dee.,  1874 

Weir,  John,  46  Lauranoe  street,  Partick,  |  jj  ^  ^PJ[;|  }^ 

tWEiR,  Thomas,  China  Merchants'  Steam  Navigation 

Co.,  Marine  Supeiin  ten  dent's  Office,  Shanghai,  China,  23  Apr.,  1889 

Weir,  Thomas  D.,  Messrs  Brown,  Mair,  Gemmill  &  f  G.  19  Dec,  1876 

Hyslop,  162  St.  Vincent  street,  Glasgow,  \M.  26  Feb.,  1884 

Weir,  William,  Holm  foundry,  Cathcart,  Glasgow,         j^'  ^  ^^^*  \^ 

Weir,  William,  231  Elliot  street,  Glasgow,  22  Jan.,  1901 

Welsh,  James,  3  Princes  gardens,  Dowanhill,   Glas-  /G.  24  Nov.,  1885 

gow,  \M.  26  Oct.,  1897 
Welsh,  Thomas  M.,  3  Princes  gardens,    Dowanhill, 

Glasgow,  17  Feb.,  1869 

Wemyss,  George  B.,  67  Elliot  street.  Billhead,  Glasgow,  |^-  ^  J^'  J|®* 

West,  Henry  H.,  5  Castle  street,  Liverpool,  23  Dec,  1868 

White,  Richard  S.,  Shirley,  Jesmond,  Newcastle-on- 

Tyne,  20  Feb.,  1883 

Whitehead,  Alexander  Cullen,  c/o  Messrs  White- 
head Bros.,  Engineers,  P.O.,  Box  2786, 
Johannesburg,  S.A.,  27  Oct.,  190S 

Whitehead,    James,    Howford,   Maneewood,   Pollok- 

shaws,  Glasgow,  6  Apr.,  1887 


MEMBERS  381 

WiLLCOX,  Reginald,  J.  N.,  Messrs Flemiog  &  Ferguaoo, 

Ltd.,  Paisley,  28  Apr.,  1903 

Williams,  Llewellyn  Wynn,  B.Sc,  Cathcart,  Glas- 
gow, 22  Feb.,  1898 

Williams,  Owen  R.,  B.Sc,  Railway  Appliance  works, 

Cathcart,  Glasgow,  20  Nov.,  1900 

Williams,  William,  23  Jan.,  1900 

Williamson,   Alexander,   67  Esplanade,   Greenock,  21  Mar.,  1899 

Williamson,  Sir  James,  C.B.,  Admiralty,  Whitehall, 

London,  S.W.,  23  Dec,  1884 

Williamson,  James,  Marine  Superintendent,  Goorock,  24  Mar.,  1896 

Williamson,  Robert,  Ormidale,  Malpas,  near  New- 
port, Mon.,  20  Feb.,  1883 

Wilson,  Alexander,  City  Chambers,  Glasgow,  28  Jan.,  1896 

Wilson,  Alexander,  Hyde  Park  Foundry,  Finnieston 

street,  Glasgow,  23  Feb.,  1897 

Wilson,    Alexander    Hall,    B.Sc,    Messrs    Hall, 

Russell,  &  Co.,  Aberdeen,  23  Oct.,  1900 

Wilson,   David,    Arecibo,   Porto   Rico,    West   Indies,  25  Oct.,  1887 

Wilson,  Gavin,  107  Pollok  street,  S.S.,  Glasgow,  22  Oct.,  1889 

Wilson,  Jobn,  101  Leadenhall  street,  London,  E.C.,  24  Dec,  1895 

Wilson,  John,  11  Regent  Park  square,  Glasgow,  18  Mar.,  1902 

Wilson,  John,  256  Scotland  street,  Glasgow,  22  Dec,  1903 

Wilson,    Samuel,    2  WhitehiU  gardens,  Dennistoun, 

Glasgow,  3  Mar.,  1903 

Wilson,  William  Cheetham,  122Balgray  hill.  Spring- 
bum,  Glasgow,  24  Nov.,  1903 

Wilson,  W.  H.,  261  Albert  road,  Pollokshieldp,  Glasgow,  22  Feb.,  1898 

Wilson,  William  J.,  Lily  bank  Boiler  works,  Glasgow,  30  Apr.,  1895 

Wood,  Robert  C,  c/o  Messrs  A.  Rodger  &  Co.,  Ship- 
builders, Port  Glasgow,  23  Mar.,  1897 

Workman,  Harold,  B.Sc,  c/o  Messrs  Barclay,  Curie 

&  Co.,  Ltd.,  Whiteincb,  Glasgow,  21  Dec,  1897 

Wrench,   William  G.,  27   Oswald   street,   Glasgow,  25  Mar.,  1890 

Wrioht,  Robert,  1  Garment  drive,  Shawlands,  Glas- 
gow, 22  Dec,  1896 

Wylie,  Alexander,   Kirkfield,  Johnstone,  26  Oct.,  1897 

Wyllie,  James  Brown,  Messrs  Wyllie  &  Blake,  219  St.  J  G.  25  Oct.,  1887 

Vincent  street,  Gla.sgow, )  M.  26  Jan.,  1897 

Wynne,  Arthur  A.  W.,  M.A.,  Messrs  C.  A.  Parsons  & 

Co.,  99  Great  Clyde  street,  Glasgow,  20  Jan.,  1903 


Yardley,  Robert  William,  Lochinvar,  Victoria  drive, 

Scotstonnhill,  Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1904 

30 


382  MEMBERS 

Young,  David  Hill,  Marine  Engineers'  Institute,  /G.   20  Nov.,  1900 

Shanghai,  China,  (M.  15  Apr.,  1902 

YoCNO,  JOHX,  Galbraith  street,  Stobcross,   Glasgow,  27  Nov.,  1867 

Young,  Thomas,  Rowington,  Whittingehame  drive,  Kel- 

vinside,  Glasgow,  20  Mar.,  1894 

Young,  Wiluam  Andrew,  Millbum  House,  Renfrew,  26  Mar.,  1895 

Younger,  A.  Scott,  B.Sc,  Westhouse,  Dumbreck,  Glas- 
gow, 24  Nov.,  1896 


ASSOCIATE  MEMBERS. 

Adah,  John  William,  Fergualie  villa,  Paisley,  28  Apr.,  1903 

Agnew,  Wiluam  H.,  Messrs  Cammell,  Laird  &Co.,fG.       28  Nov.,  1882 

Birkenhead,! A.M.  27  Oct.,  1903 

AiNSUE,  James  Wiluam,  377  Bath  street,  Glasgow,  |  A.M. ^  Apr!*,  1903 

Anderson,  George,  3329  N.  20th  street,  Tioga,  Phila- )  G.      26  Nov.,  1901 

delphia,  U.S.A, )  A.M.  16  Dec,  1902 

Anderson,  James,  c/o  Masson,  26  Merryland  street, )  A.      24  Apr.,  1900 

Govan,  {A.M.  17Feb.,  1903 

Anderson,  Thomas,  326  Cumberland  street,  Glasgow,  {  ^  M  ^  Am'  1903 

Arbuthnott,  Donald  S.,  o/o  Messrs  Charles  Brand  &  f  G.      23  Oct,  1888 
Son,  65  Renfield  street,  Glasgow, \A.M.  27  Oct.,  1903 

Ardill,  William,  c/o  Maclntyre,  939  Sauchiehall  street, 

Glasgow,  17  Feb.,  1903 

Arundbl,  Arthur  S.  D.,  Penn  street  works,  Hoxton,  j  G.      23  Dec.,  1890 

London,  N.,\A.M.  27  Oct,  1903 

r 

Bennett,  Duncan,  9  Leslie  street,  Pollokshields,  Glas-  (G.      29  Oct.,  1897 

gow,XA.M.  27  Oct,  1903 

Berry,  Davidson,  21  Grange  terrace,  Langside,  Glas- (G.       19  Mar.,  1901 

gow,lA.M.  27  Oct,  1903 

Blair,  Archibald,  25  Peel  street,  Partick,  {a'u  ^3  May'  1904 

Boyd,  James,  20  Albert  drive,  Crosshill,  Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1904 

Brown,   William,    22   Leven  street,  Pollokshields,  jG.      26  Nov.,  1901 

Glasgow,  cA.M.  21  Apr.,  1903 


ASSOCIATE  MEMBERS  383 

Buchanan,  Walter  G.,  17  Sandyford  place,  Gla«gow,|^*l^  28  A^/,  1903 
Buckle,  Joseph,  31  Ferry  road,  Renfrew,  {A.M^28^pr  1903 

Burns,  William,  10  Qaeen  square,  Glaagow,  26  Jan.,  1904 

Butler,  James  S.,  21  Hamilton  terrace,  W.,  Partick,  i  a!m.^  May'  1904 

Cleghorn,  George,  2  Glelland  place,  Ibrox,  Govan,  27  Oct,  1903 

Cochran,  Alexander,  MeasiB  Bame  &  Go.,  Ltd., 

Howrah,  Calcutta,  3  Mar.,  1903 

Coleman,  Henry  Grarles,  Isaac  Peral  25,  Cadiz,  Spain,  3  May,  1904 

Craig,  James,  B.Sc.,  Nctherlea,  Partick,  V^j^  ^  ^®^;|  }^| 

D.EKE,  K.  S.,  Bensen,  Norway,  {±^  22  Dec..  1891 

DiACK,  James  A.,  4  Roeemoant  terraoe,  Ibrox,  Glas- )  G.       22  Jan.,  1895 

gow,  (A.M.  27  Oct,  1908 
Drysdale,  Hugh  R.  S.,  24  Kilmailing  terrace.  Oath- 
cart,  Glasgow,  17  Feb.,  1903 
DuNLOP,    Alexander,  14  Derby  terrace,  Sandyford,  J  G.      21  Dec.,  1897 

Glasgow,  )  A.M.  28  Apr.,  1903 

Edmiston,  Alexander  A.,  Ibrox  honse,  Govan,         )  a  M  27  Oct '  1903 

Fallon,   Alfred   H.,  Bellview,  off  Craigton  road, 

Govan,  17  Feb.,  1903 

Faut,  Alexander,  3  Holland  place,  Glasgow,  I  a!m  21  Aot  '  1903 

Fergus,  Alexander,  7  Ibrox  place,  Ibrox,  Glasgow,    [^^  ^  ^y'  \^\ 

Ferguson,  Daniel,  27  Oswald  street,  Glasgow,  27  Oct,  1903 

Fernie,    John,    6    Edelweiss    terrace,    PartickhiU,  { S.       31  Oct,  1902 

Glasgow,  ]  A.M.  28  Apr.,  1903 

FiNDLATER,  James,  124  PoUok  Street,  Glasgow,  S.S.,|^'j^  23  Feb'  1904 

Glaa/G.       26  Oct,  1897 
gow,\A.M.  27  Oct,  1903 

thiU,  fS.        31  Oct.  1902 
Glasgow,  1  A.M.  28  Apr.,  1903 


France,  James,  8  Hanover  terrace,  Kelvineide,  Glas-fG.       26  Oct.,  1897 

v,tA.M.  "  ' 

Frost,   Evelyn  F.  M.,  76  Hill  street,  Gamethill,  / S.       31  Oct.  1902 

NT,  1A.M. 


Gallagher,  Patrick,  72  Fnlbar  street,  Renfrew,  21  Apr.,  1903 

Gilchrist,  James,  B.Sc.,  Caledonian  Railway  Company, 

Buchanan  street,  Glasgow,  26  Apr.,  1904 


384  ASSOCIATE  MEMBERS 

Horn,  PktkrAllan,  29  Regent  Moray  Street,  Glasgow,  l^j^  ^  ^^^»  }^ 

Howie,  William,  5  Fairlie  Park  drive,  Partick,  {a  M^  Apr'  1903 

Hutchison,  Robert,  e/o  Messrs  Bams  &  Co.,  Engi- /G.       24  Oct.,  1899 

neers,  Howrah,  Calcutta,! A.M.  27  Oct,  1908 


Irvine,  Archibald  B.,  8  Newton  terrace,  Glasgow /^'^  27  Oct  ' 


1894 
1908 


Johnson,  Herbert  August,  41  James  street.  Holder- 

ness  road,  Hull,  22  Mar.,  1904 

Johnstone,  Alexander  C,  167  Langside  road.  Cross-  ^G.       25  Jan.,  1898 

hill,  Glasgow,\A.M.   27  Oct  1903 

Johnstone,  John  Gavin,  B.Sc,  Messrs  Biles,  Gray  & 

Co.,  175  West  George  street,  Glasgow,  22  Dec,  1903 

Johnstone,  Robert,  c/o  Mrs  M* Vicar,  20  Rothesay /G.      26  Apr.,  189S 

gardens,  Partick,  \  A.M.  27  Oct.,  1903 

Jones,  T.  C,  17  Kent  Avenue,  Jordanhill,  Glasgow,    j^'j^j  |^y  Oct"  1M3 

Kellner,  Ottokar,  Chapelton,  Dumbarton,  17  Feb.,  1903 

Kirk,  John,  Oakfield,  University  avenue,  Glasgow,      {x^K  9«  Anr'  IQO^ 


Knox,  Alexander,  10  Westbank  terrace.  Billhead, /G.      23  Nov.,  1897 

v,\A.M. 


\A.M.  28  Apr.,  1903 

/G.       23  Nov.,  1897 
Glasgow,! A.M.  22  Dec,  190JJ 


Lamb,    Stuart  D.   R.,   Civil    Engineer,    St.    Enoch /G.      23  Jan.,  1900 

Station,  Glasgow,\A.M.  23  Feb.,  1904 

Learmonth,  Robert,  c/o  H.  Drysdale,  690  Dalmar-  fG.       26  Nov.,  1901 

nock  road,  Glasgow, \ A.M.  21  Apr.,  1903 

Lk    Clair,  Louis   J.,    115    Donore    terrace,    Sonth/G.      24  Nov.,  1896 

Circular  road,  Dublin,! A. M.  21  Apr.,  190.3 

Lee,  John,  10  Bisham  gardens,  Highgate,  London,  N.,{a*m  21  Apr*'  1903 

Lowe,  James,  c/o  Manson,  10  Corunna  street,  Glasgow,/ ^'^j   ^  y^f*  j*^ 

Lynn,   Robert  R.,  7  Highburgh  terrace,  Dowanhill, 

Glasgow  20  Jan.,  1903 

Lyons,    Lewis    James,  25   Broadway,  Camden,  New 

Jersey,  U.S.A.  23  Feb.,  leW 

McCulloch,  John,  49  Arlington  street,  Glasgow,         (am   ^  M^'"*  1904 
McEwAN,  John,  3  Norse  road,  Scotstoun,  Glasgow,       1  a  M  ^  A*^r'  1903 


ASSOCIATE  MEMBERS  385 

McGiLVRAY.  John  A.,  555  Govan  road,  Govan,  }  ?w  ?S  9.^^r  ISI 

'  }  A.M,  27  Oct.,  1903 

MclNTYRE,  James  N.,  33  Hayburn  crescent,  Partick,   {a;m.^7  O^ct"  1903 

McIvoR,  John,  Moss  cottage,  Nitshill,  Glasgow,  3  Mar.,  1903 

Mackie,  James,  344  St.  Vincent  street,  Glasgow,  \  9*  ,  ^^  ^^^*  ^^^7 

®      *  }A.M.  28  Apr.,  1903 

Mackintosh,  R.  D.,  P.O.  Box  6075,  Johannesburg, /G.       20  Nov.,  1894 

South  Africa,! A.M.  27  Oct.,  1903 
Manners,  Edwin,  50  McCulloch  street,  Pollokshields, 

Glasgow,  17  Feb.,  1903 

Menzies,   George.  20  St.  Vincent  crescent,  Glasgow,/?',,  S?  i*°'  }52? 

'      ^       \ A.M.  24  Nov.,  1903 

MiLLAB,  John  Simpson,  22  Rothesay  gardens,  Partick,  |^-j^  22  Dec"  1903 

Millar,   William  Pettigrew,  4  Parkview  gardens,  (  G.       18  Dec,  1900 

Tollcross,  Glasgow,  (  A.M.  17  Feb.,  1908 
Mitchell,  Alexander  Robertson,  Kilbowie  cottages, 

Kilbowie  hill,  Clydebank,  24  Nov.,  1903 

Mitchell,  R,  M.,  24  Howard  street,  Bridgeton,  Glas- /G.      23  Nov.,  1897 

gow,  \A.M.  22  Dec,  1903 

Morgan,  Andrew,  20  Minerva  street,  Glasgow,  {f  ^  ^22  dIc',  1903 

Morrison,  A.,  Alt-na-craig,  Greenock,  {f^  ^\ Nov.,  1897 

MuiR,  Andrew  A.,  189  Renfrew  street,  Glasgow,  {aM.  %  Feb.',  1904 

NowERY,  W.  F.,  0/0  Jack,  71  Grant  street,  Glasgow,  i^^  ^1  Dec,  1897 

Ralston.  Shirley  Brooks,  34  Gray  street,  Glasgow,  j  ^- j^j  ^  ^^'  ^H 

Kiddlesworth,    W.    Henry,    M.Sc,    63   Pol  worth  J  G.       24  Oct.,  1899 
gardens,  Partickhill,  Glasgow,  I  A.M.  28  Apr.,  1903 
Robertson,  Alfred  J.  C,  c/o  A.   W.   Robinson,   14 

Phillips  square,  Montreal,  Canada,  16  Dec,  1902 

Robertson,  John,  Jan.,  7  Maxwell  terrace.  Shields 

road,  Pollokshields,  Glasgow,  20  Jan.,  1903 

Ross,  John  Richmo?^d,  Messrs  Balfour,  Lyon,  &  Co.,  fG.        25  Oct.,  1898 

Valparaiso,  (A.M.  26  Jan.,  1904 

Saul,   Geokge,  Yloilo   Engineering    works,    Yloilo, 

Phillipine  Islands,  21  Apr.,  1903 

Shearer,  James,  30  McCulloch  street,  Pollokshields, 

Glasgow,  3  Mar.,  1903 

Smith,  James,  4  Clydeview,  Partick,  Glasgow,  |  ^jvi  28  Ap.i  1903 


386  ASSOCIATE  MEMBERS 

{G       20  Doc     1892 
a!m.  27  Oct.*  1903 

Speakman,  Edward  M.,  Tarbine  Office,  BritUh  Wc»t- 

inghonse  works,  Manchester,  16  Dec.,  1902 

Sperry,  Austin,  2363  Larkin  street,  San  Francisco,  J  G.      23  Mar..  1897 

Cal.,  U.S. A.,  \  A.M.  22  Mar. ,  1904 

Steele,  David  J.,   Davaar,  41  Albert  drive,  PoUok-/G.      20  Dec,  1898 

shields,  Ghisgow,\A.M.  27  Oct.,  1903 

Stephen,  David  Belford,  14  Whitevale  street,  Dennis- 

tonn,  Glasgow,  24  Nov.,  1903 

Stevens,  Thomas,  56  Ferry  road,  Renfrew,  21  Apr.,  1903 

..  TT      ,,.     ^    n.i  /G.       22  Nov.,  1898 

Stevenson,  George,  Hawkhead,  Paisley,  1  A.M.  24  Mar.,  1903 

Stirling,  Andrew,  3  Greenvale  terrace,  Dumbarton, |^'j^^  22  Dec.,'  1903 

Stobie,  Peter,  33  Kelviuhangh  street,  Glasgow,  {  A.M,  28  Apr.',  1903 

^utterfield  &  Swire, /G.       21  Dec.,  1886 
Houg  Kong,  China,  \A.M.  26  Jan.,  1904 


Symington,  James  R,  Messrs  Butterfield  &  Swire, /G.       21  Dec.,  1886 


Taylor,   J.   F.,  23   Roslea  drive,  Dennistoon,  Glas- )  G.      23  Nov.,  1897 

gow,\AM.27  Oct.,  1903 

Tostee,  Evenor,  (Fils)  3a  Harvie  street,  Paisley  road 

W.,  Glasgow,  26  Jan.,  1904 


Ure,  Sebastian,  O.  M.,  514  St.Vincent  street,  Glasgow,  22  Dec.,  1903 

Utting,  Samuel,  29  Keir  street,  Pollokshields,  Glas- 
gow, 22  Dec.,  1903 


Welsh,  George  Muir,  3  Princes  gardens,  Dowanhill,  JG.      21  Dec,  1897 

Glasgow,  \A  M.  28  Apr.,  1903 

Whitelaw,  Andrew  H.,  B.Sc.,  74  Dundonald  road,  /  G.      20  Nov.,  1900 

Kilmarnock,  \  A.M.  27  Oct.,  1903 

Wilson,  Charles  A.,  36  Bank  street,  Hillhead,  Glas- 
gow, 22  Mar.,  1904 

Woods.  Joseph,  87  Grosvenor  Road,  llford,  Essex,       i^^  |^y  q®^'  J^ 
WooDSiDE,  Hugh  R.,  Artnox,  Dairy,  Ayrshire,  16  Dec.,  1902 


ASSOCIATES  387 


ASSOCIATES. 

Addie,  Fbank  R.,  8  Westboume  gardens,  Kelvinside, 

Glasgow,  18  Dec.,  1900 
*AiTKEN,  Thomas,  8  Commercial  street,  lidth, 

Allan,  Henry,  25  Bothwell  street,  Glasgow,  23  Jan.,  190O 

fALLAK,  James  A.,  25  Both  well  street,  Glasgow,  29  Oct.,  1901 

Armour,   William   Nicol,   40  West   George  street, 

Glasgow,  24  Nov.,  1896 

Baillie,  Archibald,  14  Park  terrace,  Queen's  Park, 

Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Balv,  W.  6.,  65  Waterloo  street,  Glasgow,  22  Jan.,  1901 

Barclay,  Thomas  Kinloch,  55  LocMeven  road,  Lang- 
side,  Glasgow,  20  Mar.,  1900 

Begg,  William,  34  Belmont  gardens,  Glasgow,  19  Dec.,  1886 

Blair,  Herbert  J.,  30  Gordon  street,  Glasgow,  23  Feb.,  1897 

Bowman,  Frederick   Georqe,  21  Kersland   terrace, 

Hillhead,  Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1904 

Brown,  Capt.  A.  R.,  34  West  George  street,  Glasgow,  21  Dec,  1897 

Brown,  Thomas  J.,  233  St.  Vincent  street,  Glasgow,  29  Oct.,  1901 

Buchanan,  James,  Dalziel  Bridge  works,  Motherwell,  26  Nov.,  1901 

Burns,  Hon.  James  C,  30  Jamaica  street,  Glasgow,  23  Oct.,  1900 

Cassels,  William,  Caimdhu,  12  Newark  drive,  Pollok- 

shields,  Glasgow,  21  Feb.,  1893 

Cayzer,  Sir  Charles  W.,  M.P.,  Gartmore,  Perthshire,  27  Oct.,  1903 

Clark,  Robert,  21  Bothwell  street,  Glasgow,  28  Feb.,  1904 

Claussen,  a.  L.,  llSBroomielaw,  Glasgow,  22  Jan.,  1892 

Clyde,  Walter  P.,  c/o  Messrs  Dobbie  M*Innes,  Ltd.,  45 

Bothwell  street,  Gksgow,  24  Oct.,  1899 

DAW.SON,  David  C,  12  York  street,  Glasgow,  27  Oct.,  1903 

Dewab.  James,   11    Regent   Moray   street,  Glasgow,  22  Dec.,  1897 

DoDDRELL,  Edward  £.,  11  Bothwell  street,  Glasgow,  26  Oct.,  1897 

Donald,  James,  123  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  19  Dec.,  1899 


Names  marked  thus  *  were  Assodates  of  Scottish  Shipbuilders'  Association  at 
incorporation  with  Institution,  1865. 
Names  marked  thns  t  are  Life  Associates. 


388  ASSOCIATES 

Ferguson,  Peter,  19  Exchange  square,  Glasgow,  27  Apr.,  1897 

FORRKST,  William,  114  Dixon  avenue,  Glasgow,  19  Feb.,  1901 

Galloway,  James,  Jun.,   Whitefield   works,    Govan,  27  Oct.,  1891 

Gardiner,  Frederick  Crombie,  24  St.  Vincent  place, 

Glasgow,  20  Feb.,  1900 

Gardiner,  William  Guthrie,  24  St.  Vincent  place, 

Glasgow,  20  Feb.,  1900 

Graham,    The    Most    Honourable    The    Marquis    of, 

Buchanan  Castle,  Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1904 

Henderson,  John  B.,  Messrs  John  Brown  &  Co.,  Ltd., 

Clydebank,  22  Mar.,  1904 

HOLLis,  John,  c/o  Messrs  John  Brown  &  Co.,  Ltd*.,  144 

St.  Vincent  street,  Glasgow,  23  Nov.,  1897 

Hope,  Andrew,  50  Wellington  street,  Glasgow,  27  Oct.,  1903 

iNVEttCLYDE,  The  Right  Honourable  Lord,  Castle  Wemyss, 

Wemys8  Bay,  22  Mar. ,  1904 

KiNGHORN,  William  A.,  81  St.  Vincent  street,  Glasgow,  24  Oct..  1882 

KiRSOP,  James  Nixon,  31  St.  Vincent  place,  Glasgow,  29  Oct.,  1901 

Kyle,  John,  Cathay,  Forres,  N.B.,  23  Feb.,  1897 

Loudon,  James  M.,  22  Clarendon  street,  Glasgow,  i21  Jan.,  1902 

M*Ara,  Alexander,  65  Morrison  street,  Glasgow,  22  Nov.,  1892 

Macbeth,  George  Alexander,  65  Great  Clyde  street, 

Glasgow,  24  Jan.,  1899 

MacBrayne,  David  Hope,  119  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  22 Mar.,  1904 

MacBrayne,  Laurence,  1 1  Park  Circus  place,  Glasgow,  26  Mar.,  1895 

MacDougall,  Dugald,  1  Cross-shore  street,  Greenock,  26  Jun.,  1897 

M*Intyre,  John,  33  Oswald  street.  Glasgow,  23  Feb.,  1897 

M'Intyre,  T.  W.,  21  Bothwell  street,  Glasgow,  24  Jan.,  1893 

Maclay,    Joseph    P.,    21    Bothwell    street,    Glasgow,  18  Dec,  1900 

M'Pherson,  Captain  Duncan,  8  Royal  crescent.  Cross- 
hill,  Glasgow,  26  Jan..  1S86 

Mercer,  James  B.,  Broughton  Copper  works.   Man- 
chester, 24  Mar.,  1874 
Millar,  Thomas,  Hazelwood,  Langside,  Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1898 
Miller,  T.  B.,  Sandilands,  Aberdeen,  18  Dec,  1900 

Mowbray,  Archibald  H.,  c/o  Messrs  Smith  &  M'Lean, 

Mavisbank,  Glasgow,  22  Feb.,  1898 

Murray,  John  Bruce,  24  George  square,  Glasgow,  18  Mar.,  1902 


ASSOCIATES  389 

Napier,  James,  M.  A.,  33  Oswald  street,  Glasgow,  22  Jan.,  1901 
•Napier,  James  S.,  33  Oswald  street,  Glasgow, 

OVEETOUN,  The  Right  Hon.  Lord,  Overtoun,  Dambar- 

tonshire,  27  Oct.,  1903 

Pairman,  Thomas,  54  (iordon  street,  Glasgow,  23  Jan.,  1900 

Prentice,  Thomas,  175  West  George  street,  Glasgow,  24  Nov.,  1896 

Raeburn,  William  H.vnnay,  81  St.   Vincent  street, 

Glasgow,  20  Feb.,  1900 

Reid,  John,  30  Gordon  street,  Glasgow,  22  Dec,  1896 

Kiddle,  John  C,  c/o  Messrs  Walker  &  Hall,  8  Gordon 

street,  Glasgow,  15  June,  1898 

Roberts,  William  Ibbotson,  15  June,  1898 

Robertson,  William,  Oakpark,  Mount  Vernon,  27  Apr.,  1897 

Robinson,  David,  14  Broomhill  avenue,  Partick,  16  Dec,  1902 

Ross,  Thomas  A.,  Glenwood,  Bridge-of-Weir,  20  Mar.,  1894 

Roxburgh,  John  Archibald,  3  Royal  Exchange  square, 

Glasgow,  20  Feb.,  1900 

iiERViCE,  George  William,  175  West  GeorKe  street, 

(Jlasgow,  24  Nov.,  1896 

Service,  William,  54  Gordon  street,  Glasgow,  23  Jan.,  1900 

Sloan,  George,  53  Bothwell  street,  Glasgow,  20  Feb.,  1900 

Sloan,  Robert  Bell,  50  Wellington  street,  Glasgow,  27  Oct.,  1903 

Sloan,  William,  53  Bothwell  street,  Glasgow,  20  Feb.,  1900 

tSMiTH,  George,  c/o  Messrs  George  Smith  &  Sons,  75 

Bothwell  street,  Glasgow,  22  Jan.,  1901 

Smith,  John,  2  Douue  quadrant,  Kelvinside,  Glasgow,  22  Feb.,  1898 

SoTHERN,  Robert  M.,  59  Bridge  street,  Glasgow,  18  Feb.,  1902 

Stewart,  Charles  R.,  Messrs  J.  Stone  &  Co..  46  Gordon 

street,  Glasgow,  29  Oct.,  1907 

Stewart    John  G.,  65  Great  Clyde  street,  Glasgow,  18  Dec,  1901 

StraCHAN,    G.,   Fairfield   works,    Govan,  '26  Oct.,  1890 

Taylor,  Frank,  c/o  Messrs  Alexander  Young  &  Co.,  50 

Wellington  btreet,  Glasgow,  24  Dec,  1901 

Taylor,  William  Gilchrlst,  123 Hope  street,  GlasgoTv,  23  Jan.,  1900 

Thomson,  William  H.,  32  Albert  Road  East,  Crosshill, 

Glasgow,  19  Feb.,  1901 

Warren,  Robert  G.,  116  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  28  Jan.,  1896 

*  Watson,  H.  J.,  c/o  Messrs  Watson  Brothers,  142  St 

Vincent  street,  Glasgow, 


390  ASSOCIATES 

Wkir,  Andrew,  102  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Whimster,  Thomas,  67  West  Nile  street,  Glasgow,  24  Oct,  1899 

Wild,  Charles  W^illiam,  Broaghton  Copper  Company, 

Limited,  49  5\  Oswald  street,  Glasgow,  24  Mar.,  1896 

Williamson,  John,  99  Great  Clyde  street,  Glasgow,  28  Apr.,  1903 

Wrede,  Frederick  Lear,  25  Bentinck  street,  Greenock,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Young,  John  D.,  Scottish  Boiler  Insurance  Company, 

HI  Union  street,  Glasgow,  19  Dec.,  1882 

Young,  Robert,  Baltic  Chambers,  50  Wellington  street, 

Glasgow,  16  Dec,  1902 


STUDENTS. 

AiTCHisoN,  John  Wilson,  20  Nov.,  1900 

AiTKKN,    John,    Beech   cottage,    Balshagray    avenne, 

Partick,  28  Apr..  1903 

Alexander,  Kobert,  33  Melville  street,  Portobello,  23  Oct.,  1900 

Alexander,  William,  31  Kelvingrove  street,  Glasgow,  19  Mar.,  1901 

Alison,  Alexander  £.,   Devonport,  Auckland,  New 

Zealand,  22  Nov.,  1898 

Allan,  Frederick  Wm.,  8  Gillsland  road,  Edinburgh,  21  Nov.,  1809 

Allan,  James,  326  West  Princes  street,  Glasgow,  24  Jan.,  1888 
Anderson,  Adam  R.,  Harbour  works,  Durban,  Natal, 

South  Africa,  23  Mar.,  1897 
Ap. -Griffith,  Ywain   Goronwy,    39   White   street, 

Partick,  3  Mar.,  1908 

Appleby,  John  Herbert,  133  Balshagray  avenue,  Partick,  27  Oct. ,  1903 

Baird,  James,  30  St.   Andrew's  drive,  PoUokshields, 

Glasgow,  26  Jan.,  1904 

Barnwell,  Frank  Sowter,  Elcho  house,  Balfron,  18  Feb.,  1902 

Barnwell,  Richard  Harold,  Elcho  house,  Balfron,  18  Feb.,  19«)2 

Barty,  Thomas  Patrick  William,  c/o  Messrs.  For- 

man  &  M'ColI,  160  Hope  street,  Glasgow,  18  Dec.,  190O 

Bell,  H.  L.  Ronald,  Redargan,  Drumoyne  drive,  Govan,  22  Mar. ,  1904 

Bertram,  R.  M.,  9  Walmer  road,  Toronto,  Canada.  24  Jan.,  1899 

BiNLEY,  William,  Jun.,  Office  of  Superintendent  Con- 
structor, U.S.N.,  Gas  Engine  and  Power  Co., 

Morris  Heighto,  New  York,  U.S.A.,  21  Mar.,  1899 

BissET,  John,  35  Harriet  street,  Pollokshaws,  Glasgow,  18  Dec.,  1900 


STUDENTS  391 

Black,  James,  3  Clarence  street,  Paisley,  18  Dec.,  1900 

Bone,  Quintik  George,  31  Elgin  terrace,  Dowanhill, 

Glasgow,  19  Dec,  1899 

Brookfield,   John    W.,    Brookhnrst,    Halifax,  Nova 

SooUa,  18  Feb.,  1902 

Brown,  Alexandek  Taylor,    1    Broomhill   avenue, 

Partick,  Glasgow,  26  Oct.,  1897 

Bryson,  William, 21  Cartvale  road,  Langslde,  Glasgow,  24  Oct.,  1899 

Buchanan,  Joshua  Miller,  4  Eldon  terrace,  Partick- 

hill,  Glasgow,  21  Nov.,  1899 

Bunten,  James  C,  Anderston  Fonndry,  Glasgow,  20  Nov.,  1900 


Callander,  William,  100  Bothwell  street,  Glasgow,  24  Dec.,  1901 

C.vmeron,    Angus    Johnstone,    c/o    Mrs    Granger, 

5  Osborne  place,  Copland  road,  Go  van,  20  Nov.,  1900 

Clover,  Mat.,  537  Sanchiehall  street,  Glasgow,  22  Dec,  1903 

Cochrane,  John,  15  Ure  place,  Montrose  street,  Glasgow,  24  Dec,  1901 

Cormack,  James  Alexander,  149  Hill  street.  Garnet- 
hill,  Glasgow,  24  Nov.,  1903 
Cran,  J.  Duncan,  11  Brnnswick  street,  Edinburgh,  21  Jan..  1902 
Crawford,  Archibald,  P.O.  Box  668,  Pretoria,  S.  A.,  18  Dec,  1900 

Ceichton,  James,  B.Sc,  c/o  Granger,  24  St.  Vincent 

crescent,  Glasgow,  22  &far.,  1904 

Cubie,  Alexander,  Jnn.,  2  Newhall  terrace,  Glasgow,  23  Jan.,  1900 

Cutrbert,   James   G.,  Holmehouse,    Ulleskeff,    near 

York,  21  Nov.,  1899 


De  Sola,  Juan  Garcia,  Sacramento,  57,  Cadiz,  Spain,  20  Mar.,  1900 

Dus,  Christopher,  c/o  Gow,   273  Dumbarton  road, 

Glasgow,  16  Dec,  1902 

Dickie,  David  Walker,  60  Sardinia  terrace,  Hillhead, 

Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1904 

Dickie,  James  S.,  San  Mateo,  Califomia,  19  Dec,  1899 
Dobbie,  Robert  B.,   15  Leander  Road,  Brixton  Hill, 

London,  S.W.,  24- Oct.,  1899 
DoBSON,  James,  c/o  Messrs  Pooley  &  Son,  Kidsgrove, 

Staffordshire,  22  Dec,  1896 

DORNAN,  James  F.  A.,  21  Minerva  street,  Glasgow,  20  Jan.,  1903 

DoRNAN,  John  D.,  21  Minerva  street,  Glasgow,  2*2  Mar.,  1904 

Drysdale,  William,  3  Whittingehame  gardens,  Kelvin- 
side,  Glasgow,  16  Dec,  1902 

Duncan,  Alexander,  c/o  E.  G.  Fraser  Luckie,  Esq., 

Hacienda,  Andalusia,  Huacho,  Sayou,  Peru,  23  Apr.,  1901 


392  STUDENTS 

DuNSMUiR,  George,  Mathenm,  27  Sherbrcioke  avenue, 

Pollokshields,  Glasgow,  21  Apr.,  1903 

DvER,  Henry,  18  Dec.,  1900 

Fairley,  John.  124  Pitt  street,  Glasgow  21  Nov..  1899 

Fairweather,  George  A.  £.,  Elmwood,  Avon  street, 

Motherwell,  26  Nov..  1901 

Fergusson,  W.  L.,  48  Connaught  road,  Roath,  Cardiff,  22  Dec,  1891 

Fish,  N.,  69  Mayfair  avenue,  Ilford,  Essex,  18  Feb.,  1902 

Fraser,  John  Alexander,  969  Govan  road,  Govan,  26  Jan.,  1904 

Freer,  Robert  M'Donald,  14  India  street,  Glasgow,  27  Oct..  1903 

Galbraith,  Hugh,  2  Hillside  villa,  Kentish  road,  Belvi- 

dere,  Kent,  20  Dec..  1898 

Galloway,  Andrew,  The  Grand  Hotel,   Heidelberg. 

Transvaal,  S.A.,  24  Oct.,  1893 

Gardner,  Harold  Thornby,  Thomcliffe,  Skermorlie,  26  Apr.,  1904 

GiBB,  John,  276  Crow  road,  Partick,  24  Jan.,  1899 

GiLMOUR,  Andrew,  Newlea,  Crawford  street,  Mother- 
well, 20  Dec.,  1898 

Graham,  John,  16  Summerfield  cottages,   Whiteinch, 

Glasgow,  26  Apr..  1904 

Grant,  William,  Croft  park,  High  Blantyre,  24  Oct.,  1899 

Grenier,    Joseph   K.,    c/o    Mrs  Rennie,    8  Franklin 

terrace.  Glasgow,  3  Mar..  1903 

Haigh,  Bernard  Parker,  6  Elmwood  gardens,  Jordan- 
hill,  20  Jan..  1903 

Halle Y.  Matthew  White,  43  Lawrence  street,  Partick.  22  Mar. ,  1904 

Hannah.  John  A.,  112  Govanhill  street,  Glasgow,  26  Nov.,  1901 

Henderson,    John    Alexander,     Hamilton   House, 

Bromley  Park,  Kent,  22  Mar. ,  1904 

Henricson,  John  A.,  c/o  A.  B.  Sandoikens,  Skepps- 

docka,  och  Mek,  Varkstad,  Helsingfors,  Finland,  19  Dec.,  1899 

Herschel,  a.   £.  H.,  2  Glenavon  terrace,  Crow  road, 

Partick,  19  Dec,  1899 

Hodgart,  Matthew,  Linnsbum,  Paisley,  22  Dec,  1903 

Holland,  Henry  Norman,  Metropolitan  Electric  Supply 

Co.,  WiUesden  Works.  London,  N.  W.,  22  Nov.,  1808 

Holmes,  James,  25  St.  James  street.  Paisley,  17  Feb.,  1903 

HoTCHKis,  Montgomery  H.,  Crookston  house,  near  Paisley,  24  Dec.,  1901 

Houston,  David  S.,  83  Kilmarnock  road,  Shawlands, 

Glasgow,  27  Oct..  1903 

Hotjston,  Perctval  T.,  Coronation    house,  4  Lloyd's 

avenue,  London,  E.G.,  22  Nov.,  1898 


STUDENTS  393 

HOYT,  Charles  S.,  B.A.,  6  Parkgrove  terrace,  Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1904 
Button,  W.  K.,  97  Qneensborongh  gardens,  Hyndland, 

Glasgow,  23  Apr.,  1901 

Iaoks.  James  Hay,  4  Albert  drive,  CrosshilK  Glasgow,  19  Feb.,  1901i 


Jack,  Charles,  P.  M.,  17  Albert  drive,  PoUokahieldB, 

Glasgow,  20  Nov.,  190O 
Jankins,  Garnet  Edward,  N.B.R.  Station,  Spring- 
burn,  Glasgow,  3  May,  1904 

Jenkins,  Charles  C,  3  Mar.,  190^ 
Johnston,  Hector,  c/o  Mrs  M*Murray,  169  Great  George 

street,  Glasgow,  22  Dec.,  1903 

Kemp,  Robert  G.,  60  Abbey  drive,  Jordanhill,  Glasgow,  28  Oct.,  1890 

Kermeen,  Robert  W.,  18  Mar.,  1902 

Kimura,  N.,  Tokio,  Kai-ji-Kiokn,  Tokyo,  Japan,  23  Apr.,  1901 

King,  Charles  A.,  9  Spring  gardens,  Kelvinside,  Glas- 
gow, 25  Apr.,  1898^ 

Kinghorn,  David  Richard,  Ardocb,  Prentou,  Cheshire,  23  Oct.,  190O 

Kinross,  Cecil  Gibson,  4  Park  terrace,  Govan,  22  Dec,  1903 

KiRBY,  William  Hubert  Tate,  35  Duncan  avenne, 

Scotstoun,  Glasgow,  26  Apr.,  1904 


Lloyd,   Herbert   J.,   Breacan   road,    Builth,    Wales,  21  Dec,  1897 

Loader,  Edmund  T.,  Y.M.C.A.  Club,   100  Bothwell 

Street,  Glasgow  20  Nov.,  1900 

M'Clklland,  Harold  R,,  3  Caird  drive,  Partick,  22  Mar.,  1904 

M'Cracken,  William,  9  Danes  drive,  Scotstoan,  Glas- 
gow, 27  Oct.,  1903 

Macdonald,  John  F.,  16  Ruthven  street,  Kelvinside, 

Glasgow,  21  Dec,  1897 

M  *DoN  ALD,  Claude  Knox,  Lennoxvale,  Maryland  drive, 

CraigtoD ,  Glasgow,  22  Mar. ,  1 904 

Macoregor,  J  Graham,  4  West  George  street,  Glasgow,  IvS  Feb.,  1902 

M'Harg,  W.  S  ,  The  Grove,  Ibrox,  Glasgow,  19  Mar.,  1901 

M'Intosh,  George,  DuDglass,  Bowling,  22  Jan.,  1896 

Mack  AY,  Harry,  J.  S.,  53  Deansgate  Arcade,  Manchester,  22  Feb.,  1898 

Mackay,  W.  Norris,  c/o  Stenhouee,   87  St.    George's 

Mansions,  Glasgow,  22  Jan.,  1901 

M'Kean,  James,  3  Buchanan  terrace.  Paisley,  22  Dec,  1903 

M*Kean,  John  G.,  c/o  Russell,  20  Borough  road.  North 

Shields,  23  Oct.,  1900 


394  STUDENTS 

M'Lachlan,  Charles  Alex.,  8  Queen's  creeoeDt,  Gath- 

cart,  Glasgow,  21  Apr.,  1903 

Maclaren,  James  Ernest,  3  Porter  street,  Ibroz,  Glas- 
gow, 23  Oct,  1900 
M'Laurin,  Jambs  H.,  34  Park  circus,  Ayr,  18  Dec,  1900 
M*Lay,  J.  A.,  Rose  Lea,  Uddingston,  17  Feb.,  1903 
M'MiLLAN,  Duncan,  174  Paisley  road  West,  Glasgow,  27  Oct,  19(^ 
MacNicoll,  Donald,  190  Langlands  road,  Soath  Govan,  23  Apr.,  1901 

M*Whirt£R,  Anthony  €. ,  1009  State  street,  Schenec- 
tady. N.Y.,  U.S.A.,  21  Dec,,  1897 
Marshall,  Alexander,  Brightens,  Polmont  station,  18  Mar.,  190^ 
Maitland,  John  M.,  13  Rosslyn  terrace,  Glasgow,  22  Jan.,  1901 
BfATHBR,  John  Boyd,  Kirkhill,  Meams,  20  Mar.,  1894 
Melencovich,  Alexandre,  21  Peel  street,  Partick,  81  Oct,  1902 

Melville,  Alexander,  c/o   Messrs  J.  A.  Millen  k 

Somerville,  King  street,  Tradeston,  Glasgow,  20  Feb.,  1900 

Merger,  John,  c/o  Mrs  M*Calloch,   25  White  street, 

Partick,  22  Oct,  1895 

Millar,  Alex.  Spence,  Towerlands,  Octavia  terrace, 

Greenock,  ec,  1902 

Miller,  James,  24  Melrose  gardens,  Kelvinside,Glasgow,  22  Nov. ,  1898 

Miller,  James  William,  84  Portland  place,  London,  W.,  20  Dec. ,  1 898 

Miller,  John,  Etmria  villa.  South  Govan,  23  Apr.,  1889 

MiLLiKBN,  Gboroe,  Milton  house,  Callander,  18  Feb.,  1902 

MORisoN,  Thomas,  50  St.  Vincent  crescent,  Glasgow,  21  Nov.,  1899 

MORLEY,  James  Steel,  Auchenhard,  by  West  Calder,  20  Feb.,  1900 

MoRLBY,  Thomas  B.,  B.Sc.,  5  Walmer  terrace,  Ibrox, 

Glasgow,  27  Oct,  1903 

Morton,  W.,  Reid,  Strathview,  Beanden,  26  Oct,  1897 
MuiR,  James  H.,  76  Hill  street,  Gamethill,  Glasgow,  26  Jan.,  1899 
MuiRHEAD,  William,  CloberhiU,  Knightswood,  Mary- 
hill,  Glasgow,  28  Apr.,  1891 
MUNDY,  H.  L.,  Ormsby  Hall,  Alford,  Lanes.,  24  Oct,  1899 

Neil,  Robert,  8  Dnndrennan  load,  Langside,  Glasgow,  20  Mar.,  1900 

Newton,  Charles  A.,  c/o  Messrs  Newton  Bros.,  Market 

place,  Derby,  26  Jan.,  1898 

NiVEN,  John,  c/o  Messrs  Lynch,  Basreh,  Persian  Gulf,  22  Nov.,  1898 

Orr,   Prof.   John,  B.Sc.,  South  African  College,  Cape 

Town,  26  Mar.,  1895 

Parr,  Fredrik,  16  Eton  place,  Hillhead,  Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1904 

Paterson,  Joseph  Barr,  c/o  Harvey,  32  White  street, 

Partick,  22  Mai*.,  1898 

Paton,  Thomas,  19  Binnie  street,  Greenock,  20  Dec,  1892 

Pollock,  Gilbert  F.,  10  Beechwood  drive,  Tollci-oss, 

Glasgow,  27  Jan.,  1891 


STUDENTS  395 

PoLLOK,  John,  Cbaring  cross,  Euston  and  Hampstead 

Railway,  39  Chalk  FArm  road,  London,  N.W.,  22  Feb.,  1898 

PoRTCH,  Ernest  C,  87  Vicars  hill,  Lady  well,   Kent,  26  Oct.,  1897 

Prentice,    Hugh,  Box   No.   105,  Postal  Station   B., 

Cleveland,  Ohio,  U.S.A.,  28  Apr.,  1898 

Preston,  John  C,  343-5  Snssex  street,  Sydney,  New 

Sonth  Wales,  6  Apr.,  1887 

Kamsay,  John  C,  72  Norse  road,  Seotstoun,  Glasgow,  19  Feb.,  1901 
Reid,  David  H.,  Beresford  Villa,  Ayr,  26  Oct,  1887 
Rbid,  Henry  p.,  12  Grantly  gardens,  Shawlands,  Glas- 
gow, 20  Dec,  1898 
Reid,  James,  128  Dnmbarton  road,  Glasgow,  22  Oct.,  1895 
Richmond.  Tom,  4  Roseroount  tenace,  Ibrox,  Glasgow,  20  Feb.,  1900 
Robertson.    Robert  M.,   c/o  Mrs  Lowe,   11    Nelson 

street,  Greenock,  16  Apr.,  1902 

Ross,  Thomas  C,  Jan.,  13  Hampden  terrace,  Mount 

Florida,  Glasgow,  21  Apr.,  1908 

Sadler,  John,  551  Sauchiehall  street,  Glasgow,  23  Oct,  1900 

Sanguinetti,  W.  Roger,  Pablic  Works  Department, 

Selangor,  Malay  States,  20  Feb.,  1900 

Sayers,  W.  H.,  19  Mar.,  1901 

Scott,  G.  N.,  7  Corunna  street,  Glasgow,  17  Feb.,  1903 
Sellers,  Frederick  Wreford  Braoge,  34  Sardinia 

terrace,  Hillhead,  Glasgow,  26  Apr.,  1904 

Semple,    John    Scott,  Coral  bank,  Bertrohill    road, 

Shettlestou,  26  Apr.,  1904 

Semple.  William,  Coral  Bank,  Bertrohill  road,  Shettles- 

ton,  21  Jan.,  1902 

Service,  William,  173  West  Graham  street,  Glasgow,  26  Nov.,  1901 

Sexton,  George  A.,  c/o  Prof.  Sexton,  G.  &  W.  of  S. 

Technical  College,  Glasgow,  24  Nov.,  1896 

Shakp,  James  R.,  c/o  Dargie,  26  Clifford  street,  Ibrox, 

Glasgow,  24  Oct.,  1899 

Sharpe,  William,  B.Sc,  Engineerin-Chiefs  office. 
Natal  Government  Railway,  Maritz- 
burg,  Natal,  24  Dec.,  1S95 

Sibbald,  Thomas  Knight,  c/o  Messrs  Cook  &  Son, 

Ltd.,  Cairo,  Egypt,  26  Oct.,  1897 

Simpson,  Adam,  12  Rupert  street,  Glasgow,  W.,  3  May,  1904 

Sloan,  John  Alexander,  37  Annette  street,  Crossbill, 

Glasgow,  25  Jan.,  1898 

Smith,  Alexander,  69  High  street,  Kinghorn,  24  Dec,  1901 

Smith,  Charles,  3  Roeemount  terrace,  Ibrox,  Glasgow,  24  Apr.,  1894 

Smith,  George  F.,  373  Broad  Street  Station,  Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad  Co.,  Philadelphia,  U.S.A.,  26  Oct.,  1897 

Smith,  James,  44  Cleveland  street,  Glasgow,  31  Oct,,  1902 


396  STUDENTS 

Smith,  James,  Jan.,  Darley,  Milngavie,  27  Oct.,  1907 

Smith,  William,  13  Minerva  street,  Glasgow,  28  Apr.,  1903 

Sproul,  John,  13  Greenlaw  avenoe,  Paisley,  8  Mar,  190a 

Steven,    David    M.,  9   Princes    terrace,    Dowanhill, 

Glasgow,  15  June,  1898^ 

Stevens.  Clement  H.,  c/o  Messrs  Blandy  Bros.  &  Co., 

Las  Palmas,  Grand  Canary,  22  Dec,  1891 
Stevenson,  Allan,  108   Dandrennan  road,  Langside, 

Glasgow,  26  Nov.,  1901 

Stevenson,  George,  c/o  Chalmers,  Wellpark,  Larbert,  24  Apr.,  1900- 

Stevenson,  William,  Bank  Chambers,  Sandhill,  New- 
cast  le-on-Tyne,  25  Jan.,  1881 

Swan,  James,  1536  Pine  street,  Philadelphia,  U.S.A.,  23  Mar.,  1897 

Taylor,  Andrew  P.,  47  St.  Vincent  crescent,  Glasgow,  19  Dec,  1899 

Taylor,  John  Douolas,  Jeanieslea,  Oxhill  road.  Dam- 
barton,  26  Apr.,  1904 

Thomas,  Nevill  Senior,  3  Church  road,  Penarth,  near 

Cardiff,  24  Mar.,  190:^> 

Thomson,  Graham k  H.,  Jan.,  2  Marlborough  terrace, 

Glasgow,  22  Feb.,  1898 

Too,  William,  c/o  Ronnie,  8  Franklin  terrace,  Glasgow,  22  Feb.,  1898 

Wallacb,  Hugh,  Jun.,  Nautglyn,  Coventry,  24  Oct,,  1899 

Ward,  G.  K.,  Rockvilla,  Dumbarton,  23  Apr,,  1901 

Ward,  John,  Jun.,  Rockvilla,  Dumbarton,  23  Apr.,  1901 

Watson,  James,  35  Regent  Moray  street,  Glasgow,  24  Dec,  1901 

Watson,  John,  c/o  Alexander  Fleming,  Esq.,  9  Wood- 
side  crescent,  Glasgow,  22  Nov.,  1898^ 
Williamson,  Alexander,  Craigbamet,  Greenock,  20  Nov.,  1900 
Williamson,  George  Taylor,  Craigbarnet,  Greenock,  22 Mar.,  1904 

Williamson,  Edward  H.,  214  Langlands  road,  South 

Govan,  27  Oct.,  1903 

Wilson,  Thomas,  66  Alexandra  parade,  Glasgow,  20  Feb.,   1900 

Windelkr,  George  Edward,  The  Mirrlees  Watson  Co., 

Glasgow,  31  Oct.,  1902 

Withy,  Vivian,  Kenmore,  Bowling  Green  terrace.  White- 
inch,  Glasgow,  31  Oct.,  1902 

Work,  John  C,  6  Parkgrove  terrace,  Glasgow,  22  Mar.,  1904 

Young,  George  M.,  B.Sc,  268  Kenmure  street, 

Polio kshields,  Glasgow,  24  Dec.,  1901 

Young,  J  AMES  M.,Auldfield  place,  PoUokshaws,  Glasgow,  22  Jan.,  1901 

Young,  J.  M.,  Kavenscraig,  Ardrossan,  17  Feb.,  1903 
Young,  John,  Jun.,  c/o  Messrs  Wallsend  Slipway  and 

Engineering  Co.,  Ltd.,  Wallsend-on-Tyne,  23  Nov.,  1897 
Younger,  John,  Birch  Bank,  88  Albert  road,  Cro»shill, 

Glasgow,  3  Mar.,  190S 


INDEX. 


Abstract  of  "House  Expenditure"  Account, 322 

Action  of  Radium  on  Living  Tissues, 166 

Advantages    of    Superheating, ^^ 

AUan,  Sir  William,  Memoir  of, -334 

An  Inquiry  Regarding  the  Marine  Propeller— hy   Mr.  J.   Millen  ^ 

^^^' 134 

The  Helical  Screw  Propeller, „- 

Problem  of  the  Propeller, ,3^ 

Geometry  of  the  Screw  Propeller, i^x 

The   Conic   Propeller, j.- 

Discussion, 

Anniversaiy   Dinner,   "James  Watt," a85 

Annual  Report  of  the  Council, 293,  3,2 

Annual  Subscriptions, ^^2 

Application  of  Integraph  to  Ship  Calculations,      -       .        -        .  196 

Articles    of    Association, xi. 

Associate  Members,  List  of, 382 

Associates,    Deceased, 3^3 

Associates,    List   of, .        .  387 

Awards  of  Books, 293,  309 

Balance    Sheet, 320 

Bertheau   Engine, 105 

Board  of  Governors  of  Glasgow  School  of  Art,      -        -        -        -  315 
Board  of  Governors  of  Glasgow  and  West  of  Scotland  Technical 

College, 316 

Board  of  Trade  Consultative  Committee, 314 

Books  Added  to  Library  by  Purchase, 324 

Brown,  John,  Memoir  of, 343 

Bye-Laws, xxjx. 

Carburetter, 242 

Centre  of  Buoyancy  Curve, 197 

Chairman's  Address, i 

Characteristic  of  Hewitt  Lamp, 193 

Collie,  Charles,  Memoir  of, *  33^ 

Conic  Propeller, 145 

Contents, ▼. 

31 


398  INDEX 

Conversazione, 285 

Cooling  Arrangements  for  Motor  Cars, 249 

Correspondence — 

Mr.  H.  W.  Andrews — Superheated  Steam,  53. — Professor  A. 
Barr— Motor  Cars,  272. — Mr.  A.  S.  Biggart — Motor  Cars, 
276. — Prof.  Storm  Bull — Superheated  Steam,  76. — Mr.  E. 
G.  Constantine — Superheated  Steam,  54. — Mr.  H.  Cruse — 
Superheated  Steam,  66. — Mr.  S.  Griffin — Marine  Propellers 
with  Non-Reversible  Engines  and  Internal  Combustion 
Engines,  113. — Mr.  W.  S.  Hide— Superheated  Steam, 
62. — Mr.  Edwin  H.  Judd — Superheated  Steam,  57. — Mr. 
Rankin  Kennedy — Motor  Cars,  277. — Mr.  Charles  S.  Lake 
— Improvements  in  Valve-Gears,  93. — Mr.  Robert  Lang — 
Experiments  with  Rapi  1  Cutting  Steel  Tools,  186. — Mr. 
P.  F.  MacCallum — Marine  Propellers  with  Non-Reversible 
Engines  and  Internal  Combustion  Engines,  122. — Mr. 
C.  A.  Matthey — Marine  Propellers  with  Non-Reversible 
Engines  and  Internal  Combustion  Engines,  116. — Mr.  R. 
T.  Napier — Marine  Propellers  with  Non-Reversible  En- 
gines and  Internal  Combustion  Engines,  124. — Herr  Hans 
Reisart — Superheated  Steam,  74. — Mr.  F.  J.  Rowan — 
Experiments  with  Rapid  Cutting  Steel  Tools,  185. — 
Mr.  A.  Scott  Younger — Superheated  Steam,  60. 

Council   Report,  -  * 3" 

Courtier-Dutton,  W.  T.,  Memoir  of, 336 

Crawford,  Samuel,  Memoir  of, 3P 

Curves    of    Integrated    Sections, 197 

Davies,  Charles  Merson,  Memoir  of, 337 

Deceased,    Associates, 343 

Deceased,    Members, 333 

Deceased,    Students, 344 

Deflection  of  a  Ship, 201 

Designs  of   Superheaters, 9 

Diamond    Crossings, 224 

Discussion  on  Papers — 

Remarks  by  Mr.  J.  Millen  Adam— An  Inquiry  Regarding  the 
Marine  Propeller,  157. — Mr.  Daniel  Adamson — Experi- 
ments  with  Rapid  Cutting  Steel  Tools,  182.— Mr.  James 
Andrews — Improvements  in  Valve-Gears,  90. — Mr.  Robert 
Baillie— Superheated  Steam,  38.— Prof.  A.  Barr-— Uses  of 
the  Integraph  in  Ship  Calculations,  218.— Mr.  A.  S. 
Biggart— Superheated  Steam,  36.— Prof.  J.  H.  Biles— Im- 
provements  in  Valve  Gears,  95 ;  An  Inquiry  Regarding  the 
Marine  Propeller,   162 ;    Experiments  with  Rapid  Cutting 


INDEX  399 

Steel  Tools,  190.— Mr.  E.  Hall- Brown— Superheated 
Steam,  83 ;  Improvements  in  Valve-Gears,  88 ;  Marine 
Propellers  with  Non-Reversible  Engines  and  Internal 
Combustion  Engines,  151,  160;  Modern  Appliances  con- 
nected with  Railway  Crossings  and  Points,  239;  Motor 
Cars,  271,  284. — Mr.  W.  A.  Chamen — Superheated  Steam, 
52. — Mr.  Alexander  Cleghorn — Superheated  Steam,  35  ; 
Improvements  in  Valve-Gears,  89. — Mr.  James  Coats — 
Motor  Cars,  270. — Mr.  E.  G.  Constantine — Experiments 
with  Rapid-Cutting  Steel  Tools,  178.— Mr.  Charles  Day- 
Experiments  with  Rapid  Cutting  Steel  Tools,  189.— Mr. 
E.  E.  Doddrell — Superheated  Steam,  33. — Mr.  C.  S. 
Douglas — Uses  of  the  Integraph  in  Ship  Calculations, 
208. — Mr.  James  Gilchrist — Uses  of  the  Integraph  in  Ship 
Calculations,  222. — Mr.  Alexander  Govan — Motor  Cars, 
281. — Prof.  A.  Jamieson — Superheated  Steam,  44. — Mr. 
John  G.  Johnstone — An  Inquiry  Regarding  the  Marine 
Propeller,  155 ;  Uses  of  the  Integraph  in  Ship  Calcula- 
tions, 219. — Mr.  Rankin  Kennedy — Marine  Propellers  with 
Non-Reversible  Engines  and  Internal  Combustion  En- 
gines, 126. — Mr.  W.  J.  Luke — Uses  of  the  Integraph  in 
Ship  Calculations,  215,  219,  222. — Mr.  W.  M'Whirter — 
Motor  Cars,  268. — Mr.  T.  Blackwood  Murray — Marine 
Propellers  with  Non-Reversible  Engines  and  Internal 
Combustion  Engines,  109;  Motor  Cars,  261. — Mr.  R.  T. 
Napier — An  Inquiry  Regarding  the  Marine  Propeller,  151. 
— Mr.  George  W.  Reid — Modern  Appliances  connected 
with  Railway  Crossings  and  Points,  234. — Mr.  W.  H. 
Riddlesworth — Uses  of  the  Integraph  in  Ship  Calcula- 
tions, 212. — Mr.  John  Riekie — Superheated  Steam,  29  ; 
Improvements  in  Valve-Gears,  93  ;  An  Inquiry  Regarding 
the  Marine  Propeller,  149;  Modern  Appliances  connected 
with  Railway  Crossings  and  Points,  236 ;  Motor  Cars, 
267. — Mr.  F.  J.  Rowan — Superheated  Steam,  79 ;  Modern 
Appliances  connected  with  Railway  Crossings  and  Points, 
237. — Mr.  G.  C.  Thomson — Motor  Cars,  271. — Prof.  W. 
H.  Watkinson — Superheated  Steam,  25. — Mr.  Owen  R. 
Williams — Modern  Appliances  connected  with  Railway 
Crossings  and  Points,  237 ;   Motor  Cars,  269. 

Displacement  Curve, i97 

Donations   to   the    Library, 323 

Duncan,  Jame?  G.,  Memoir  of, 344 

Duration  of  Trials  with  Rapid-Cutting  Steel  Tools,        -        -        -        172 

Efficiency  of  Hewitt  Lamp, 19 

Election   of   Office-Bearers, 30S 


4:00  IKDEk 

Experiments  with  Rapid-Cutting  Steel  Tools— ^y  Mr.  Chaw-es  Day  170 

Nature  of  Tests, »7o 

Material    operated    on, *7i 

Size  of   Cuts,         -        - 171 

Duration    of    Trials, ^7^ 

Description  of  Lathe, ^7^ 

Results, ^72 

Discussion, '7o 

Ferrier,  James,  Memoir  of, 33^ 

Fox,  Samson,  Memoir  of, 339 

Friction   Clutch, ^5° 

Gale,  James,  Memoir  of, 33J 

Gear    Box, ^5^ 

Hand  Levers  for  Railway   Points, 229 

HeUcal   Screw    Propeller, '35 

Hewitt    Lamp,    Description    of, '9^ 

Honorary  Members,  List  of,  - 34 

** House   Expenditure"   Account, 3" 

,     .^.  244 

Ignition, g 

Improvements  in  Valve-Gear s^-By  Mr.  John  Riekie,        .        -        -  »4 

Necessity  for  Improvement  in  Valve-Gears,     '        "        '        "         ?^ 

Discussion, 

Index, ^ 

Integraph,  Description  of, ^°^ 

Integraph,   Principle  of  the, *°5 

"James  Watt"    Dinner, ^ 

King,  Donald,  Memoir  of, ^^ 

Libraries,  etc.,  which  receive  the  Institution's  Transactions,        -  3^ 

Library,  Books  added  to  by   Purchase, 3^ 

Library  Committee,  Report  of, ^^^ 

Donations    to,        -        -        -        '  ^ 

„        Periodicals   received    at, ^^ 

Recommendation    Book, 33 

-        -        -        -         "  34" 

List  of  Members, 

Lloyd's   Technical    Committee -        -  345 

Lowe,  Robert,  Memoir  of, .'".'.  248 

Lubrication    for    Motor    Cars, 

MacKinnon,  James  D.,  Memoir  of, ^"^ 


INDEX  401 

Mann,  William,  Memoir  of, 344 

Marine     Propellers     with     Non'Reversible     Engines     and     Inter' 

nal  Combustion  Engines— By  Mr.  Rankin  Kennedy,  -        -  96 

Systems   of   Propulsion, 96 

Water-jet  Propulsion, -  100 

Bertheau  Oil  Engine, 105 

Thorneycroft  Motor  Boat, 107 

Discussion, 109 

Members,  Associate,   List  of, 382 

Members,    Deceased, 333 

Members,   Honorary, 346 

Members,    List  of, 34^ 

Memorandum   of  Association, ix. 

Metric  Weights  and  Measures,  Petition  in  favour  of,      -        -        •  306 

Minutes    of    Proceedings,    - 293 

Mirrlees,  James  Buchanan,  Memoir  of, 34' 

Moment  of  Inertia  Calculation, 201 

Motor  Cars— By  Mr.    Alexander  Govan, 240 

Petrol, 241 

Carburetter, 242 

Ignition, 244 

The  Engine, 245 

Lubrication, ^4^ 

Cooling    Arrangements, 249 

Friction    Qutch, 250 

Gear   Box, 252 

Frames, ^55 

Axles,  Wheels,  and  Tyres, 257 

Conclusion,            ^5^ 

Discussion, ^^ 

Necessity  for  Improvements  in  Valve  Gears, 86 

Neilson,   James,    Memoir   of, -        "  34 ' 

New  Books  Added  to  Library, 324 

Office-Bearers,    Election    of, 3o8 

Obituary, 333 

Periodicals  Received  at  Library, 3^9 

Petition  in  Favour  of  Metric  Weights  and  Measures,            -        -  306 

Petrol, ^' 

Premiums   of   Books, vii.,  293,  309 

Presidents  of  the  Institution, iv. 

Problem  of  the  Screw  Propeller, '39 

Proceedings,   Minutes   of, ^93 


402 


INDEX 


Propeller  Conic, i^^ 

Propeller,  Geometry  of  the, 141 

Propeller,  The  Helical  Screw, 135 

Properties  of  Integral  Curves, 206 

Radium  and  Us  Properties—By  Dr.  John  Macintyre,     -        -        .  163 

History  of  the  Discovery  of  Radium, 164 

.  Action  of  Radium  on  Living  Tissues, 166 

Report  of  the   Council, 312 

Report  of  the  Library  Committee, ^21 

Results  of  Trials  with  Rapid  Cutting  Steel  Tools,  -        -        -        -  172 

Societies  Exchanging  Transactions  with  the  Institution,          -        -  327 
Some   Modern   Appliances   Connected   with    Railway    Crossings   and 

Points—By  Mr.  Owen  R.  Williams,  B.Sc.,       -        -        -  224 

Diamond    Crossings, 224 

Hand  Levers  for  Points, 229 

Spring  Design   Switch   Levers, 231 

Discussion, 234 

Stability    Calculations, 202 

Strength    Calculations, 199 

Students,    Deceased, 344 

Students,    List   of, 390 

Subscriptions,    Annual, 332 

Superheated  Steam—By  Mr.  F.  J.  Rowan, 4 

Historical, 4 

Designs    of    Superheaters, 9 

Use  of  Superheated  Steam, 15 

Theoretical  Advantages  of  Superheating, 17 

Discussion, 25 

Systems  of  Propulsion,       .        .        i 96 

Tests  with  Rapid  Cutting  Steel  Tools,      -        -        -                -        -  17c 
The  Hewitt  Mercury  Vapour  Lamp— By  Prof.   Magnus  Maclean, 

M.A.,  D.Sc, iQ-i 

Introduction, 19-* 

Description  of  Hewitt  Lamp, 19* 

Characteristic  and   Efficiency, -        -  193 

Colour, 194 

Life, 194 

Tht   Uses  of  the  Integraph  in  Ship  Calculations— By  Mr.  John  O, 

Johnstone,    B.Sc, »95 

Application  to  Ship  Calculations,       ...                 -        -  19b 

Stability  Calculations, 202 

Description  of  the  Integraph,      ...        -                .        -